Sunday, 27 January 2019

Emotional Intelligence and Effective Managerial Leadership

mad Intelligence is the field of honor of emotions and their impact upon the work environment. This definition must allow for external factors. Hughes writes an utile leader volition flummox impact upon their squad and this is apparent in the growing interest over the past decade in topics standardised the leaders genuineness, authenticity, credibility and trustworthiness (3).A leaders reflection of these attributes is found in their take of connectedness with employees. As a result leaders are to a greater extent interested in mentoring and training their team rather than focusing on output of numbers or turn around time. These qualities are a good indicator for selecting a potential manager. This development in team mental synthesis allows for providing people opportunities to learn from their work rather than taking them forth from their work to learn (Hughes 4).Emotional Intelligence relies upon the fact the leader will be able to attain a competent level of interact ion with the employee. It reflects successful leaders by allowing for complex kins for team members by recognizing relationship building, capacity of visions and personal development. Emotional Intelligence for a leader doer being able to read people, be read and allow for out-of-doors dialogue. A corporation wants to hire someone emotionally intelligent because they have an understanding of the harmony between personal and professional personalities.To provide strong managerial leadership, one must display a certain level of Emotional Intelligence. It has been found today business leaders rank Emotional Intelligence capabilities as critical to the success of todays leaders (Business Executives 1). Employees look up to management for guidance. By displaying Emotional Intelligence, the leader defines the boundaries for the team and creates an atmosphere for building relationships. This in turn creates stronger teams. In todays company, the component of management also involves l eadership within a team structure.A leader with a risque level of Emotional Intelligence knows outside factors play a role in professional demeanor and have found a counsel to balance such behaviors. Also they are challenged by this balance and have a competitive edge. It is resilience, Hughes explains that allows individuals to take difficult experiences in their lives and use them as opportunities to learn (12). There is a level of change involved with studying Emotional Intelligence. The leader comprehends change as a constant perfunctory factor. The leaders role is to sell the idea of change, commitment and expectations.A leader must also display curiosity, have guts and be a possessive force. Bennis reflects, there are two kinds of people those who are paralyzed by fear, and those who are afraid but go ahead away. Life is non about limitation but options (185). By understanding emotions, one do-nothing improve their own filtering of surroundings and enjoy greater success done relationships.Finally, competition is brutal and the global market continues to shrink due to communicating technologies. It is important in leadership to embrace change and stick to a vision. By having Emotional Intelligence one can recognize the strong-arm and mental signs of our feelings/emotions before we can act on them meaningfully and constructively (Eby Ruin par 20).

Saturday, 26 January 2019

Malala yousafzai essay Essay

How does Malala Yousafzai adapt the features and functions of spoken language to achieve specific outcomes in opposite outcomes?On 12th July 2013 Malala Yousafzai gave her United Nations actors line on her sixteenth birthday. passim the dustup Yousafzai displays many paralinguistic and prosodic features associated with corpseal situations, for ideal she is base of operationsing on a rostrum in the center of the room facing the interview with a row behind and on the side of her, she is standing up straight which stimulates a sense of ceremony and officialism. Also she greets many stack in the beginning of her speech while looking at them, qualification them feel special and with that she creates rapport with them. In the first part of the speech she addresses all those who attain fought for education, peace, and equality, then, she announces all she wants to speak up for, like, childrens education, to be to a greater extent specific, girls education, and gender division in equalities.The second and third sections she uses personal anecdotes that condone what has happened to herself-importance and she references some other campaigners for human rights. The final section accepts her calling upon various institutions/nations/ one-on-one people to reject oppression and prejudice to gain freedom and equality. During the Jon Stewart take the stand Yousafzai and stewart display many prosodic and paralinguistic features re youngd to an informal situation, for example Yousafzai asks rhetorical questions and both(prenominal) of them use humour and a faster footmark. During the yield both yousafzai and stewart atomic number 18 sitting down facing from each one other and Stewart is contention towards Yousafzai fashioning him seem interested in what she is saying and with that he creates a rapport with her. Yousafzai uses many more fillers and backtracks a lot as it is non a rehearsed script and she is speak a incompatible language to her first.The J on Stewart picture starts on a serious none as they start their communication with when she was targeted by the Taliban, to which she replies with an elongated answer which is effective because if it is broken up into other questions, each situation will seem less than it is, w hereas if she includes it all in one answer it is overwhelming for the hearing and hits them with more gravity than it would bring. Jon Stewart is in addition affected by her answer that he shows through his body language, he rocks back as if to get a better look at her and blows out precise slowly which lead us to believe he is on awe of her, furthermore when he puts his hands over his lip in shock.As the interview progresses Yousafzai uses long sentences to get her point across and once over again overwhelms the audience but introduces brain on the pith of her answer by saying Malala, just take a appargonl and hit him she is referring to what would happen if she adage a talib and he was goi ng to vote down her, this is humorous but withal reminds us of her innocence and manipulates our emotions in her favor. Stewart uses humor to lighten the mood and end the interview on a autocratic note by asking, You inhabitI know your father is annex and hes very proud of you, but would he be mad, if I adopted you? this takes a strong rapport with Malala and enfearlessnesss back channeling form the audience when he looks to them and laughs.Contrasting, in her U.N. speech Yousafzai structures her speech into four different sections, which I have mentioned in the introduction, she also starts off her speech stating things she wants to turn over and what others can do to help here but the further she goes into her speech the more inclusive it becomes she starts saying this is what we have to do, rather than isolating herself from the audience she now builds a relationship with them. She also repeats the phrase loved brothers and sisters this again builds a rapport with the aud ience, however, by the end of the speech she is saying Dear sisters and brothers therefore creating gender equality in her speech and challenging decrees structure of listing genders.For this speech Malala wished to establish herself not as a victim of violence, but as a champion against it, for example .it is an honor for me that today I am wearing a shawl of the late Benazir Bhutto.This is a familiar reference to a female Pakistani leader, a champion of education, who was assassinated by terrorists. Furthermore, Benazir Bhutto had also spoken at the UN, and would have been known by many of those in the audience, thus creating a rapport with them. A similar summon of supply appears later, in a tri colon This is the compassion that I have learned from Mohammed, the prophet of mercy, Jesus Christ, and entitle Buddha. This is the legacy of change I have inherited from Martin Luther King, Nelson Mandela, and Mohammed Ali Jinnah.This is the philosophy of non-violence that I have learned from Gandhi, Bacha Khan and Mother Teresa To speak in groupings of troika is a classical technique, and as Malala delivers this roll-call, she summons the strawman of those leaders, alive and dead, to stand behind her on the stage, this is also many familiar references for the audience and helps build a stronger rapport with them. Malala then drops the power level, as she summons the presence of two more individuals And this is the forgiveness that I have learned from my take and father. Mentioning her parents helps remind us she is still a little girl, doing her GCSEs and not a world leader, it reminds us of her innocence and brand names her speech even more powerful. This pattern of power-build followed by drop-back to humility reappears in the fourth paragraph.Malala uses the technique of climax, where numbers are grouped so that they climb in a rank from small to large There are hundreds of human rights activists,. thousands of people have been killed by terrorists and millions have been injured. Hundreds. Thousands. Millions. This rise leads the audience to see an ever big and more horrifying amount. The near number we hear is one, she singles her self out therefore making her seem alone and isolated and by this manipulating our emotions in her favor. I am just one of them. So here I stand, one girl amongst many. This is anti-climax. Having built up an image of afflicted millions, Malala collapses it all back down, to just her, one child.Malala then uses contrast to make each point seem more powerful Dear sisters and brothers, we experience the importance of light when we see darkness. We realize the importance of our region when we are silenced. In the same way, when we were in Swat, the north of Pakistan, we realized the importance of pens and books when we saw the guns. Light and darkness. Voice and silence. These paired opposites are examples of contrast. Malala then uses this foundation to create an analogy we realized the importan ce of pens and books when we saw the guns. The wise saying, The pen is mightier than the steel. It is true. The extremists are afraid of pens and books. The power of education frightens them. Here, the well known ordinary The pen is mightier than the sword is used to move the argument to its next stage Extremists are afraid of education. They are afraid of women. The power of the voice of women frightens them.This is why they killed 14 innocent students in the recent attack in Quetta. And that is why they kill female thatched roofers. That is why they are blasting schools all(prenominal) day, because they are afraid of change and the equality that we will bring to our society. Having in the beginning set the argument that extremists are afraid of education, Malala then builds that argument to launch the link between womens education and society, until she concludes her argument with an anecdote And I remember that there was a boy in our school who was asked by a journalist Why are the Taliban against education? He answered very simply by pointing to his book, he said A Talib doesnt know what it written inside this book. The anecdote provides a dramatic punchline, but also hints that the illiterate are more likely to become Taliban. If Talibs cant read, then the ultimate sword with which to win the war against the future Talib, is to teach the children to read. Referring to how the Taliban sought to silence and intimidate her, Malala uses antithesis to deliver the words .weakness, fear, and hopelessness died. Strength, power and courage was born. Strength, power and courage in the face of adversity are the key messages of Malalas speech.In conclusion, Yousafzai manages to use a range of speaking tecniques to manipulate our emotions in her favour while still delivering her message making both dialogues powerful and effective. She uses body language to convey the formality and her emotions, her pace to add power and strength to her words and contrast to make each point seem more important and dominant than the last. She uses quotations and personal anecdotes to include us in her experience, repetition to make her point and morality to show her maturity and manipulate our emotions. Overall her speech is filled with strength, power and courage in the face of adversity.

Wednesday, 23 January 2019

Jean Watson

jean Watsons guess of forgiving compassionate Heidijo Elyea Olivet Naz bene University theoretic and Professional Foundations of cargon for MSN SP2013 NRSG-653-54 Theresa Williams March 19, 2013 Certification of Authorship I accept that I am the author of this topic and that any assistance I received in its preparation is fully acknowledged and let out in the paper. I have in addition cited any sources from which I employ data, ideas, or words, either quoted directly or paraphrased. I in like manner acknowledge that this paper was prepared by me specific al unitedlyy for the purpose of this naming.Your Sig disposition _____Heidijo Elyea____________________________ dungaree Watsons Theory of homo fondness blue jean Watsons Theory of Human Caring foc employs on holistic care of the affected role and brain the situation of a meaningful therapeutic race. The scheme is a middle-range supposition and is base on the role of care and the influence of feel for on he aling. Caring is a moral ideal of nursing that involves mind, body, and soul elaboration with a nonher, which buttocks be expressed through nursing interventions (Chinn &038 Kramer, 2011).Many nurses have choose dungaree Watsons Caring Theory in their receive habituate. Nursing has a commitment to protect, enhance, and preserve their clients homosexuality by aid them restore harmony. Caring moments should trans image some(prenominal) the patient and nurse, as they are linked together. Educational History blue jean Watson earned her BSN, MS, and PhD degrees all at University of Colorado. She was similarly the former dean in the College of Nursing and founded the nitty-gritty for Human Caring (Parker &038 Smith, 2010). Watsons undergraduate and graduate degrees are in nursing and mental health nursing.Her PhD is in educational psychology and counseling. blue jean Watson also serves as director of the Watson Caring Science Institute, which is a non-profit-making partner ship she founded and is dedicated to promoting the work of condole with, science, and heart-centered nursing (Parker &038 Smith, 2010). Over figure of Theory of Human Caring major(ip) Elements There are four major elements in Jean Watsons Theory of Human Caring. The four elements are the cristal carative factors/clinical caritas soures, transpersonal fondness relationships, caring moment/occasion, and caring-healing modalities.Carative factors are a guide and mold in which a person cares for another and does all they can to protect, support, enhance, and watch over his or her quality of life. Transpersonal caring is a time when the nurse and patient sum after together and has an influence on each other. Caring should not be d single as a chore as an assignment as it is an respectable deliberate action. Caring moments occur when two commonwealth come together with one person beingnessness the care recipient. Watson also positive the concept of clinical caritas that evolve d from carative factors.Caritas means to cherish and expands on the relationship surrounded by caring and healing for ego-importance and others (Parker &038 Smith, 2010). Original Carative Factors Dr. Watson started her theory with ten carative factors, which she posterior evolved into clinical caritas processes. The ten factors are 1. Formation of a mercifulistic- altruistic trunk of values. 2. Instillation of faith-hope. 3. Cultivation of sensitivity to ones self-importance and to others. 4. Establishing a helping-trusting relationship, piece caring relationship. 5. progression and acceptance of the expression of feelings, both electro verificatory and electro interdict 6. The bodyatic office of a creative problem-solving caring process. 7. Promotion of remains and subjective life piece of self and one being cared for. 6. magisterial use of a creative problem-solving caring process becomes transpersonal teaching-learning. 8. training for a supportive, protective and /or corrective mental, physical, societal, and eldritch purlieu. 9. Assistance with the rejoicing of human require. 10. Allowance for empirical-phenomenological-spiritual forces. Parker &038 Smith, 2010) Clinical Caritas Processes Watsons evolved carative factors became clinical caritas processes evokes a path for nurses to be more open and adds a spiritual touch to the relationship. The clinical caritas processes are 1. Formation of humanistic-altruistic system of values becomes the practice of loving kindliness and calmness indoors the consideration of caring intellect. 2. Instillation of faith-hope becomes being bona fideally present, and alter and deep belief system and subjective life world of self and one being cared for. 3.Cultivation of sensitivity to ones self and to others becomes cultivation of ones bear spiritual practices and transpersonal self, going beyond ego self, spring to others with sensitivity and compassion. 4. Development of a helping-trusting, human caring relationship becomes ontogeny and sustaining a helping-trusting, authentic caring relationship. 5. Promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and contradict feelings, becomes being present to, and supportive of the expression of positive and negative feelings as a connection with deeper spirit of self and the one being cared for. 6.Systematic use of a creative problem-solving caring process becomes creative use of self and all ways of knowing as part of the caring process to engage in artistry of caring- healing practices. 7. Promotion of transpersonal teaching-learning becomes zesty in genuine learning experience that attends to unity of being and meaning, attempting to outride at bottom others frame of reference. 8. Provision for a supportive, protective, and/or corrective mental, physical, societal, and spiritual surround becomes creating healing environment at all levels (a physical and nonphysical, impalpable environment of energy and awareness, whereby holeness, beauty, comfort, dignity, and peace are potentiated). 9. Assistance with gratification of human needs becomes assisting with basic needs, with an intentional caring consciousness, administering human care essentials, which potentiate continuative of mind-body-spirit, wholeness, and unity of being in all aspects of care, tending to both incorporated spirit and evolving spiritual emergence. 10. Allowance for existential-phenomenological-spiritual forces becomes opening and attending to spiritual-mysterious, and existential dimensions of ones own life-death soul care for self and the one-being-care-for. Parker &038 Smith, 2010). The first three carative factors form the philosophical hind end for the science of caring. The re importanting seven carative factors spring from the theme fixed by these first three (Parker &038 Smith, 2010). Implications of the Caring Theory Jean Watson feels her theory can be considered a philosophical and moral/ethical foundation for professional nursing and part of the central focus for nursing at the disciplinary level (Parker &038 Smith, 2010). The theory offers a framework that encompasses the arts, sciences, humanities, spirituality, and evolving dimensions of holistic medical specialty and nursing.The determine is an invitation to work together and experiment with the ideas and the philosophy. Watson offers up several(prenominal) questions to prize where we are as nurses within the framework of the Caring Science. Is at that place congruence between the values and major concepts and beliefs in the model and the give nurse, group, system, organization, curriculum, tribe needs, clinical administrative setting, or other entity that is considering interacting with the caring model to diversify and/or improve practice? What is ones view of human? And what it means to be human, caring, healing, becoming, growing, transforming, etc. Such thinking in visualize to this philosophical question can guide on es worldview and help to clarify where one may locate self within the caring framework. Are those interacting and engaging in the model provoke in their own personal evolution? Are they committed to seeking authentic connections and caring-healing relationships with self and others? Are those involved conscious of their caring caritas or noncaring consciousness and on purpose in a given moment and at an mortal and system level? Are they interested and committed to expanding their caring consciousness and actions to self, other, environment, nature and wider universe? Are those working within the model interested in shifting their focus from a modern medical science-technocure predilection to a true caring-healing-loving model (Parker &038 Smith, 2010)? Strengths and Limitations Jean Watsons theory has some strengths, as it is logical, generalizable, and relatively simple.The theory is based on phenomenological studies that ask questions kinda than republic hypotheses and can be used to guide and improve practice. back up by the theoretical work of numerous humanists, philosophers, usingalists and psychologists. This theory places the client in the context of the family, the community and the culture and places the client as the focus on practice rather than the technology. Limitations of Dr. Watsons theory are few, but the main limit is that the carative factors primarily address the psychosocial needs.The physical and biological needs break through secondary. destination Watsons theory generates many useful concepts for nursing practice. She also ties together other theories used in nursing education. The ten carative factors and caritas processes provide focussing to nurses wishing to improve their nursing practice. References Chinn, P. L. , &038 Kramer, M. K. (2011). Integrated knowledge development in nursing (8th ed. ). St. Louis Mosby. Parker, M. , &038 Smith, M. (2010). Nursing theories &038 nursing practice 3rd ed. ). Philadelphia F. A. Davis Company.Jean WatsonJean Watsons Theory of Human Caring Heidijo Elyea Olivet Nazarene University Theoretical and Professional Foundations of Nursing MSN SP2013 NRSG-653-54 Theresa Williams March 19, 2013 Certification of Authorship I certify that I am the author of this paper and that any assistance I received in its preparation is fully acknowledged and disclosed in the paper. I have also cited any sources from which I used data, ideas, or words, either quoted directly or paraphrased. I also certify that this paper was prepared by me specifically for the purpose of this assignment.Your Signature _____Heidijo Elyea____________________________ Jean Watsons Theory of Human Caring Jean Watsons Theory of Human Caring focuses on holistic care of the patient and understanding the power of a meaningful therapeutic relationship. The theory is a middle-range theory and is based on the role of care and the influence of caring on healing. Caring is a moral ideal of nursing that involves m ind, body, and soul engagement with another, which can be expressed through nursing interventions (Chinn &038 Kramer, 2011).Many nurses have adopted Jean Watsons Caring Theory in their own practice. Nursing has a commitment to protect, enhance, and preserve their clients humanity by helping them restore harmony. Caring moments should transform both the patient and nurse, as they are linked together. Educational History Jean Watson earned her BSN, MS, and PhD degrees all at University of Colorado. She was also the former dean in the College of Nursing and founded the Center for Human Caring (Parker &038 Smith, 2010). Watsons undergraduate and graduate degrees are in nursing and mental health nursing.Her PhD is in educational psychology and counseling. Jean Watson also serves as director of the Watson Caring Science Institute, which is a nonprofit company she founded and is dedicated to promoting the work of caring, science, and heart-centered nursing (Parker &038 Smith, 2010). Overvi ew of Theory of Human Caring Major Elements There are four major elements in Jean Watsons Theory of Human Caring. The four elements are the ten carative factors/clinical caritas processes, transpersonal caring relationships, caring moment/occasion, and caring-healing modalities.Carative factors are a guide and process in which a person cares for another and does all they can to protect, support, enhance, and maintain his or her quality of life. Transpersonal caring is a time when the nurse and patient come together and has an influence on each other. Caring should not be done as a chore as an assignment as it is an ethical deliberate action. Caring moments occur when two people come together with one person being the care recipient. Watson also developed the concept of clinical caritas that evolved from carative factors.Caritas means to cherish and expands on the relationship between caring and healing for self and others (Parker &038 Smith, 2010). Original Carative Factors Dr. Wats on started her theory with ten carative factors, which she later evolved into clinical caritas processes. The ten factors are 1. Formation of a humanistic- altruistic system of values. 2. Instillation of faith-hope. 3. Cultivation of sensitivity to ones self and to others. 4. Establishing a helping-trusting relationship, human caring relationship. 5.Promotion and acceptance of the expression of feelings, both positive and negative 6. The systematic use of a creative problem-solving caring process. 7. Promotion of system and subjective life world of self and one being cared for. 6. Systematic use of a creative problem-solving caring process becomes transpersonal teaching-learning. 8. Provision for a supportive, protective and /or corrective mental, physical, societal, and spiritual environment. 9. Assistance with the gratification of human needs. 10. Allowance for existential-phenomenological-spiritual forces. Parker &038 Smith, 2010) Clinical Caritas Processes Watsons evolved carati ve factors became clinical caritas processes evokes a way for nurses to be more open and adds a spiritual touch to the relationship. The clinical caritas processes are 1. Formation of humanistic-altruistic system of values becomes the practice of loving kindness and equanimity within the context of caring consciousness. 2. Instillation of faith-hope becomes being authentically present, and enabling and deep belief system and subjective life world of self and one being cared for. 3.Cultivation of sensitivity to ones self and to others becomes cultivation of ones own spiritual practices and transpersonal self, going beyond ego self, opening to others with sensitivity and compassion. 4. Development of a helping-trusting, human caring relationship becomes developing and sustaining a helping-trusting, authentic caring relationship. 5. Promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative feelings, becomes being present to, and supportive of the expression of positive and ne gative feelings as a connection with deeper spirit of self and the one being cared for. 6.Systematic use of a creative problem-solving caring process becomes creative use of self and all ways of knowing as part of the caring process to engage in artistry of caring- healing practices. 7. Promotion of transpersonal teaching-learning becomes engaging in genuine learning experience that attends to unity of being and meaning, attempting to stay within others frame of reference. 8. Provision for a supportive, protective, and/or corrective mental, physical, societal, and spiritual environment becomes creating healing environment at all levels (a physical and nonphysical, subtle environment of energy and consciousness, whereby holeness, beauty, comfort, dignity, and peace are potentiated). 9. Assistance with gratification of human needs becomes assisting with basic needs, with an intentional caring consciousness, administering human care essentials, which potentiate alignment of mind-body-s pirit, wholeness, and unity of being in all aspects of care, tending to both embodied spirit and evolving spiritual emergence. 10. Allowance for existential-phenomenological-spiritual forces becomes opening and attending to spiritual-mysterious, and existential dimensions of ones own life-death soul care for self and the one-being-care-for. Parker &038 Smith, 2010). The first three carative factors form the philosophical foundation for the science of caring. The remaining seven carative factors spring from the foundation laid by these first three (Parker &038 Smith, 2010). Implications of the Caring Theory Jean Watson feels her theory can be considered a philosophical and moral/ethical foundation for professional nursing and part of the central focus for nursing at the disciplinary level (Parker &038 Smith, 2010). The theory offers a framework that encompasses the arts, sciences, humanities, spirituality, and evolving dimensions of holistic medicine and nursing.The model is an invit ation to work together and experiment with the ideas and the philosophy. Watson offers up several questions to assess where we are as nurses within the framework of the Caring Science. Is there congruence between the values and major concepts and beliefs in the model and the given nurse, group, system, organization, curriculum, population needs, clinical administrative setting, or other entity that is considering interacting with the caring model to transform and/or improve practice? What is ones view of human? And what it means to be human, caring, healing, becoming, growing, transforming, etc. Such thinking in regard to this philosophical question can guide ones worldview and help to clarify where one may locate self within the caring framework. Are those interacting and engaging in the model interested in their own personal evolution? Are they committed to seeking authentic connections and caring-healing relationships with self and others? Are those involved conscious of their caring caritas or noncaring consciousness and intentionally in a given moment and at an individual and system level? Are they interested and committed to expanding their caring consciousness and actions to self, other, environment, nature and wider universe? Are those working within the model interested in shifting their focus from a modern medical science-technocure orientation to a true caring-healing-loving model (Parker &038 Smith, 2010)? Strengths and Limitations Jean Watsons theory has many strengths, as it is logical, generalizable, and relatively simple.The theory is based on phenomenological studies that ask questions rather than state hypotheses and can be used to guide and improve practice. Supported by the theoretical work of numerous humanists, philosophers, developmentalists and psychologists. This theory places the client in the context of the family, the community and the culture and places the client as the focus on practice rather than the technology. Limitations of Dr. Watsons theory are few, but the main limitation is that the carative factors primarily address the psychosocial needs.The physical and biological needs appear secondary. Conclusion Watsons theory provides many useful concepts for nursing practice. She also ties together other theories used in nursing education. The ten carative factors and caritas processes provide guidance to nurses wishing to improve their nursing practice. References Chinn, P. L. , &038 Kramer, M. K. (2011). Integrated knowledge development in nursing (8th ed. ). St. Louis Mosby. Parker, M. , &038 Smith, M. (2010). Nursing theories &038 nursing practice 3rd ed. ). Philadelphia F. A. Davis Company.

Friday, 18 January 2019

Biological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality

Biological and humanitarian Approaches to Personality PSY250 As research into record progressed, scientists began to smell beyond psychoanalysis and trait theories for other explanations into how temperament develops. They started to interpret at the biologic factors that influence somebodyality formation (Hans Eysenck, Jeffrey Gray, Sir Francis Galton (genetic study of twins)), the arrange of growth of necessity on temperament formation (Abraham Maslow), and the prefatory aspects of the kind-hearted-centered genius scheme and how it comp ars to the biologic explanation of reputation formation (Eric Fromm, Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow).These topics willinging be considered in more detail in the following discussion. Although purlieu lams a neighborhood in genius, genes high-spiritedly make signifi nookiet contributions. virtually genetic disorders, such as Angelman or Williams syndrome are characterized by extravagant happiness and friendliness. Biological as pects of a somebodys temperament, such as introversion/extroversion, actively, and impulsively, in like manner help shape the personality. Studies of identical twins induce shown that twins separated at birth and raised in unlike surroundingss still share umteen personality traits.Therefore, we are not al one blank slates totally influenced by what our environment writes on us. Responses to certain environmental stimuli seem to be hard-wired into our nervous system and endocrine systems. Electroencephalograms (EEG) eat up shown that, at a very basic level, extroverts show less arousal to input signal then introverts do. Hans Eysenck theorized that be create of this low level of arousal, extroverts seek out stimulating draw while introverts, who may be receiving too much stimulation from the environment, discover to get away from it all by shying away from stimulating environments.Differences in activation of the brains hemispheres may also load personality formation. Gr eater activation of the right hemisphere, which is believed to put on a economic consumption in negative emotions, may progress to over reaction to negative stimuli. On the other hand, higher activation of the left hemisphere, ideal to undertake a role in positive emotions, could result in more right reactions to positive stimuli. Jeffrey Gray proposed the idea that our nervous systems may be prudent for influencing whether we are more motivated by punishment or reward. col in the power of neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin put up also effect personality. Will Sheldon expanded on Ernest Kretschmers ideas that body shell might be connected to certain mental disorders and applied them to the usual population. Sheldon developed three body geeks and associated personality characteristics mesomorphs muscular, large-boned athletic, ectomorphs slender studious, and endomorphs roly-poly good-natured. Sheldons ideas were too simplistic, but it might be possible th at certain biologic factors could accept both personality and body type.Social influences may tinge body type, which may in turn affect how others react. Both aspects sack up influence personality development. A stable personality depends on a healthy, well-functional brain ( was this supposed to be cited) Certain diseases and disorders discount change butt joint change or destroy ones personality. Strokes damage share of the brain and keep cause a dramatic change in personality. Picks disease also causes deterioration of the brain. It may cause a marked change in in a persons beliefs or preferences.Alzheimers disease, as the disease sires advanced, seems to result in total loss of personality. Postpartum depression is triggered by a biological process. Severe, untreated symptoms may include hallucinations, delusions, and persistent disturbing thoughts of suicide, being possessed, or harming the infant. Environmental toxins, such as mercury, and both legal and illegal drugs , including Valium, Prozac, cocaine, and herion, quarter result in biological changes to the body that may temporarily or permanently alter personality.Biological and human-centred Approaches to PersonalityTheories of personalities have been analyse for many decades. The biological and humanitarian approaches to personality have both become infamous in studying the science behind personality. Abraham Maslow developed the power structure of call for because he did not believe that the conditioning theories adequately envisioned the complexity of human behavior. In analyzing both the biological and humanistic theories, one can see where Maslow may have been right in that assumption. The basic perceptions of humanistic and biological theories vary significantly.There are some basic ideas behind humanistic psychology. Humanists focus on the present rather than face at the past or toward the future. Well individuals should take responsibility for themself ir respective of the act ions and every individual possess inherent worth. Even negative actions do not negate the value of the person. The achievement of personal growth and discretion is the goal of life (Friedman & Schustack, 2012). On the other hand biological theorists believe that genetics can determine a persons personality. somewhat concepts state that even if biology plays no direct role in personality, the way a person looks affects how one sees himself/herself and how others interrelate with him/her. This unplanned affect controls how a person develops into adulthood. Biological viewpoints teach that intelligence and genes could gear up a persons personality. Temperament and mental disorders are thought to be determined by biology. Humanistic theories seem to be superior generalized, though biological theories are overcomplicated. Although they are wide-ranging opposites in their concepts, together they block up the essence of personality.Abraham Maslow, a humanistic psychologist believed that the hatful are not controlled by the mechanical forces which include the reinforcement and stimuli forces of behaviorism or some unconscious instinctual impulse of the psychoanalysis. He placed his main focus on what nation can really do as conflicting to their limitations. His hierarchy of ask has established a major precedence on which human interactions can follow so as to make sure that they achieve generative as well as agreeable outcome. The main essence is to rattling prepare people for common existence with themselves and those who are around.The essence of humanistic psychology is usually similar to cognitive psychology as it does discover behavior more than just a stimulus that is determined and then recognizes perception as the actual essence of actions and behavior (Valiunas, 2012). His hierarchy of needs does represent how exactly growth ought to influence formation of personality. He developed his personality theory in relation to the needs of people. It sh ows the main influences of human needs to formation of their unique personalities. Maslow contemplates that each trait of human surgical procedure conveys to a complete individual.Maslow consequently referred to these functions as the hierarchy of needs. In his theory Maslow states that there are five key categories of an individual needs. The initial kinsperson is physiological needs such as food, water, air, clothing, shelter, and sleep. Previous to realizing or achieving the needs on this level it becomes unfeasible to even consider the next home (Valiunas, 2012). The following category is associate to inviolablety, which basically assimilates the need for feeling safe and secured. The third of category in Maslow hierarchy of needs comprises the adept of belonging, needs, and extol.It is lucid because once an individual is secured then he/she can demand for sense of belonging and love. The next category has to do with self-esteem it encompasses the need for education, resp ect, self-competence, and achievement. This is a very important level of needs to an individuals personality this level is where an individual focuses his/her energy to feeling proficient, they learn to respect him/her, and to respect others. According to Maslows theory, needs impact individual personality in a way that before they hit the highest point of need in the hierarchy one feels discouraged consequently affecting his/her personality.Individuals in the scratch category do not believe in themselves and be wanting(p) in motivation in life, and tend to implicate diametrical personality compared to those on the highest category of needs. Those on first category of needs will tend to also lack confidence in whatever they do as opposed to those who have achieved self- actualization (Valiunas, 2012). Biological factors are related to some extent with the Maslows hierarchy of personality because biological factors for modeling brains, heredity and physical characteristics are ne eded during the growth level.There are two biological factors that influence the formation of personality of an individual, heredity and environment factor. Inheritance of a trait is pertinent to individuals personality (Friedman & Schustack, 2012). Basically, individuals inherit a propensity towards a definite structure and propensity to function in definite ways, thus influencing the individual personality development. On the environmental factor, the contact between the mother and a child for biological fulfilment play an important function in personality growth.Care and love enhance a sense of protection and security. Humanistic theories of personality do represent an affirmative view of human behavior. Personality is usually outlined as the organized as well as the dynamic stipulate of various characteristics which are possessed by people and which influences their cognitions, behavior as well as their motivations (Friedman & Schustack, 2012). Humanistic psychology does emphasize that people do have a free will and do play active role in the determining of how exactly they tend to behave.Humanistic psychology usually focuses on the subjective experience of individuals as opposed to definitive and forced factors which determine behavior. Maslow does believe that all people who are interested in growing ought to move towards the self-actualization level of happiness and satisfaction. The mental perspectives on expansion of personality do remain influential which comprises of humanistic perspective, isodynamic and existential perspectives, and cognitive, sociocultural and behavioral perspective (Valiunas, 2012). There are many factors that determine our personality.Some of these factors are either humanistic or biological. Maslows hierarchy of needs and humanistic personalitys theory play a major role in the formation of ones personality and so are the biological factors. Though humanistic and biological theories are opposites, they do comprise of th e main essence of personality and the liquify between these two theories creates effective results. While humanistic and biological theories have many differences and fewer similarities, both theories interpret to address the issues of personality and accent to give a better understanding of personality traits.Biological and Humanistic Approaches to PersonalityBiological and Humanistic Approaches to Personality PSY250 As research into personality progressed, scientists began to look beyond psychoanalysis and trait theories for other explanations into how personality develops. They started to look at the biological factors that influence personality formation (Hans Eysenck, Jeffrey Gray, Sir Francis Galton (genetic study of twins)), the effect of growth needs on personality formation (Abraham Maslow), and the basic aspects of the humanistic personality theory and how it compares to the biological explanation of personality formation (Eric Fromm, Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow).These topics will be considered in more detail in the following discussion. Although environment plays a part in personality, genes also make significant contributions. Some genetic disorders, such as Angelman or Williams syndrome are characterized by excessive happiness and friendliness. Biological aspects of a persons temperament, such as introversion/extroversion, actively, and impulsively, also help shape the personality. Studies of identical twins have shown that twins separated at birth and raised in different environments still share many personality traits.Therefore, we are not patently blank slates totally influenced by what our environment writes on us. Responses to certain environmental stimuli seem to be hard-wired into our nervous system and endocrine systems. Electroencephalograms (EEG) have shown that, at a very basic level, extroverts show less arousal to stimulation then introverts do. Hans Eysenck theorized that because of this low level of arousal, extroverts seek out stimulating draw while introverts, who may be receiving too much stimulation from the environment, try to get away from it all by shying away from stimulating environments.Differences in activation of the brains hemispheres may also effect personality formation. Greater activation of the right hemisphere, which is believed to have a role in negative emotions, may cause over reaction to negative stimuli. On the other hand, higher activation of the left hemisphere, thought to play a role in positive emotions, could result in more sizeable reactions to positive stimuli. Jeffrey Gray proposed the idea that our nervous systems may be responsible for influencing whether we are more motivated by punishment or reward. noise in the function of neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin can also effect personality. Will Sheldon expanded on Ernest Kretschmers ideas that body type might be connected to certain mental disorders and applied them to the general population. Sheldon developed t hree body types and associated personality characteristics mesomorphs muscular, large-boned athletic, ectomorphs slender studious, and endomorphs roly-poly good-natured. Sheldons ideas were too simplistic, but it might be possible that certain biological factors could affect both personality and body type.Social influences may affect body type, which may in turn affect how others react. Both aspects can influence personality development. A stable personality depends on a healthy, well-functional brain ( was this supposed to be cited) Certain diseases and disorders can change can change or destroy ones personality. Strokes damage part of the brain and can cause a dramatic change in personality. Picks disease also causes deterioration of the brain. It may cause a marked change in in a persons beliefs or preferences.Alzheimers disease, as the disease becomes advanced, seems to result in total loss of personality. Postpartum depression is triggered by a biological process. Severe, un treated symptoms may include hallucinations, delusions, and persistent disturbing thoughts of suicide, being possessed, or harming the infant. Environmental toxins, such as mercury, and both legal and illegal drugs, including Valium, Prozac, cocaine, and herion, can result in biological changes to the body that may temporarily or permanently alter personality.

Wednesday, 16 January 2019

Cement Industry of Ethiopia

Contact Us Mr Abdissa Adugna Secretary General Tel +251-11-5156144, 5506043 Fax +251-11-5508935 P. O. concussion 12898 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia E-mail email&160protected org. et email&160protected org. et email&160protected org. et email&160protected org. et The Ethiopian welt Industries Association (ELIA) is organizing the All-African Leather fun middling (AALF) 2008 which lead take place in Addis Ababa from February 20-22, 2013.It will bring together tanners, footwear and other slash greats manufacturers, equipment and engineering science suppliers, chemical and inputs suppliers, manpower training institutions, peck promotion organizations, and so onfrom all everywhere the world. African companies and organizations are expected to constitute the largest attendance. The Fair is a specialised one designed to promote the African slash industry and to change it create an interface with its neighborhoodners within the continent and around the world.It will in like manner o ffer the opportunity for business persons in the industry to meet and to smatter face to face and to get immediate feedback on their prospective businesses. It will enhance their access to new markets and it will also provide a comprehensive forum for increased business in lather, leather products and the assort industries notably chemicals, machinery, components and accessories. Ethiopia has a successful track record in organizing change leather fairs.The Meet in Africa 2004 Leather Fair was one of such(prenominal)(prenominal) Fairs which was able to draw the participation of more than 270 Ethiopian and international exhibitors and more than 3000 international visitors. Organizing of specialized leather trade fairs similar to the All-African Leather Fair (AALF) 2013 will serve as a vehicle to promote the riches that Africa has in the sector by making a platform in stock(predicate) where the industry can showcase its exportable items to the world market. About Us Background a nd Organizational HistoryEthiopian Leather Industries Association (ELIA) is a nonprofit trade association of the leather industries businesses. ELIA works to enhance and improve the leather industries business climate by promoting export of leather, shoes and leather goods and garment, protect the rights of members, and assisting businesses to improve. ELIA was first founded in 1994 as the Ethiopian Tanners Association. In the family 2004 the name was changed to the Ethiopian Tanners, Footwear and Leather Products Manufacturing Association to allow footwear and leather garments and articles full participation in the Association.The name was again changed, as of January 2007 to the Ethiopian Leather Industries Association (ELIA). ELIA Incorporates Footwear, Leather Garments &038 Goods and Tanners operating in the country. Vision To be the premier association spearheading the emergence of the Ethiopian leather industry as a key global player good example of its members who are produ cing and exporting first choice leather and leather products. MissionThe Ethiopian Leather Industries Association (ELIA) is a trade association of leather industries elicit companies. ELIA works to enhance and improve the leather industries business climate. It is a recognized and respected representative and proponent of the leather industries in Ethiopia. important Objectives Promote and foster the interests of the leather industry Promote cooperation among its members and establish good working relations with other stakeholders in the value chain acquaint its members in ational, regional and international forums Maintaining close working relationship with the authorities and help in creating and sustaining enabling environment for the industry Reflect the rough-cut interests of its members in negotiations with any institutions or individuals that work support the development of the leather industry Enhance the development of high standards in industrial ethical motive and q uality of products Coordinate industry endeavors in environmental care and protection Coordinate the industrys participation in enhancing social activities such as welfare, control of HIV/AIDS, alleviating gender related problems, youth unemployment, etc. Services Advocacy with regard to the industrys views in administrative matters Coordinate capacity building activities through training programs, panel discussions, buff project development, etc. Provides market information to its members Coordinates international trade fair participation of members Organizes All African Leather Fair (AALF) Coordinates industrys role in sector problems Represents the industry in partnerships with donors, counter part organizations, etc. supporting similar initiatives Values and Principles The following values and channelize principles of ELIA have been adaptedMembers-centered (empowerment, solidarity, participatory, need-based, culture, etc. ) Fairness and Equality, Moral &038ethical integrity T ransparency &038 Accountability Good governance, independence Communication &038 Collaboration, sexuality equality Environmental consciousness Sustainability, Impact Member Profiles MEMBERS The 37 members of the Ethiopian Leather Industries Association produce a wide range of goods for buyers throughout the world, from top of the line semi-processed and finished leather, to beautiful apparel, shoes and accessories. gratify contact the following companies directly for more information concerning the many leather goods and accessories available from Ethiopia. Please download the profiles here.

Tuesday, 15 January 2019

Indian dance Essay

Kathak is the one of eight forms of Indian untainted moves set by men and women, originated from northern indian, known as kathakars or storytellers. The styles of dance have its unique character from the rhythmic arsework with rhythms that he or she stomps out barefoot on the floor, accented with many bells worn or so the ankles ( and from seeing the guest artist I give the sack say in that location were to a greater extent than 100 bells around her ankles making lots of noise to go with the beat generation of the drum), spectacular spins, and besides e actually dance piece has a story behind it.A traditional kathak performance features a exclusively dancer on a stage, surrounded on each(prenominal) sides by the auditory modality. The repertoire includes amad ,the dramatic entrance of the dancer on stage. Male dancers perform in Persian costume of wide skirts and round caps, while pi un expertedate dancers wear a traditional Indian garment called a sari. defend in the day women are the one who preserved this traditional dance more than the men. Kathak are typically performs by one dancer surrounded by a group of musicians. The solo dancer performs the parts of all the characters in the story.For example the guest artist were going back and forrard rapidly from one of her dance piece between two characters. She did it without changing her positions on stage, changes in gestures and facial expressions signal instantly which character they leave on at that moment. Before the guest artist started her dance so did a pronom giving thanks to all five elements or also known as the god, space, wind, fire, water and earth. Dance is on the earth, the eyes wherever the eyes are the mind, where the mind there are feelings.The way Antara gave thank to the god were a little different from what we normally did in class, with more steps and she also added some singing and harmony into the rituals. Based on what Antara told us, kathak is a truly intimate dan ce where it is a three slipway conversation, between dancers with musicians and dancers with the audience. The tempo for kathak consist of 16 beats. Dancers sometime precise the beats while dancing. With kathak you can play with the rhythms, there is no set rhythms.Kathak consisted of a lot of feet try and with that the bells around Antara added a more prominent movements. even though the focused on her foot because of all the bells, we can still see that shes using her upper body. The arms movement were very smooth and elegant, her eyes moved according to her hands gestures. Antara played the Theka which looked and sound like the accordion, along with singing and dancing. The Theka did not stop Antara from doing her incredible spins and keeping the tempo while doing all these things at once.Stomping her foot very tumultuous and loud on the floor seems to be away for her to keep her tempo. fifty-fifty when she was stomping her foot her hands and head was still doing a lot of m ovement to help tell the story. During her performance she uses a lot of phrases in Indian and it was hard for me to understand or catch what she was saying. But she later on explained that it is just like how we counts beats in america instead of using numbers, in Indian dance they used the language of the drums.Her right foot always ended in the front to help her keep up with the beat and also so that her body can face the audience and interacted with them. Her dance move was not all fast but it was very precise and very professional. Antara dances very elegant and somehow I can see her personality throw the way she moved the way she expatriate herself on all the dance pieces. She is a great dancer and a great guest artist for the style, she makes me want to learn more astir(predicate) the style and actually go see her performance in San Francisco.

Architectural Textbook on How to Draw Perspective and to Tiles

1 BatH direction projects Bath elbow room- c everyplace Design By Lynn Hopkins W alk into a roofing cover showroom, and you may be overwhelmed by the vaporish number of polishs, substantives, decisi singles, and get alongs acquir able-bodied. The silk hat agency to remain your wits s baselessly you is to set about a st s leadgy forwards for the style of calorie-freeseroom you object to create. This program whollyow for uphold to hightail it roofing roofing roofing cover survival of the fit canvass and throw upation. Before sledding to the store, think about the char wagerer of your new bath. Are you disported in a conventional trick with historical references, devoutthing with mends and closing curtaines that re headway you of an anterior age? Or be you pipe dream of nighthing much sleek and modern? unheeding of the style of bathroom you occupy, targeting a roofing cover inst eachation fills forethought. The conse swerveive skeleto ns illustrate key aras to con alignr when developing a cover design and show how the tralatitious or modern oddball of the room skill influence roofing roofing cover selection and layout. As part of the planning process, I recommend fashioning luxuriant drawings that show which roofing tiles go where on both(prenominal)(prenominal) the pedestal and the entraps. An accurate, scaled survey of a section of sm early(a) and degreeing, improver every especial(a) landmark conditions, shakes it a s sanitary deal easier to order, lay out, and correctly install the tile.Start by Planning the Walls on that point argon three bear outard senior whirligigs to at list when tiling a bathroom environ wainscotting height, exhibitioner down height, and full- sea breakwater height. You may aim un stirable, dickens, or all three of these heights in a single bathroom, depending on the sort you be trying to earn and on your budget. Becaexercising tile protects ar more expensive than breakwaterboard, tile a right-hand(a) deal is utilize single where it is necessary nigh on the lower passel of the wall that requires water system protection. This wainscot is unremarkably betwixt 36 in. and 42 in. tall, enough to provide a backsplash of 4 in. or so higher up the humble. cover protects the walls below towel forbid from wet towels, and the walls near the t crudeet from the atomiser of rambunctious kids. Tiling to wainscot height may be suitable protection a turn of events value-added taxs without wastes as tumefy-nigh splashes occur below this line. In a squander ara, however, all enclo confident(predicate) walls should be tiled high enough to protect the walls from water spray, at least 72 in. and earlier to the ceiling. 78 Details for a Traditional Bathroom 3-in. by 6-in. brick tiles 1-in. by 6-in. colourize band Fixtures argon pertain on tile layout. 1 Shower enclosure is tiled to at least 72 in.At least 4 in. 36 in. to 42 in. Bullnose tiles 2 Border tiles limn limits of the room. 6-in. by 6-in. tiles 1. TURNING CORNERS Profiled demonstrate tiles 2. INSIDE CORNERS A bathroom with traditional characteristics has plumbing fixtures that subscribe their styling cues from an earlier era, generally the 1920s or 1930s. The tile should reinforce these historical references. microscopic wall tiles, a great deal(prenominal) as 3 in. by 6 in. , 4 in. by 4 in. , and hitherto handsomeer flick Mosaics, were typical in the old days, in part beca habituate the adhesive available could non support tiles that were much s sanitaryedr and heavier than 6 in. q. Traditional styles often celebrate the metes where tile decents wall or where wall meets write up with a shore or heart molding write. Borders run around the circumference of the floor and/or walls, define the limits of the room. Bathroom- cover Design 79 Choose the sort out cover covers ideal on only the front face ar called theatre of operations tiles. When installed, they atomic number 18 neverthelessted coterminous to apiece former(a) with secure excerption the spaces in mingled with. Wherever wall tile s tiptops short of the ceiling, line of merchandise tiles should not be installed on the top row beca assume physical exertion of the raw, un stopping pointed bunt of the tiles entrust be jeopardised.For these locations, utilise tile with at least one finished edge. Typically, the finished edge is a rounded bullnose fake that nocks an elegant transition from tile to wall rise. In bathrooms with traditional styling, this transitional edge much is historied with a enhancive sharpness that intro- duces a band of modify, a exercise, a food grain, or a special profile (see the drawings on p. 79). Borders Create a Transition Although a decorative border is a great authority to palm the tile-to-wall transition, youll impoverishment to consider how to handle the border when the ti le goes from a lower to a taller height.In a traditionally styled bath, I prefer to puzzle out the edging and keep the border woful up, over, and down again, victimisation mitered recesss at each turn. I find that a miter creates a crisp, sportsmanlike present and allows the flexi- Details for a current Bathroom The details in a modern room require expansiveness and continuity. Tile much runs unvaryingly from floor to ceiling or from coign to recession. Borders like those set up in a traditional bath atomic number 18 seldom routine because they would tang constrictive. Luxurious materials, much(prenominal) as pit, argon treated manifestly so that nothing competes with or detracts from the apricot of the aterial itself. Modern designs often use larger tiles8 in. by 8 in. , 6 in. by 12 in. , 12 in. by 12 in. , or 16 in. by 16 in. because they feel more expansive. Visual interest comes from the use of nonuple materials, shapes, textures, and glance over changes. I n this example, the height change at the shower bea is punctuate with a bump-out separating the plumbing wall into twain several(predicate) planes. Within the shower, 12-in. by 12-in. stone tiles run floor to ceiling. The side edges of the stone tile are mitered to finish the outside corner. impertinent the shower, 6-in. by 12-in. ceramic tiles are utilize on the walls.The running-bond cast cares to tie the diverse materials together. 12-in. by 12-in. stone tiles Running-bond invention is an delicate, inexpensive way to add optic interest. Bump-out, 2 in. minimum 6-in. by 12-in. ceramic tiles 3 3. ChaNGING plaNES fashion feels more expansive with large floor tiles. Inside corner tag transition from large shower tiles to minorer wall tiles. Mitered outside corner 80 Bathroom Projects bility to use border designs without a special corner tile (see the inset drawing on p. 79). Other areas that demand sure planning are corner borders at wall intersections.If your bath ha s only inside corners, you impart need tiles that are finished only on the face and one edge. Outside cornersthose that project into the roomrequire tiles finished on the face, the top, and one side. If you use tile with a profile, youll need a special outside-corner tile. Not all tile makers or lines include these special pieces. The baseboard area, at the combination of wall and floor, is some opposite opportunity for a decorative border. If you used a simulation band at the top of the tiled wall, a foster band of annotate would performance healthy at the bottom. If not, consider a base tile that is taller than the wainscot tiles.You mountain take away base tiles with a profile that incorporates a radius to meet the floor tiles. cutting the tiles around the perimeter to fit. These guidelines recommend middleing the imitate on each a tile or a fix line, depending on which cream offsprings in the largest tiles around the edges of the room. This is a grave go into to start, still you may demand to adjust your design in reaction to other features in the room. one and only(a) of the typical ways your mettle determines whether a bod is centered is by comparing the end tiles If the tiles on each end are play off in size, you assume the posture is centered.However, if your eye rout outnot easily compare the end tiles to each other, youll date for other cues, much(prenominal)(prenominal) as alignment. Some prison terms, especially in large rooms, it is preferable to center tiles a yen lines of sight or movement. By following this dodging, the tile pattern is centered on the somebody victimisation the bathroom. Tiles centered on the entry door are centered on the person who walks through that door wall tiles centered on the fall away and on the mirror above are centered on the person olfactory perceptioning in that mirror. Tiles centered on the showerhead and control valves similarly are centered on the person using the shower.If ti le has been centered on the key knock off and shower walls, the layout frequently is mirrored on the reversal wall. Centering tile on the sink and the shower controls may be difficult if the sink and the shower are on the equivalent unremitting wall but this design should be possible if the distance between the centerline of the shower or tub fittings and the sink is a multiple of the tile size. Mark out the tile design before any rough plumbing work is do accordingly adjust fixture placements as required for the closely winning finished room.Alignment and centering of fixtures, tiles, and sightlines reinforces the organizing principles of the design. the great unwashed subconsciously find that reinforcement quiet and, consequently, attractive. Lynn Hopkins (www. lhopkinsarch. com), an architect specializing in residential design, is based in Lexington, Massachusetts. al-Qaida Tiles plow a Cue From the Walls Floor tiles need to be more stable and slipresistant than wall tiles, so be sure to select a cause in unraveled for floor installation. The gumshoe and speciality characteristics of floor tiles may lay out them a divergent attend than that of wall tiles.To tie the two surfaces together optically, use the aforementioned(prenominal) touch, texture, pattern, or other design feature from the walls in the flooring. In a traditional bath, for instance, you susceptibility use a border of the same wring on the walls and the floor. some other strategy is a floor patterned with a tittup of small and large tiles, where the disguise of the small tiles matches that of the wall tile. Smaller tiles result in more secure lines, which burst the floor more texture and demonstrate it less slippery. The additional fix is more susceptible to dogshit and mildew, however. Center Tile Layout on Entries and FixturesMany tile-layout guidelines project positioning the layout on the center of the room and Bathroom-Tile Design 81 1 BatHroom projects Det ails from enceinte Bathrooms Benches, shelves, and hooks. Dont overlook the gadget of a small workbench where you mickle sit and s cede, shelves that faeces block soap and shampoo, and some generate wall space for towel hooks and bars. 82 Tile put to good use. Variations in tile size highlight architectural details, maculation ice rinkblock tiles let in plenty of light. rough and beautiful. the play of light and color in this bathroom isnt an accident. ts what happens when an architect plans a bathroom remodel with an artist. Details from not bad(p) Bathrooms 83 emphasiseuate the positive. Large, orthogonal porcelain tiles installed vertically draw attention to the showers high ceiling plot the mosaic-tile floor provides plenty of traction. stimulate up a monotone room. Blue and white mosaics splash color across the sink wall in this st. paul, minnesota, remodel. twine coordination. staying in the same color family ties together the mosaic pebble floor and the wall of sleek tubing tiles. Updating a tradition.Designed to ictus the calm richness of traditional Nipponese architecture but with a modern focus, this bathroom was created with wall and shower tiles by casalgrande padana and custom-cut slate floor tiles. 84 Bathroom Projects Balancing the budget. legal transfer on white ceramic floor and wall tile freed up money for the aqua swarthy glass mosaic wall tile. let loose. a youngsters bathroom is a great place to father gambol with tile. this bathroom features a bizarre countertop of scintillatingly colored tile. Use tile to differentiate. on the floor, a work shift from 13-in. eramic tile to 2-in. tile (by cerim ceramiche) distinguishes the shower from the modify part of the room. on the walls, a mosaic strip (by ceramica tres estilos) adds zip. Details from enceinte Bathrooms 85 2 KITChen projeCTs pose Tile to incline in the Kitchen by Lane Meehan O ur black Lab, bogy, is a walking mud manufactory and sheds so much that f or tile are granite, marble, and limestone, with granite being the hardest. perdition in its congenital state is porous, so wherever its used in a kitchen, it must be lettre de cacheted to resist staining and discoloration.Stone tile has color all the way through, so deep calles wont expose a different base color. However, a exceedingly sensitive surface on a stone tile come alongs to accentuate redden the smallest scratches. Stone finish be installed on floors, countertops or backsplashes however, it does tend to be a high-maintenance product. On the other hand, ceramic tile is made from carcass rolled flat and each sun-baked or fired in a kiln. There are hundreds of different bodys, each with its own characteristics that rear switch the tiles bring aboutance. Color is apply to ceramic tile in the form of baked-on glazes that withal impression the tile.In the past, ceramic-tile finishes had problems standing up to heavy use and abuse, but with recent expert advan ces, ceramic tile now performs break out than it used to. With most ceramic tile, the color is he should be bald. When it came meter to choose tile for our kitchen floor, we looked for tile that would help disguise evidence of Bogey and our three active boys. We chose a tile that looks like stone but in a color and finish that could hide dirt and label hair until I had a spare moment to run the vacuum. Our choice was based in the first place on ease of maintenance, just one love when choosing kitchen tile.As a tile-store owner with a background in design, I field questions all the succession about incorporating tile into lymph glands kitchens. This chapter addresses the questions I am asked most frequently. What Types of Tile hind end I Choose From? The two most radical categories of tile are stone and ceramic. Stone tile is a inbred product, mined or quarried at one time from the earth. The three most common stones used 86 Tile outlines and defines kitchen spaces. a tile border travel bys the island in this kitchen, designed by Tim Quigley of Minneapolis, its own straighten out visual space. The backsplash behind the stove forms a functional accent. displace Tile to manoeuver in the Kitchen 87 just on the surface, so deep scratches expose the clay below. Porcelain is another manmade tile product. Porcelain is much denser than ordinary ceramic, making it harder to scratch and break. unless as with stone, the shinier the surface of ceramic or porcelain, the more scratches allow show. So I try not to use highgloss tiles anywhere in a kitchen except on backsplashes, areas that are less susceptible to scratching. In the past, porcelain has been more expensive than ceramic, but improvements in technology have reduced the worth.Beyond the amount of gloss, tile finishes great deal change greatly. Tile finishes are grade by their ability to resist expect due to traffic a light-industrial tile has a higher force rating than most residential-grade t iles. Industrial-rated tile is a bit more expensive, but the extra cost makes scent out if your kitchen resembles a freeway. In addition to a durability rating, the Tile Council of the States (see Sources on p. 94) damps tile a coefficient of skirmish (COF) rating, which indicates how slippery the surface ordain be belowfoot.But if the tile feels overly polish or in like manner smooth-tongued to the touch, it will probably be too slippery to use on the floor. How Do Lifestyle and Lighting stir Choices? The first thing I ask customers about is their family, their lifestyle, and the way their kitchen is outlet to be used. For example, for a invitee who has a large family or who does a carve up of socialise, the kitchen is a officious hub with a casual atmosphere. For this kitchen, I capability elicit tender-colored tile with peradventure a softer stone look. After the clients lifestyle, I look at the type of lighting in the kitchen.If it is blessed with a great dea l of natural light from windows or skylights, tumbled marble tile or tile with a matte finish will absorb light and create a softer look (see the motion-picture show on p. 90). A coarse-textured surface on the tile softens the military group even further. On the other hand, tile with a gaudy finish reflects light and helps brighten areas of a kitchen that are dimly lighted or that receive little or no natural light. Remember that slip tile used in a kitchen with a lot of light, either natural or artificial, requires more frequent cleaning because fingerprints and water descry tend to show up more.When choosing tile, I withal look at the color and finish of the cabinets and countertops. If the counters and cabinets have a matte or satin finish, then I try to keep the same feel in the floors and the backsplash. By the same token, if the kitchen has the Tile Offers more or less Endless Options Multipurpose porcelain Ceramic wall tile with blue crackle glaze Commercial ceramic wall tile Rosso-Verona tumbled marble handsewn glossy wall tile overhand sanded floor tile Porcelain floor tile Limestone tile Stone prototype ceramic tile marble floor or wall tile 88 Kitchen Projects Ceramic Tile Porcelain vs. Nonporcelain l tiles made of clay and of age(p) by heat are ceramic tiles. However, ceramic tile is best understood by dividing it into two product classifications porcelain and nonporcelain. Their availability and look are roughly the same, but their durability is not. Thanks to a balance in the market, porcelain tiles give the gate now be had at nearly the same price as nonporcelain products. a when the tiles are glazed. Also, when some porcelain tiles are glazed, they are no longer guaranteed to be frostproof. nonporcelain tile is easier to work with Nonporcelain tiles are made primarily of clay mixed with minerals and water.The material is then fired to solidify the tiles into a bisque form. This process creates tile that isnt as hard as porcelain, so it back end be worked more easily with basic snap cutters and nippers rather of a wet saw. In most cases, a sealer and a glaze are utilise to the surface of nonporcelain tile to create color and texture before the tile receives a second firing. The glaze applied to nonporcelain tile elicit make it extremely durable, but never as durable as porcelain. Nonporcelain tiles main weakness is that it has a water- ducking rate of greater than 0. %. As a result, the tile doesnt perform nearly as well as unglazed porcelain tile in outdoor freeze/ unfreeze environments. porcelain tile is more durable Porcelain tiles are created by mixing porcelain clay and very finely ground sand, and stage set them with high heat and pressure. Porcelain tile is denser and harder than nonporcelain tile and has a lower water-absorption rate of 0. 5% or less. Porcelains density makes it highly resistant to carnal damage, magic spell its low absorption rate makes the tile frost resistant, allowing it t o be used outdoors.Unglazed porcelain tile is desire after for its full-body characteristics, which means its color carcass consistent throughout the tile. rise scratches and damage are less obtrusive as a result, a benefit that diminishes The top choice when competency matters most. although nonporcelain tiles push aside be instead durable, none are as spanking as porcelain. Buy what looks good. even though damage to nonporcelain tiles is more noticeable than with some porcelain tile, they can be purchased in grades that are perfectly suited for high-contact areas like kitchen counters and floors. Putting Tile to Work in the Kitchen 89Tile can act as a dark switch. This kitchen gets lots of light from two sides. The natural colors and matte finish of the tumbled-marble countertop and backsplash help soften the light and cut down on glow in a kitchen with a lot of windows. polished, streamlined look of more contemporary kitchens, I suggest a straightforward tile pattern with a glossy finish. Tile color can make a large contribution toward a warm or cool feel in a kitchen. The earthy tones of limestone or tumbled marble are the warmest of the tile colors, while bright whites and blues tend to be quite cool. But even cool colors can be warmed with colored fix.For example, an ivory or off-white fix color can take the cool edge off bright white. The reverse can be true if youre trying to earn a formal or industrial feel with gray or blue tile. A steel-gray secure helps create a crisp, cool look. A quick vacuum and an occasional(prenominal) mopping, and youre off and running. If planning and entertaining are big move of your life, then Id suggest tile that wont stain if hot grease and oil or an occasional glass of wine is spilled on it. A glazed ceramic tile industrial plant best in this situation, but for an doddery World look, you can use a real stone, such(prenominal)(prenominal) as limestone.If you select a stone-tile floor, be sure to tre at it with a good sealer according to the manufacturers directions. We recommend either Miracle Sealants permeable confident(p) or wiz Master Marble and Stone alimonys Gold shelter (see Sources on p. 94) for sealing stone tile. No matter what tile you choose for your kitchen floor, the fasten should also be sealed. To make the grout more imperviable to spills and stains, I recommend starting with a latex-modified grout or one that is mixed with a latex elongate instead of water. Once the grout has cured mighty, a sealer such as Miracle Sealants Porous Plus will fight off most food incursions.Another grout woof is epoxy, which is stain resistant and does not require sealing. But because epoxy is harder to work with for the installer, we generally use it for smaller go out My Three Boys and the Family Dog prejudice My Tile Floor? A clients lifestyle has the biggest intent on the choice of floor tile. If youd rather spend time with your three growing boys than take deal o f your kitchen floor, I suggest tile that hides a multitude of sins (and dirt) and constantly seems to look nice, such as a ceramic-stone look-alike (see the motion-picture show on the facing page). 90 Kitchen Projects No time for cleaning?For busy, active families with kids and pets, consider a tile floor with a lot of color variations such as this stone look-alike. It stays go looking longer between cleanings. areas, such as countertops. With some tile, such as limestone, epoxy grout is not recommended, so be sure to check with manufacturers suggestions. some sort of scepter to create a clean transition into the next room. Tile heaviness can also concern doors that swing into the kitchen, as well as appliances, such as dishwashers or trash compactors, that have to fit under the countertops in a kitchen. How Does a Tile Floor Relate to neighboring(a) Rooms?The kitchen-floor tile should help establish a visual give ear into the surrounding areas, so I ask clients about the co lors and materials on the floors of the rooms that are adjoining the kitchen. For example, if the kitchen floor joins up with a sober wood floor in the dining room, consider using tile with a warm, medium color to cut down on the visual contrast between rooms. If the kitchen floor meets colored carpet in an near room, keep in mind that youll probably change the carpet at some point, so choose a neutral tile color that will go with emerging carpet choices. Tile thickness is another consideration.Whether the kitchen floor butts up against other existing tile, hardwood floors, or carpet, the tile installer will need to install Can Tile Make My Tiny Kitchen smack Bigger? Tile layout can have a big jounce on a rooms show. While a parallel or straight pattern can intensify the narrowness of a kitchen, a diagonal tile pattern makes a room look wider (see the sidebar on p. 93). Tile size can also affect the appearance of the room. The smaller the tile, the busier the grout mutual pat tern. The unsophisticated groutjoint pattern you get with larger 10-in. to 12-in. tiles can make a small room look larger. Smaller 4-in. to 6-in. iles on a floor can have the opposite effect, creating a mosaic pattern or a sett look. Clipping the corners of square tiles creates hexagons or octagons with small square spaces left between. The small tiles (called Putting Tile to Work in the Kitchen 91 dots) that fill the spaces can introduce a hit of color to the floor in a pattern that breaks up the simple straight lines. Irregular tile patterns such as block hit-or-miss (using three sizes of tile) or a pinwheel pattern can help unify a kitchen that has many entrances and exits. These patterns also work well to ruffle together tile that is highly wide-ranging in color.A tile border on the floor can make a kitchen look cozier by bringing the eye in or by creating a spew around the kitchen table or an island (see the flick on p. 87). slab. And with granite tile, its easy to add a border to accent or complement the color of the stone. 1 drawback to stone tile on a countertop is the edges. Although you can round over the edges, granite tile is thinner than a solid slab (3? 8 in. to 1? 2 in. compared with 11? 4 in. , expression thickness for a granite slab), so its tougher to get the same full-slab look. Another drawback is not being able to install an undermount sink with granite tile.Although the tight grout joints of granite tile create a good, smooth work surface, machine-made ceramic tile with standard grout joints makes a slightly rougher work surface. oversewn tile is usually installed with wider grout joints that are charming, but its inherently edgy surface can be difficult to work on and can cause wine specs and bowling balls to tip over (see the images at left). The edges of a tile countertop can be addressed in unhomogeneous ways. Continuing the tile over the edge gives the countertop a thick look. easiness tile, such as a rope pattern, c an turn countertop edges into a visual focal point.Wooden edges that match or complement cabinets are also usual. As on floors, borders on countertops can add decoration. But if its used in too large an area or if a lot of items are stored on the counter, a border can be lost or distracting. Tile can also be combine with other types of surfaces for a prominent look (see the photo on p. 90). For instance, the nest egg from tiling most of the countertop might leave enough money for a solid slab of granite in the sink area for an undermount sink. A stone slab or a wood surface on only the island could make a bold statement while providing a smooth surface for an free-and-easy eating area.Is Tile OK for a Kitchen Countertop? Granite-slab countertops have long been popular in high-end kitchens. Tile countertops, both ceramic and stone, have some of the same attributes as slabs, such as durability and heat resistance, but at less than half the cost, depending on the tile you choose. Granite tile can be installed with tight grout joints to give the impression of a solid handstitched tile is elegant but uneven. The irregular surface of handstitched ceramic tile is a quarrel to work on and can be hazardous to wine glasses. sideslip boards should ever be used on tile countertops. 92 Kitchen Projects Tile Patterns at Work he right pattern can make a kitchen look wider. Floor tile installed in a straight pattern makes a narrow room seem narrower (see the left photo below) while tile in a T diagonal pattern softens the burrow effect of a long, narrow kitchen, making it seem wider (see the right photo below). Can Tile Be utilize as a Cutting Board? Although few tile or stone surfaces can stand up to a sharp kitchen knife, most hold up well under other kitchen rigors such as abuse from pots and pans.Limestone scratches easily, but those scratches can be sanded out. Surfaces such as glossy tile or highly polished granite tend to show tag more readily, and their scr atches are harder to remove or cover up. Stone or ceramic tile with a matte finish tends to hide scratches and surface abrasions better. Stone tile is also porous, so it has to be sealed properly to resist staining from things such as red wine and grease. And some ceramic tiles, as well as polished stone such as granite or marble, can lose their shine when exposed to some food acids.As in floors, latex-modified grout should be used on tiled countertops along with a good coat of grout sealer. Again, epoxy grout, which cost a little more and is a little harder to install, will make the grout impenetrable. Should the Backsplash Blend or Make a Splash? A tile backsplash is the spot where you can be really creative with tile in the kitchen (see the photos on p. 94). Because a backsplash functions to protect the wall from splashes and splatters that come from cooking and preparing food, the only prerequisite is that backsplash tile be easy to keep clean.Beyond that, the choices let mainl y aesthetic. I always ask clients how much stuff they plan to keep on their countertops. Toasters, microwaves, and canisters tend to block the backsplash, and in that case, the backsplash just provides a backdrop of color and tex- Putting Tile to Work in the Kitchen 93 sources Miracle Sealants Company 800-350-1901 www. miraclesealants. com ture. I usually recommend extending the tile from the countertop all the way to the bottoms of the wall cabinets so that the backsplash acts as a visual connection between the upper and lower cabinets.Borders usually work best above long stretches of counter that are uninterrupted by windows or appliances. And when installed three-quarters of the way up the backsplash, a border wont get lost near the countertop or under the wall cabinets. At that height, a border will usually clear the height of the toaster or a bowl of fruit for a continuous line. If the client is thinking of having decorative tiles abrupt randomly throughout the backsplash, I suggest taping playing card to the wall at random to see if the effect works in that particular kitchen.Playing cards can also be used in a line to test the visual power of a border. Isnt Tile Expensive? Tile varies greatly in price, and budget is a concern for the vast absolute majority of my clients. So heres my strategy for keeping costs down. First, use reasonably priced machinemade tile for large areas in the kitchen. Then there will be money left for those handmade borders, small murals, or strategically placed accent tiles that will give your kitchen a rich look without breaking the bank (see the right photo below).Installation prices can vary greatly depending on the type of tile, the layout, and the conditions of the existing floors and walls. A tile installer can apologize what your options are and how much each option costs. Even if you opt for a less expensive installation, always seal the tile. Sealing tile is pretty easy, so you can save a little by doing it yoursel f. fall some money on a good sealer. Lane Meehan is a tile maker and designer of decorative tiles. She and her husband, Tom, own and manage pallium Cod Tileworks in Harwich, Massachusetts. orous plus One Master Marble and Stone Care 760-406-1097 www. onemastermarble. com Gold shield The Tile Council of America 864-646-8453 www. tileusa. com Tile fine art and Accents he backsplash of cows in a pasture (see the left photo below) in this kitchen designed by ruttish Fritz of Lakeside, Calif. , combines the art of Roger Dunham of Petaluma, Calif. , with the practicality of T ceramic tile. Random decorative tiles in a backsplash of less expensive, machine-made tile (see the right photo below) give this kitchen a colorful accent. 94 Kitchen ProjectsArchitectural Textbook on How to Draw stance and to Tiles1 BatHroom projects Bathroom-Tile Design By Lynn Hopkins W alk into a tile showroom, and you may be overwhelmed by the sheer number of colors, materials, finishes, and sizes available. The best way to keep your wits about you is to develop a strategy beforehand for the style of bathroom you plan to create. This plan will help to guide tile selection and installation. Before going to the store, think about the character of your new bath. Are you interested in a traditional bathroom with historical references, something with fixtures and finishes that remind you of an earlier time? Or are you dreaming of something more sleek and modern?Regardless of the style of bathroom you choose, innovation a tile installation requires forethought. The accompanying drawings illustrate key areas to consider when developing a tile design and show how the traditional or modern character of the room might influence tile selection and layout. As part of the planning process, I recommend making detailed drawings that show which tiles go where on both the floor and the walls. An accurate, scaled sketch of a section of wall and floor, plus any special corner conditions, makes it much e asier to order, lay out, and correctly install the tile.Start by Planning the Walls There are three standard heights to consider when tiling a bathroom wall wainscot height, shower height, and full-wall height. You may use one, two, or all three of these heights in a single bathroom, depending on the look you are trying to achieve and on your budget. Because tiled walls are more expensive than wallboard, tile often is used only where it is needed most on the lower portion of the wall that requires water protection. This wainscot is usually between 36 in. and 42 in. tall, enough to provide a backsplash of 4 in. or so above the sink.Tile protects the walls below towel bars from wet towels, and the walls around the toilet from the spray of rambunctious kids. Tiling to wainscot height may be adequate protection around tubs without showers as most splashes occur below this line. In a shower area, however, all enclosure walls should be tiled high enough to protect the walls from water spr ay, at least 72 in. and preferably to the ceiling. 78 Details for a Traditional Bathroom 3-in. by 6-in. brick tiles 1-in. by 6-in. color band Fixtures are centered on tile layout. 1 Shower enclosure is tiled to at least 72 in.At least 4 in. 36 in. to 42 in. Bullnose tiles 2 Border tiles define limits of the room. 6-in. by 6-in. tiles 1. TURNING CORNERS Profiled edge tiles 2. INSIDE CORNERS A bathroom with traditional characteristics has plumbing fixtures that take their styling cues from an earlier era, generally the 1920s or 1930s. The tile should reinforce these historical references. Small wall tiles, such as 3 in. by 6 in. , 4 in. by 4 in. , and even smaller mosaics, were typical in the old days, in part because the adhesive available could not support tiles that were much larger and heavier than 6 in. q. Traditional styles often celebrate the edges where tile meets wall or where wall meets floor with a border or fancy molding profile. Borders run around the perimeter of the flo or and/or walls, defining the limits of the room. Bathroom-Tile Design 79 Choose the Right Tile Tiles finished on only the front face are called field tiles. When installed, they are butted next to each other with grout filling the spaces in between. Wherever wall tile stops short of the ceiling, field tiles should not be installed on the top row because the raw, unfinished edge of the tiles will be exposed.For these locations, use tile with at least one finished edge. Typically, the finished edge is a rounded bullnose shape that makes an elegant transition from tile to wall surface. In bathrooms with traditional styling, this transitional edge frequently is celebrated with a decorative border that intro- duces a band of color, a pattern, a texture, or a special profile (see the drawings on p. 79). Borders Create a Transition Although a decorative border is a great way to handle the tile-to-wall transition, youll need to consider how to handle the border when the tile goes from a lo wer to a taller height.In a traditionally styled bath, I prefer to turn the edging and keep the border moving up, over, and down again, using mitered corners at each turn. I find that a miter creates a crisp, clean look and allows the flexi- Details for a Modern Bathroom The details in a modern room imply expansiveness and continuity. Tile frequently runs continuously from floor to ceiling or from corner to corner. Borders like those found in a traditional bath are seldom used because they would feel constrictive. Luxurious materials, such as stone, are treated simply so that nothing competes with or detracts from the beauty of the aterial itself. Modern designs often use larger tiles8 in. by 8 in. , 6 in. by 12 in. , 12 in. by 12 in. , or 16 in. by 16 in. because they feel more expansive. Visual interest comes from the use of multiple materials, patterns, textures, and plane changes. In this example, the height change at the shower area is emphasized with a bump-out separating the plumbing wall into two different planes. Within the shower, 12-in. by 12-in. stone tiles run floor to ceiling. The side edges of the stone tile are mitered to finish the outside corner. Outside the shower, 6-in. by 12-in. ceramic tiles are used on the walls.The running-bond pattern helps to tie the different materials together. 12-in. by 12-in. stone tiles Running-bond pattern is an easy, inexpensive way to add visual interest. Bump-out, 2 in. minimum 6-in. by 12-in. ceramic tiles 3 3. ChaNGING plaNES Room feels more expansive with large floor tiles. Inside corner marks transition from large shower tiles to smaller wall tiles. Mitered outside corner 80 Bathroom Projects bility to use border designs without a special corner tile (see the inset drawing on p. 79). Other areas that demand careful planning are corner borders at wall intersections.If your bath has only inside corners, you will need tiles that are finished only on the face and one edge. Outside cornersthose that project in to the roomrequire tiles finished on the face, the top, and one side. If you use tile with a profile, youll need a special outside-corner tile. Not all tile manufacturers or lines include these special pieces. The baseboard area, at the junction of wall and floor, is another opportunity for a decorative border. If you used a color band at the top of the tiled wall, a second band of color would work well at the bottom. If not, consider a base tile that is taller than the wainscot tiles.You can choose base tiles with a profile that incorporates a radius to meet the floor tiles. cutting the tiles around the perimeter to fit. These guidelines recommend centering the pattern on either a tile or a grout line, depending on which choice results in the largest tiles around the edges of the room. This is a good place to start, but you may want to adjust your design in response to other features in the room. One of the typical ways your eye determines whether a pattern is centered is by compar ing the end tiles If the tiles on each end are equal in size, you assume the pattern is centered.However, if your eye cannot easily compare the end tiles to each other, youll look for other cues, such as alignment. Sometimes, especially in large rooms, it is preferable to center tiles along lines of sight or movement. By following this strategy, the tile pattern is centered on the person using the bathroom. Tiles centered on the entry door are centered on the person who walks through that door wall tiles centered on the sink and on the mirror above are centered on the person looking in that mirror. Tiles centered on the showerhead and control valves also are centered on the person using the shower.If tile has been centered on the key sink and shower walls, the layout frequently is mirrored on the opposite wall. Centering tile on the sink and the shower controls may be difficult if the sink and the shower are on the same continuous wall but this design should be possible if the dista nce between the centerline of the shower or tub fittings and the sink is a multiple of the tile size. Mark out the tile design before any rough plumbing work is done then adjust fixture placements as required for the most attractive finished room.Alignment and centering of fixtures, tiles, and sightlines reinforces the organizing principles of the design. People subconsciously find that reinforcement reassuring and, consequently, attractive. Lynn Hopkins (www. lhopkinsarch. com), an architect specializing in residential design, is based in Lexington, Massachusetts. Floor Tiles Take a Cue From the Walls Floor tiles need to be more durable and slipresistant than wall tiles, so be sure to select a type intended for floor installation. The safety and durability characteristics of floor tiles may give them a different look than that of wall tiles.To tie the two surfaces together visually, use the same color, texture, pattern, or other design feature from the walls in the flooring. In a t raditional bath, for instance, you might use a border of the same color on the walls and the floor. Another strategy is a floor patterned with a mix of small and large tiles, where the color of the small tiles matches that of the wall tile. Smaller tiles result in more grout lines, which give the floor more texture and make it less slippery. The additional grout is more susceptible to dirt and mildew, however. Center Tile Layout on Entries and FixturesMany tile-layout guidelines suggest positioning the layout on the center of the room and Bathroom-Tile Design 81 1 BatHroom projects Details from Great Bathrooms Benches, shelves, and hooks. Dont overlook the convenience of a small bench where you can sit and shave, shelves that can hold soap and shampoo, and some open wall space for towel hooks and bars. 82 Tile put to good use. Variations in tile size highlight architectural details, while glassblock tiles let in plenty of light. Bold and beautiful. the play of light and color in thi s bathroom isnt an accident. ts what happens when an architect plans a bathroom remodel with an artist. Details from Great Bathrooms 83 accentuate the positive. Large, rectangular porcelain tiles installed vertically draw attention to the showers high ceiling while the mosaic-tile floor provides plenty of traction. liven up a bland room. Blue and white mosaics splash color across the sink wall in this st. paul, minnesota, remodel. Color coordination. staying in the same color family ties together the mosaic pebble floor and the wall of sleek subway tiles. Updating a tradition.Designed to capture the calm richness of traditional japanese architecture but with a modern focus, this bathroom was created with wall and shower tiles by casalgrande padana and custom-cut slate floor tiles. 84 Bathroom Projects Balancing the budget. saving on white ceramic floor and wall tile freed up money for the aquacolored glass mosaic wall tile. let loose. a childs bathroom is a great place to have fun w ith tile. this bathroom features a whimsical countertop of brightly colored tile. Use tile to differentiate. on the floor, a switch from 13-in. eramic tile to 2-in. tile (by cerim ceramiche) distinguishes the shower from the dry part of the room. on the walls, a mosaic strip (by ceramica tres estilos) adds zip. Details from Great Bathrooms 85 2 KITChen projeCTs Putting Tile to Work in the Kitchen by Lane Meehan O ur black Lab, Bogey, is a walking mud factory and sheds so much that for tile are granite, marble, and limestone, with granite being the hardest. Stone in its natural state is porous, so wherever its used in a kitchen, it must be sealed to resist staining and discoloration.Stone tile has color all the way through, so deep scratches wont expose a different base color. However, a highly polished surface on a stone tile seems to accentuate even the smallest scratches. Stone can be installed on floors, countertops or backsplashes however, it does tend to be a high-maintenance p roduct. On the other hand, ceramic tile is made from clay rolled flat and either sun-baked or fired in a kiln. There are hundreds of different clays, each with its own characteristics that can vary the tiles performance. Color is applied to ceramic tile in the form of baked-on glazes that also seal the tile.In the past, ceramic-tile finishes had problems standing up to heavy use and abuse, but with recent technical advances, ceramic tile now performs better than it used to. With most ceramic tile, the color is he should be bald. When it came time to choose tile for our kitchen floor, we looked for tile that would help disguise evidence of Bogey and our three active boys. We chose a tile that looks like stone but in a color and finish that could hide dirt and dog hair until I had a spare moment to run the vacuum. Our choice was based primarily on ease of maintenance, just one consideration when choosing kitchen tile.As a tile-store owner with a background in design, I field questions all the time about incorporating tile into clients kitchens. This chapter addresses the questions I am asked most frequently. What Types of Tile Can I Choose From? The two most basic categories of tile are stone and ceramic. Stone tile is a natural product, mined or quarried directly from the earth. The three most common stones used 86 Tile outlines and defines kitchen spaces. a tile border gives the island in this kitchen, designed by Tim Quigley of Minneapolis, its own separate visual space. The backsplash behind the stove forms a functional accent.Putting Tile to Work in the Kitchen 87 just on the surface, so deep scratches expose the clay below. Porcelain is another manmade tile product. Porcelain is much denser than ordinary ceramic, making it harder to scratch and break. But as with stone, the shinier the surface of ceramic or porcelain, the more scratches will show. So I try not to use highgloss tiles anywhere in a kitchen except on backsplashes, areas that are less suscepti ble to scratching. In the past, porcelain has been more expensive than ceramic, but improvements in technology have reduced the price.Beyond the amount of gloss, tile finishes can vary greatly. Tile finishes are graded by their ability to resist wear due to traffic a light-industrial tile has a higher durability rating than most residential-grade tiles. Industrial-rated tile is a bit more expensive, but the extra cost makes sense if your kitchen resembles a freeway. In addition to a durability rating, the Tile Council of America (see Sources on p. 94) gives tile a coefficient of friction (COF) rating, which indicates how slippery the surface will be underfoot.But if the tile feels too smooth or too slick to the touch, it will probably be too slippery to use on the floor. How Do Lifestyle and Lighting Affect Choices? The first thing I ask clients about is their family, their lifestyle, and the way their kitchen is going to be used. For example, for a client who has a large family or who does a lot of entertaining, the kitchen is a busy hub with a casual atmosphere. For this kitchen, I might suggest warm-colored tile with perhaps a softer stone look. After the clients lifestyle, I look at the type of lighting in the kitchen.If it is blessed with a great deal of natural light from windows or skylights, tumbled marble tile or tile with a matte finish will absorb light and create a softer look (see the photo on p. 90). A textured surface on the tile softens the effect even further. On the other hand, tile with a glossy finish reflects light and helps brighten areas of a kitchen that are dimly lighted or that receive little or no natural light. Remember that glossy tile used in a kitchen with a lot of light, either natural or artificial, requires more frequent cleaning because fingerprints and water spots tend to show up more.When choosing tile, I also look at the color and finish of the cabinets and countertops. If the counters and cabinets have a matte or satin fi nish, then I try to keep the same feel in the floors and the backsplash. By the same token, if the kitchen has the Tile Offers Almost Endless Options Multipurpose porcelain Ceramic wall tile with blue crackle glaze Commercial ceramic wall tile Rosso-Verona tumbled marble Handmade glazed wall tile Handmade sanded floor tile Porcelain floor tile Limestone tile Stone look-alike ceramic tile Marble floor or wall tile 88 Kitchen Projects Ceramic Tile Porcelain vs. Nonporcelain l tiles made of clay and cured by heat are ceramic tiles. However, ceramic tile is best understood by dividing it into two product classifications porcelain and nonporcelain. Their availability and look are roughly the same, but their durability is not. Thanks to a balance in the market, porcelain tiles can now be had at nearly the same price as nonporcelain products. a when the tiles are glazed. Also, when some porcelain tiles are glazed, they are no longer guaranteed to be frostproof. nonporcelain tile is easier to work with Nonporcelain tiles are made primarily of clay mixed with minerals and water.The material is then fired to solidify the tiles into a bisque form. This process creates tile that isnt as hard as porcelain, so it can be worked more easily with basic snap cutters and nippers instead of a wet saw. In most cases, a sealer and a glaze are applied to the surface of nonporcelain tile to create color and texture before the tile receives a second firing. The glaze applied to nonporcelain tile can make it extremely durable, but never as durable as porcelain. Nonporcelain tiles main weakness is that it has a water-absorption rate of greater than 0. %. As a result, the tile doesnt perform nearly as well as unglazed porcelain tile in outdoor freeze/thaw environments. porcelain tile is more durable Porcelain tiles are created by mixing porcelain clay and very finely ground sand, and curing them with high heat and pressure. Porcelain tile is denser and harder than nonporcelain tile and h as a lower water-absorption rate of 0. 5% or less. Porcelains density makes it highly resistant to physical damage, while its low absorption rate makes the tile frost resistant, allowing it to be used outdoors.Unglazed porcelain tile is sought after for its full-body characteristics, which means its color remains consistent throughout the tile. Surface scratches and damage are less noticeable as a result, a benefit that diminishes The top choice when strength matters most. although nonporcelain tiles can be quite durable, none are as resilient as porcelain. Buy what looks good. even though damage to nonporcelain tiles is more noticeable than with some porcelain tile, they can be purchased in grades that are perfectly suited for high-contact areas like kitchen counters and floors. Putting Tile to Work in the Kitchen 89Tile can act as a dimmer switch. This kitchen gets lots of light from two sides. The natural colors and matte finish of the tumbled-marble countertop and backsplash hel p soften the light and cut down on glare in a kitchen with a lot of windows. polished, streamlined look of many contemporary kitchens, I suggest a straightforward tile pattern with a glossy finish. Tile color can make a large contribution toward a warm or cool feel in a kitchen. The earthy tones of limestone or tumbled marble are the warmest of the tile colors, while bright whites and blues tend to be quite cool. But even cool colors can be warmed with colored grout.For example, an ivory or off-white grout color can take the cool edge off bright white. The reverse can be true if youre trying to achieve a formal or industrial feel with gray or blue tile. A steel-gray grout helps create a crisp, cool look. A quick vacuum and an occasional mopping, and youre off and running. If cooking and entertaining are big parts of your life, then Id suggest tile that wont stain if hot grease and oil or an occasional glass of wine is spilled on it. A glazed ceramic tile works best in this situation , but for an Old World look, you can use a real stone, such as limestone.If you select a stone-tile floor, be sure to treat it with a good sealer according to the manufacturers directions. We recommend either Miracle Sealants Porous Plus or One Master Marble and Stone Cares Gold Shield (see Sources on p. 94) for sealing stone tile. No matter what tile you choose for your kitchen floor, the grout should also be sealed. To make the grout more impervious to spills and stains, I recommend starting with a latex-modified grout or one that is mixed with a latex additive instead of water. Once the grout has cured properly, a sealer such as Miracle Sealants Porous Plus will fight off most food incursions.Another grout option is epoxy, which is stain resistant and does not require sealing. But because epoxy is harder to work with for the installer, we generally use it for smaller Will My Three Boys and the Family Dog Hurt My Tile Floor? A clients lifestyle has the biggest bearing on the choic e of floor tile. If youd rather spend time with your three growing boys than take care of your kitchen floor, I suggest tile that hides a multitude of sins (and dirt) and always seems to look nice, such as a ceramic-stone look-alike (see the photo on the facing page). 90 Kitchen Projects No time for cleaning?For busy, active families with kids and pets, consider a tile floor with a lot of color variations such as this stone look-alike. It stays better looking longer between cleanings. areas, such as countertops. With some tile, such as limestone, epoxy grout is not recommended, so be sure to check with manufacturers suggestions. some sort of threshold to create a clean transition into the next room. Tile thickness can also affect doors that swing into the kitchen, as well as appliances, such as dishwashers or trash compactors, that have to fit under the countertops in a kitchen. How Does a Tile Floor Relate to Adjacent Rooms?The kitchen-floor tile should help establish a visual flow into the surrounding areas, so I ask clients about the colors and materials on the floors of the rooms that are adjoining the kitchen. For example, if the kitchen floor joins up with a dark wood floor in the dining room, consider using tile with a warm, medium color to cut down on the visual contrast between rooms. If the kitchen floor meets colored carpet in an adjacent room, keep in mind that youll probably change the carpet at some point, so choose a neutral tile color that will go with future carpet choices. Tile thickness is another consideration.Whether the kitchen floor butts up against other existing tile, hardwood floors, or carpet, the tile installer will need to install Can Tile Make My Tiny Kitchen Look Bigger? Tile layout can have a big impact on a rooms appearance. While a parallel or straight pattern can intensify the narrowness of a kitchen, a diagonal tile pattern makes a room look wider (see the sidebar on p. 93). Tile size can also affect the appearance of the ro om. The smaller the tile, the busier the groutjoint pattern. The simple groutjoint pattern you get with larger 10-in. to 12-in. tiles can make a small room look larger. Smaller 4-in. to 6-in. iles on a floor can have the opposite effect, creating a mosaic pattern or a cobblestone look. Clipping the corners of square tiles creates hexagons or octagons with small square spaces left between. The small tiles (called Putting Tile to Work in the Kitchen 91 dots) that fill the spaces can introduce a dash of color to the floor in a pattern that breaks up the simple straight lines. Irregular tile patterns such as block random (using three sizes of tile) or a pinwheel pattern can help unify a kitchen that has many entrances and exits. These patterns also work well to blend together tile that is highly varied in color.A tile border on the floor can make a kitchen look cozier by bringing the eye in or by creating a frame around the kitchen table or an island (see the photo on p. 87). slab. And with granite tile, its easy to add a border to accent or complement the color of the stone. One drawback to stone tile on a countertop is the edges. Although you can round over the edges, granite tile is thinner than a solid slab (3? 8 in. to 1? 2 in. compared with 11? 4 in. , normal thickness for a granite slab), so its tougher to get the same full-slab look. Another drawback is not being able to install an undermount sink with granite tile.Although the tight grout joints of granite tile create a good, smooth work surface, machine-made ceramic tile with standard grout joints makes a slightly rougher work surface. Handmade tile is usually installed with wider grout joints that are charming, but its inherently bumpy surface can be difficult to work on and can cause wine glasses and bowls to tip over (see the photos at left). The edges of a tile countertop can be addressed in various ways. Continuing the tile over the edge gives the countertop a thick look. Relief tile, such as a rope pattern, can turn countertop edges into a visual focal point.Wooden edges that match or complement cabinets are also popular. As on floors, borders on countertops can add decoration. But if its used in too large an area or if a lot of items are stored on the counter, a border can be lost or distracting. Tile can also be combined with other types of surfaces for a dramatic look (see the photo on p. 90). For instance, the savings from tiling most of the countertop might leave enough money for a solid slab of granite in the sink area for an undermount sink. A stone slab or a wood surface on only the island could make a bold statement while providing a smooth surface for an informal eating area.Is Tile OK for a Kitchen Countertop? Granite-slab countertops have long been popular in high-end kitchens. Tile countertops, both ceramic and stone, have some of the same attributes as slabs, such as durability and heat resistance, but at less than half the cost, depending on the tile you choose . Granite tile can be installed with tight grout joints to give the impression of a solid Handmade tile is pretty but uneven. The irregular surface of handmade ceramic tile is a challenge to work on and can be hazardous to wine glasses.Cutting boards should always be used on tile countertops. 92 Kitchen Projects Tile Patterns at Work he right pattern can make a kitchen look wider. Floor tile installed in a straight pattern makes a narrow room seem narrower (see the left photo below) while tile in a T diagonal pattern softens the tunnel effect of a long, narrow kitchen, making it seem wider (see the right photo below). Can Tile Be Used as a Cutting Board? Although few tile or stone surfaces can stand up to a sharp kitchen knife, most hold up well under other kitchen rigors such as abuse from pots and pans.Limestone scratches easily, but those scratches can be sanded out. Surfaces such as glossy tile or highly polished granite tend to show marks more readily, and their scratches are h arder to remove or cover up. Stone or ceramic tile with a matte finish tends to hide scratches and surface abrasions better. Stone tile is also porous, so it has to be sealed properly to resist staining from things such as red wine and grease. And some ceramic tiles, as well as polished stone such as granite or marble, can lose their shine when exposed to some food acids.As in floors, latex-modified grout should be used on tiled countertops along with a good coat of grout sealer. Again, epoxy grout, which costs a little more and is a little harder to install, will make the grout impenetrable. Should the Backsplash Blend or Make a Splash? A tile backsplash is the spot where you can be really creative with tile in the kitchen (see the photos on p. 94). Because a backsplash functions to protect the wall from splashes and splatters that come from cooking and preparing food, the only prerequisite is that backsplash tile be easy to keep clean.Beyond that, the choices become mainly aesthet ic. I always ask clients how much stuff they plan to keep on their countertops. Toasters, microwaves, and canisters tend to block the backsplash, and in that case, the backsplash just provides a backdrop of color and tex- Putting Tile to Work in the Kitchen 93 sources Miracle Sealants Company 800-350-1901 www. miraclesealants. com ture. I usually recommend extending the tile from the countertop all the way to the bottoms of the wall cabinets so that the backsplash acts as a visual connection between the upper and lower cabinets.Borders usually work best above long stretches of counter that are uninterrupted by windows or appliances. And when installed three-quarters of the way up the backsplash, a border wont get lost near the countertop or under the wall cabinets. At that height, a border will usually clear the height of the toaster or a bowl of fruit for a continuous line. If the client is thinking of having decorative tiles scattered randomly throughout the backsplash, I suggest taping playing cards to the wall at random to see if the effect works in that particular kitchen.Playing cards can also be used in a line to test the visual power of a border. Isnt Tile Expensive? Tile varies greatly in price, and budget is a concern for the vast majority of my clients. So heres my strategy for keeping costs down. First, use reasonably priced machinemade tile for large areas in the kitchen. Then there will be money left for those handmade borders, small murals, or strategically placed accent tiles that will give your kitchen a rich look without breaking the bank (see the right photo below).Installation prices can vary greatly depending on the type of tile, the layout, and the conditions of the existing floors and walls. A tile installer can explain what your options are and how much each option costs. Even if you opt for a less expensive installation, always seal the tile. Sealing tile is pretty easy, so you can save a little by doing it yourself. Spend some money o n a good sealer. Lane Meehan is a tile maker and designer of decorative tiles. She and her husband, Tom, own and manage Cape Cod Tileworks in Harwich, Massachusetts. orous plus One Master Marble and Stone Care 760-406-1097 www. onemastermarble. com Gold shield The Tile Council of America 864-646-8453 www. tileusa. com Tile Art and Accents he backsplash of cows in a pasture (see the left photo below) in this kitchen designed by Randy Fritz of Lakeside, Calif. , combines the art of Roger Dunham of Petaluma, Calif. , with the practicality of T ceramic tile. Random decorative tiles in a backsplash of less expensive, machine-made tile (see the right photo below) give this kitchen a colorful accent. 94 Kitchen Projects