Wednesday, 30 October 2019

Strategic Plan of WalMart Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Strategic Plan of WalMart - Case Study Example Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. is both a domestic enterprise, as well as a national discount retailer. They operate retail stores domestically in the US and various international markets. Wal-Mart operates on an "Every Day Low Price" philosophy because they are able to maintain their low price structure through complete expense control. With this philosophy they have proven to be extremely profitable domestically. Their primary task is buying from suppliers at a low cost and then reselling the goods to customers at a low price, to achieve their company philosophy of low prices and great customer service (Nelson Lichtenstein, 2006). Being in the retail industry, Wal-Mart can choose from many suppliers that provide its various stores with inventory, general buyers, and competition; including Kmart, Sears, Target, Costco discount stores also the local mom and pop stores in various neighborhoods. Wal-Mart is spread all over the Europe and this chain running successfully. But Wal-Mart in the city of Bentonville facing is some problems. Although it has many strengths but it has been facing many threats. Evaluating Wal-Marts situation in terms of the SWOT Analysis, where we will view where its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in terms of its place in the retail industry. Let’s look at what makes Wal-Mart such a dominant force and would break Wal-marts dominance both here and globally by analyzing its position in terms of the SWOT; let’s start by looking at the first part of the SWOT analysis which is the strength of the company. Strengths The strengths of their existing circulation patterns and linkages are good pedestrian orientation around the square and accessibility from other areas of the city. The buildings on the Square are built up to the sidewalk which enhance the pedestrian character. Several entries into downtown help reduce congestion. Also, the schools downtown are within walking distance of a large number of residential areas and walking to school is an option. The redevelopment of the square has provided a central place for community gatherings. The fountain, the confederate soldier statue, the benches, and traditional street lights add to downtown's identity. The statue is a part of the heritage and culture and has been stated as being "a conversational piece". The square is the center for several community activities, such as the Farmer's Market, Pickin' on the Square, and the Art Walk (Weldon Nicholson, 2006). The Wal-Mart General Office brings thousands of people downtown during the week. The Wal-Mart Visitors Center serves to bring people, (approximately 80,000 annually) especially tourists, downtown. Also, Wal-Mart Shareholder's Week provides an economic surge in the spring. Another economic strength is the presence of public services and facilities. The county and city administration offices, especially the courthouse and Bentonville being the county seat serve to anchor the downtown as a place to conduct business. Also, quasi-public businesses, such as Main Street Bentonville, the Chamber of Commerce and the Bentonville Advertising and Promotion Commission have all selected a downtown location. There are also several personal services that are beneficial to the downtown economy, such as the bank, grocery store, and dry cleaners. They serve area residents as well as the thousands of employees working downtown. Recent development activity has sparked an interest in development and location downtown. Two new brick two and three story buildings at SW A Street and SW 8th Street offer office, retail and residential space. The Bentonville Plaza, just south of the Wal-Mart Genera

Monday, 28 October 2019

The blind side Essay Example for Free

The blind side Essay â€Å"The Blind Side† is based on the remarkable true story of Baltimore Ravens offensive left tackle Michael Oher (Quinton Aaron). Michael grew up in the inner city housing projects with his mother in Memphis, Tennessee aptly named â€Å"Hurt Village†. Michael’s story begins with him being homeless and coming from a broken home with a drug-addicted mother, and an absentee father. Because of his family circumstances, Family Services took control of his life as he was growing up. Unfortunately, he was being bounced around in and out of foster homes, and now as a teenager he has taken it upon himself that he would rather be homeless. By a stroke of luck, and the coach’s wish for a player the size of Michael, he ends up enrolling in a private Christian school where the Tuohy kids go. Michael is a quiet person. He is shown to have a kind of childish personality, because he tries to play with kindergarten children (Rachel St. Gelais) who reject or ignore him. Michael is befriended by S.J. Tuohy (Jae Head), the youngest Tuohy whose connection to Michael starts the ball rolling. One icy winter night, as Michael is walking down the road to the school gym, where he is sleeping, Leigh Anne Tuohy (Sandra Bullock) with her husband Sean (Tim McGraw) and children Jae and Collins (Lily Collins) pick Michael up and take him home for the night. However, he stays for the next night, which puzzles Sean, although the children accept Michael matter-of-factly. Soon, Leigh Anne offers him a room and bed. As she starts making him greater and greater favours, he comes to research through Michael’s exams, and the only positive feedback that teachers could ever say about him is that he had big protective instincts. Leigh Anne will use that to explain him how to play in the field. Up to that moment, he wasn’t able to get the hang of the game and its rules, and he wasn’t able to understand what his role in the field was. From that moment, Michael starts to play well and be useful to his team. At the traditional Christmas card photograph of that year, Leigh Anne invites him to appear on the photo. Leigh Anne’s friends Beth (Rhoda Griffs), Elaine (Eaddy Mays) and Sherry (Ashley LeConte Campbell) meet regularly at a local expensive restaurant. The friends laugh about Leigh Anne’s â€Å"project in the projects†, but she cuts it off, saying that if they don’t respect what she does, she will stop seeing them. An opportunity arises for Michael to play at  university level. However, he needs his grades to improve, so the Tuohys hire a private tuition teacher, outspoken and kind Miss Sue (Kathy Bates), who will immediately succeed. During their Geography lesson, she makes a stupid remark about some univerity burying the bodies of dead people in their game field, which Michael seems to believe blindly. There comes a momen when Leigh Anne wants to have a face-to-face conversation with Michael’s mother(Adriane Lenox). Although she seems unresponsive in the beginning, the mother finally wishes Michael the best. She says that social services had branded Michael â€Å"a runner†, and she forecasts that Leigh Anne will find one day that he has run away for good without giving any previous notice. Leigh Anne also faces some guys from the projects which had threatened Michael. They are left speechles when she threatens them and is not afraid of them at all. Three universities want Michael. S. J. talks to the coaches, and leads the negotiations on Michael’s behalf. When Michael gets his grades high enough, he must make a decision, and he does. He chooses the university where Sean had played for, and where Leigh Anne was a cheerleader. That causes Investigator Granger (Sharon Morris) to move onto the matter before Michael arrives there. She questions him as though they were holding interrogatory preceding at a police station. She thinks that the Tuohys and Miss Sue are using Michael to benefit that particular university. After thinking and questioning Leigh Ann on the matter, Michael realises that the Tuohys are now his family, and tells Granger that that’s the reason for him to choose that university. The film ends saying that he’ll succeed and become a professional player later on. S. J went out to the gamefield with Michael before all local games.

Saturday, 26 October 2019

Sociology Essay -- Sociology Essays

The social growth of the young in different classes A Youth in Poverty   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  To most, it’s very easy to imagine how it would feel to grow up without much of anything in life. Hell...I can tell you first hand what it feels like to not have a decent pair of shoes or pants without holes in them, or old â€Å"hand-me-down† toys while most of the kids you know have â€Å"state-of-the-art† toys. To many children in this kind of situation, it seems like a very bleak world to live in. No child should ever have to experience this kind of life. However, due to ignorant parents and an even more jacked-up government, there are many children that will always be in this predicament.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Now, it would be hard to think of any good coming out of living in such conditions. But just like a many things in this so-called existence, a person would have to look very hard to find the good things. There are, in fact, good things about living in the pits of poverty. For instance, children that are poor tend to appreciate things much more than a child with a more â€Å"privileged† life. When they get new things, they treat those things like intricately wrought gold, or a fine work of art. To them, a brand-new pair of ‘Jordan’ gym shoes or a ’PS2’ seems like pure treasure. Over time, this quality of appreciation will develop continually over the years. They will make responsible choices on things that they will always appreciate. With hope and a prayer, they will be able to pass down this quality to their future generations.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Another good quality that poor children have is their ability to socialize. When you are poor, you have little room to fear embarrassment. If you’re embarrassed about meeting new people or talking in front of a crowd, they you may as well be embarrassed with everything else in you life of poverty. Being poor is humiliating enough....being scared to talk is nothing compared to that. A kid that has just about nothing in life will hope to make as many new friends as they possibly can. Possibly so that they can fill in the little void they are likely to grow out of having so little. They are very assertive, and will do anything for attention. Jokes, stories, comments, and the sacred art of â€Å"Blazing† or â€Å"Baking† are the tools that poor children will use for socialization.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  &n... ... many times I wanted to knock a rich kid’s teeth into his brains.....((Ahem...)) They think that since they are rich, they are better that the entire world. When they think this, I wish nothing more than to strangle them with a garden hose and beat them with a wet towel....((Ahem, ahem...)) Everyone it this world should know...that even though they live life on a silver platter, they should remember one thing; when silver is not taken care of properly, it can and will tarnish over time. They may think that they are better than the world, but they will mess their lives up with that arrogant attitude. They can lose friends, family ties, relationships with other loved ones, jobs, schools, and other things of importance. No one is better than the matter how much money they may have, they are only human. Conclusion Time: The â€Å"glorious† life ain’t all that it’s cracked up to be. Because when a person wakes up from the fantasy of having everything they want, they are able to realize that money is nothing more than paper with a dead man’s face on it. The youth should know that there is more to life than wealth. Look hard, and they will be able to find what I’m talking about.

Thursday, 24 October 2019

Chapter 11 Problems

I. Payback period computation; even cash flows Compute the payback period for each of the following two separate investments (round the payback period to two decimals): 1. A new operating system for an existing machine is expected to cost $260,000 and have a useful life of five years. The system yields an incremental after-tax income of $75,000 each year after deducting its straight-line depreciation. The predicted salvage value of the system is $10,000. Payback period=Cost of investment/ Annual net cash flow =$260,000/ $125,000 =2. 08 years Annual depreciation= $260,000 -$10,000 / 5 = $50,000 Annual after tax income $75,000 Depreciation 50,000 Annual net cash flow$125,000 2. A machine costs $190,000, has a $10,000 salvage value, is expected to last nine years, and will generate an after-tax income of $30,000 per year after straight-line depreciation. Payback period=Cost of investment/ Annual net cash flow =$190,000/ $50,000 =3. 8 years Annual depreciation= $190,000 -$10,000 / 9 = $2 0,000 Annual after tax income $30,000 + Depreciation 20,000 Annual net cash flow$50,000 II. Payback period computation; uneven cash flows Wenro Company is considering the purchase of an asset for $90,000. It is expected to produce the following net cash flows.The cash flows occur evenly throughout each year. Compute the payback period for this investment. Part of year= Amount paid back in year 4/ Net cash flows in year 4 = $10,000 / $60,000 = 0. 167 Payback period=3 + 0. 167 = 3. 1367 years = 3yrs 2 mos. III. Accounting Rate of Return A machine costs $500,000 and is expected to yield an after-tax net income of $15,000 each year. Management predicts this machine has a 10-year service life and a $100,000 salvage value, and it uses straight-line depreciation. Compute this machine’s accounting rate of return. Average investment=$500,000 + $100,000 / 2 $300,000 Accounting rate of return=$15,000 / $300,000 = 5% IV. Computing Net Present Value K2B Company is considering the purchase of equipment that would allow the company to add a new product to its line. The equipment is expected to cost $240,000 with a 12-year life and no salvage value. It will be depreciated on a straight-line basis. The company expects to sell 96,000 units of the equipment’s product each year. The expected annual income related to this equipment follows. K2B concludes that the investment must earn at least an 8% return. Compute the net present value of this investment. Round the net present value to the nearest dollar. ) Net cash flows from net income 1. Payback period=$240,000 / $44,500 = 5. 39 years 2. Accounting rate of return=$24,500 / $120,000 = 20. 42% V. Net Present Value Interstate Manufacturing is considering either replacing one of its old machines with a new machine or having the old machine overhauled. Information about the two alternatives follows. Management requires a 10% rate of return on its investments. Alternative 1: Keep the old machine and have it overhauled. If the old machine is overhauled, it will be kept for another five years and then sold for its salvage value. 1.Determine the net present value of alternative 1. Keep the old machine and have it overhauled Alternative 2: Sell the old machine and buy a new one. The new machine is more efficient and will yield substantial operating cost savings with more products being produced and sold. 2. Determine the net present value of alternative 2. Sell the old machine and buy a new one 3. Which alternative do you recommend that management select? Explain. Interstate should keep the old machine and overhaul it. The cost savings and additional revenue generated on the new machine are not enough to overcome the high initial cost of the new machine.

Wednesday, 23 October 2019

Regional Integration Essay

The Pacific Forum region seeks a region of peace, harmony security, and economic prosperity. The diversity of its peoples seek value, honor in their cultures. The Pacific Region’s objectives include obtaining respect for its governance, sustainable management of its resources and its democratic values. The partnerships with their neighbors, to improve communications and secure a sustainable economy for all are the primary objectives for its members. Established in Bangkok, Thailand on August 8, 1967 the Association of Southeast Nations (ASEAN) was founded by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. ASEAN is now comprised of 10 members including Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam (ASEAN, 2013). An important and landmark agreement that ASEAN entered into was the ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement. The region in which the ASEAN- China Free Trade Agreement will reach is about 1. 9 billion people. This agreement will surely test not only the members of ASEAN, but China as well. The region in which the ASEAN- China Free Trade Agreement will reach is about 1. 9 billion people. This agreement will surely test not only the members of ASEAN, but China as well (ASEAN, 2013). Positive Influence of the Asean-China Free Trade Agreement January 10, 2010 marked a ten year negotiation with China, when the ASEAN-China Free Trade Area Agreement became effective. Tariff reductions between China and six ASEAN members Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand, will experience more than a 90 percent of products with a drop to near zero in both parties’ tariffs. The agreement was established with the idea that ASEAN countries’ natural resources and China’s large market would both benefit (Shamsi, 2010). Countries like Cambodia and Laos will benefit from the ASEAN-China agreement with zero tariffs on over 7000 goods from China, which will benefit these under developed countries tremendously. Less developed countries especially those with no stock market system will welcome this agreement and benefit greatly (Shamsi, 2010). The ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement is China’s first free trade agreement and the first negotiated agreement ASEAN has been involved in with another country. The importance of this agreement will be seen when ASEAN nations being to use China’s currency Yuan. This can drive China’s Yuan to become a major global trading currency. This agreement is important in the movement for the regional economic environment (Shamsi, 2010). Negative Impact of the ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement The economic head of ASEAN is Indonesia. The idea of the ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement is not beneficial to ASEAN countries and should be re-considered. Indonesia has pointed out that the economy of China has recently increased and become powerful in global terms. The exemption from custom duties for Chinese goods ill challenges the local business survival with an influx of less expensive Chinese goods (Shamsi, 2010). Bankruptcy is a real possibility for industrial areas in the small and medium sized zones according to the chairman of the Indonesian Young Entrepreneurs Association. The automotive industry in Malaysia is also wary of this agreement in that the impact on local auto industries could be hit hard. The view from many ASEAN members is that the agreement much more benefits China than the ASEAN countries. China in size alone has a large market for domestic consumption and ability to export on a grander scale than that of ASEAN countries (Shamsi, 2010). The overall feelings in most ASEAN countries are that of mixes feelings, but mostly worry concerning the agreement. The population of China with 1. 3 billion people compared to the 600 million combined of ASEAN region is notable differences in terms of markets. The concept that took ten years to come to light, seems that with the changes seen in the economy of China, that the agreement still has the same fruitful benefits initially anticipated (Shamsi, 2010).

Tuesday, 22 October 2019

The Detrimental Effects in Changing the Rent Contr Essays

The Detrimental Effects in Changing the Rent Contr Essays The Detrimental Effects in Changing the Rent Control Act Rent Control-pro The Detrimental Effects in Changing the Rent Control Act In a just society, the ruling authority must decide what is right when allocating wealth to its individual citizens. The same ruling authority does this by intervening with the inner workings of a marketplace to uphold its fundamental values and ideals. The aim of government intervention is to create a just society that will reflect the peoples values. Governing bodies do this by establishing laws that enforce fairness or equity. The Ontario government passed the Rent Control Act in 1975. The law levels the playing field between landlords and tenants. New units are exempt from controls for their first five years after which the controls are put into place. The controls put a ceiling on annual rent increases. Under current law, a landlord may only increase a tenants rent by 2% plus inflation.1 As with all other markets, the housing market is based on supply and demand. If the nature of the market were allowed to take its course, then the price of housing would become unaffordable for most citizens. An unfair situation would be created where power and money would be disproportionately appropriated to land owners. Rent control laws were established by previous governments to protect society and its people from inflated and uncontrollable housing costs. The Harris government now wants to repeal these laws. On June 25 the Minister of Housing, Al Leach, released a policy paper outlining the changes that are to be made to Ontarios rent laws. Conservative legislators plan to pass the proposed Tenant Protection Act in the fall. The omnibus legislation will rescind the Rent Control Act, the Landlord and Tenant Act, the Rental Housing Protection Act, Residents Rights Act, the Land Lease Statute Amendment Act, the Vital Services Act.2 The most objectionable change allows the act to lift controls off vacant units. The 3.2 million renters in Ontario are very concerned about the changes.3 The housing ministry will accept written submissions from the public until August 30. Public hearings are also planned in hope that they will ease the transition. However, most people are indignant towards the idea. Changing the rent control laws would be detrimental to society as they threaten citizens positive right to affordable housing, harm their mobility rights and increase the gap between the rich and the poor. The proposed Tenant Protection Act assaults peoples right to affordable housing. If people are to adhere to a basic standard of living, then the cost of their homes must be affordable. But what exactly is affordable? The Ministry of Housing released a report stating that 70,000 Toronto house holds (20% of the citys population) do not have affordable housing. The report explains that a tenants' housing is unaffordable if they are paying more than a quarter of their gross income in rent. This is an alarming thought since some renters are paying 70-80% of their gross income in rent.4 The problem of high housing costs is combated by rent control to allow people a minimum quality of life. Housing like medical care is not normal good or service. It is a basic need. Renters need to buy more than landlords need to sell. If the renter does not get a place to live, he is on the street. If the landlord has no tenant, he just has an empty apartment. In short, there is a mismatch of power in the rental market. The laws of supply and demand are unfairly applied against the buyer. Thus controls came into being precisely because the market does not work. Lifting controls would hurt peoples ability to bear the cost of housing without serious harm. The government justifies this action by arguing that something must be done about Torontos apartment shortage. Because apartments are offered below their market value, they are sold faster new ones can be created. Toronto has a vacancy rate of .8% with only twenty new apartment units built in Metro last year.5 Currently, two thirds of renters move once in five years. Since controls are lifted off vacant apartments, the government believes that after a few years, most apartments will be decontrolled and the supply problem would

Monday, 21 October 2019

Vegetable love Essays

Vegetable love Essays Vegetable love Essay Vegetable love Essay To His Coy Mistress is written in enjambment; this is when the end of the line is not punctuated but flows into the next examples of this are lines 3, 5, 6,7,21 etc. He uses enjambments because it helps to sub stain the argument because it is continuous. He also uses rhyming couplets for the pace and rhythm, this is done for built momentum- it builds the drive of the argument. He also uses definite rhyming couplets effectively to convey his inner feelings: My vegetable love should grow it Vaster that empires and more slow. This shows his love is expanding slowly and innocently over time for his mistress.He uses irregular sentence lengths to create a slower pace of time. Marvell tries to create more time. The poet uses strong stressed words to make them more powerful e.g.: Deserts of vast eternity. This personifies his feeling we see how emotion can grow naturally into something that is immense and powerful. Marvell also expresses the admiration of time running out when he illustrates Timehurrying near. It increases the feeling of anxiety because time is coming closer. In Marvels poem the sentences are very short in length and disjointed through the use of lots of punctuation. As a consequence, the poem seems very broken up and sharp which makes the reader read the poem at a much faster pace. In some ways this speed makes it more excitable which adds to the more lusty aspect of the poem.The mood is at first reckless and jokey it then moves on to being more reflective, serious and considering death. The poem closes with an attitude which is persuasive, pleading, discriminating and eventually triumphant. The first stanza has a fairly regular rhythm but is duller. The more regular, dynamic rhythm of the closing stanza gives us a sense of the poets energetic state of mind. The last line is arresting in that it contains less syllables than those above it. There is an overall regular rhyme scheme of aabbccdd apart from the half rhymes in the second stanza. The words Eternity and Virginity only half-rhyme. The effect of this is to link together in our mind these two ideas.The following words have an impact; He says And your quaint honour turn to dust, and into ashes all my lust, he is recalling the funeral ceremony ashes to ashes, dust to dust. He does not assault these virtues, he says that whatever they mean to her now, they will mean nothing when she is forgotten. In To His Coy Mistress he uses alliteration; long loves and private place. He also uses assonance; youthful hue.Unlike To His Coy Mistress, The Unequal Fetters differs enormously. To His Coy Mistress is a persuasive poem written to a female lover, whereas The Unequal Fetters is written as a warning to women. This poem gives a womens view of love and marriage. Her views are completely different to the ones of To His Coy Mistress in the way that she believes that the fetters between men and women are unequal. Anne Finch has written her poem in four clear verses rather than 3 stanzas. Although both poems start off in the same attitude of romance.In the first verse Anne Finch uses the image of the possibility of time standing still, she says Could we stop the time thats flying. Or recall it when tis past, this means that if time stood still then it would be worth loving. This is the nearly the same image conveyed in the first stanza in To His Coy Mistress about playing the waiting game and if time went on forever, but both poets know that time is quickly disappearing.Then Finch changes her attitude and goes on to say, But since we must lose those graces, which at first your hearts have won what she is trying to say here is that the person has changed since you won their heart and true love, the attraction that was there in the first place has now disappeared. Even though he has now changed her attitude in the poem it is not as sickening as the attitude in the second stanza of To His Coy Mistress. The third verse makes it clear about her feelings of the inequality and shows her anger towards men by writing, Free as Natures first intention was to make us, Ill be found, Nor by subtle Mans invention Yield to be in fetters bound.This means that when a female is born she is born free but then because of men fooling you into there sincere love and into marriage, women are trapped by men. The final verse of The Unequal Fetters she concludes that Marriage does but slightly tie men Whilst close prisoners we remain. She means that women are chained by marriage while men are free and can stretch At the full length of all their chain. The Unequal Fetters refers to the unequal lengths of chain men and women have.Her poem shows how wrongly men treat women just as in To His Coy Mistress. Anne Finch writes her poem in a frank manner whereas Andrew Marvell writes in a sick, perverted and threatening manner. The writer of To His Coy Mistress seems to be quite a selfish writer on the other hand the writer of The Unequal Fetters writes an honest version of her own true feelings. The Unequal Fetters is written in caesura with every other line rhyming which contrasts to To His Coy Mistress which is written in enjambment.

Sunday, 20 October 2019

Coprolites - Fossil Feces as a Scientific Study

Coprolites - Fossil Feces as a Scientific Study Coprolite (plural coprolites) is the technical term for preserved human (or animal) feces. Preserved fossil feces are a fascinating study in archaeology, in that they provide direct evidence of what an individual animal or human ate. An archaeologist can find dietary remains in storage pits, midden deposits, and within stone or ceramic vessels, but materials found within human fecal matter are clear and unrefutable evidence that a particular food was consumed. Key Takeaways: Coprolites Coprolites are fossilized or preserved human or animal feces, and the focus of scientific research since the 1950s.  Studied contents include plant and animal remains, intestinal parasites and mites, and DNA.  Depending on the context they are found in, coprolites provide information about the diet and health of an individual mammal or a community.  Two other classes of the scientific study of excrement are sewage or cesspit deposits, and intestinal or gut contents.   Coprolites are a ubiquitous feature of human life, but they preserve best in dry caves and rock shelters and are occasionally discovered in sand dunes, dry soils, and swamp margins. They contain evidence of diet and subsistence, but they also can contain information about disease and pathogens, gender, and ancient DNA, evidence in a manner that is not readily available elsewhere. Three Classes In the study of human excrement, there are generally three classes of preserved fecal remains that are found archaeologically: sewage, coprolites, and intestinal contents. Sewage or Cess, including privy pits or latrines, cesspits, sewers, and drains, contain largely mixed assemblages of human feces together with kitchen and other organic and inorganic wastes. When they are found well-preserved, particularly when water-logged, cess deposits provide valuable information on the community or household diet and living conditions.Coprolites are individual fossil or subfossil feces, preserved through charring, mineralization, or found as desiccated samples in caves and extremely arid places. Each sample provides evidence for foods eaten by an individual, and if found in a latrine area can also reveal community-wide diets.Intestinal or Gut Contents refers to preserved human remains found within the intestines of well-preserved human or animal bodies. These are of the most value of the three for a study of an individual, because they are essentially uncontaminated remains which hold information on at most one or two meals, in fact, the last meal that the indiv idual consumed. Gut contents are relatively rare discoveries, found only when whole humans are preserved, in the case of natural or (if not too extensive) cultural mummification, freezing or freeze-drying (for example, Otzi the Tyrolean Iceman), or waterlogging (such as European Iron Age bog bodies). Content A human or animal coprolite can contain a diverse range of biological and mineral materials. Plant remains found in fossil feces include partly digested seeds, fruits, and fruit parts, pollen, starch grains, phytoliths, diatoms, burned organics (charcoal), and small plant fragments. Animal parts include tissue, bones, and hair. Other types of objects found in fecal matter include intestinal parasites or their eggs, insects, or mites. Mites, in particular, identify how the individual stored food; the presence of grit could be evidence of food processing techniques; and burned food and charcoal is evidence of cooking techniques. Studies on Steroids Coprolite studies are sometimes referred to as microhistology, but they include a wide range of topics: paleo diet, paleo-pharmacology (the study of ancient medicines), paleoenvironment and seasonality; biochemistry, molecular analysis, palynology, paleobotany, paleozoology, and ancient DNA. Those studies require that the feces be rehydrated, using a liquid (typically a water solution of tri-sodium phosphate) to reconstitute the feces, unfortunately also including the odors. Then the reconstituted material is examined under detailed light and electron microscope analysis, as well as subjected to radiocarbon dating, DNA analysis, macro- and micro-fossil analyses and other studies of inorganic content. Coprolite studies have also included the investigations of chemical, immunological protein, steroids (which determine sex), and DNA studies, in addition to phytoliths, pollen, parasites, algae, and viruses. Classic Coprolite Studies Hinds Cave, a dry rock shelter in southwest Texas which had been used as a latrine for hunter-gatherers about six thousand years ago contained several deposits of feces, 100 samples of which were collected by archaeologist Glenna Williams-Dean in the late 1970s. The data Dean collected during her Ph.D. research have been studied and analyzed by generations of scholars since that time. Dean herself ran pioneer experimental archaeology studies using students to provide test fecal matter arising from documented dietary input, an unparalleled data set even today. Foodstuffs recognized in the Hinds Cave included agave, opuntia, and allium; seasonality studies indicated that the feces had been deposited between winter-early spring and summer. One of the earliest discovered pieces of credible evidence for pre-Clovis sites in North America was from coprolites discovered at Paisley 5 Mile Point Caves in Oregon state. The recovery of 14 coprolites was reported in 2008, the oldest individually radiocarbon dated to 12,300 RCYBP (14,000 calendar years ago). Unfortunately, all of them were contaminated by the excavators, but several included ancient DNA and other genetic markers for Paleoindian people. Most recently, biomarkers found in the earliest dated specimen suggest it was not human after all, although Sistiaga and colleagues had no explanation for the presence of Paleoindian mtDNA within it. Other credible pre-Clovis sites have been found since that time. History of the Study The most important proponent of research into coprolites was Eric O. Callen (1912–1970), a maverick Scottish botanist interested in plant pathologies. Callen, with a Ph.D. in botany from Edinburgh, worked as a plant pathologist at McGill University and in the early 1950s, one of his colleagues was Thomas Cameron (1894–1980), a member of the parasitology faculty. In 1951, archaeologist Junius Bird (1907–1982) visited McGill. A few years prior to his visit, Bird had discovered coprolites at the site of Huaca Prieta de Chicama in Peru and collected a few fecal samples from the intestines of a mummy found at the site. Bird gave the samples to Cameron and asked him to search for evidence of human parasites. Callen learned of the samples and asked for a few samples of his own to study, to look for traces of fungi that infect and destroy maize. In their article recounting Callans importance to the microhistology, American archaeologists Vaughn Bryant and Glenna Dean point out how remarkable it is that this very first study of ancient human coprolites was conducted by two scholars with no formal training in anthropology. Callans role in the pioneering study included the identification of a suitable rehydration process, still used today: a weak solution of trisodium phosphate used by zoologists in similar studies. His research was necessarily restricted to macroscopic studies of the remains, but the specimens did contain a wide variety of macrofossils that reflected the ancient diet. Callan, who died conducting research at Pikimachay, Peru in 1970, is credited with inventing techniques and promoting the study at a time when microhistology was disparaged as bizarre research. Selected Sources Bryant, Vaughn M., and Glenna W. Dean. Archaeological Coprolite Science: The Legacy of Eric O. Callen (1912–1970). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 237.1 (2006): 51–66. Print.Camacho, Morgana, et al. Recovering Parasites from Mummies and Coprolites: An Epidemiological Approach. Parasites Vectors 11.1 (2018): 248. Print.Chaves, Sà ©rgio Augusto de Miranda, and Karl J. Reinhard. Critical Analysis of Coprolite Evidence of Medicinal Plant Use, Piauà ­, Brazil. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 237.1 (2006): 110–18. Print.Dean, Glenna W. The Science of Coprolite Analysis: The View from Hinds Cave. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 237.1 (2006): 67–79. Print.Reinhard, Karl J., et al. Understanding the Pathoecological Relationship between Ancient Diet and Modern Diabetes through Coprolite Analysis: A Case Example from Antelope Cave, Mojave County, Arizona. Current Anthropology 53.4 (2012): 506–12. Print.W ood, Jamie R., and Janet M. Wilmshurst. A Protocol for Subsampling Late Quaternary Coprolites for Multi-Proxy Analysis. Quaternary Science Reviews 138 (2016): 1–5. Print.

Saturday, 19 October 2019

Activity Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Activity Report - Essay Example Time is an important aspect of any project as it dictates the amount of resource used and the time within which services can be accessed. Optimally, the project will require two months and one week for completion. To achieve this, independent activities of the project will run parallel while dependent activities will run one after the other. Running the programs parallel will ensure that we follow the critical path and the project is complete within the shortest time. However, we anticipate a number of challenges while implementing this project. To begin with, the expect user difficulties in using this software. For instance, the users may face the challenges of working with a new mail system. To ensure that the project is successful, the project team will train all the employees on how to use the system, and the technical staff will handle the specific challenges that arise thereafter. Intensive training will ensure that all employees can safely work with software and that they can learn it as quick as possible (Smith, David, Kelly and Nowacki 45). In addition, we anticipate that a number of errors will arise during the implementation stage. The software team will monitor the process to correct all software errors as soon as they arise. In this light, we believe that the project will roll out in a smooth manner and will have optimal benefits to the organization. On the other hand, it is recommendable that the employees co-work with the implementation team so that they learn any arising issues as soon as possible. In addition, it is recommendable that the management team co-works with the software development team to foresee any challenges for correction before implementing the project. On this ground, we invite the corporate board to grant this project as part of its commitment to development the information technology system in the

Friday, 18 October 2019

Elasticity of Demand and Price Sensitivity Essay

Elasticity of Demand and Price Sensitivity - Essay Example The table, formula or graph do not change when price changes. Demand for a product and the quantity demanded for the same product are two different terms. The former is a relationship and the latter is an amount. (Bromley, 2004). One way of maximisation of revenue is to increase the price of the product. But, in business, elasticity of demand has a major role to play. Increase in prices leads to a decrease in quantity demanded. This concept of sensitivity to price may be effectively put to use by cutting prices and inflating the quantity demanded. The cutting down of prices attracts even the uninterested public to become a part of the market and motivates them to become consumers of the product or service. Hence, the best way of revenue maximisation is price reduction. (Biz/Ed, 2005). Pricing strategies in any type of business is best decided when the owners have a good understanding of the market. They should have first hand information on the relationship between change in price and its consequent impact on the revenue. An analysis on the behaviour of markets will lead to a classification of different market structures. The number of participants in a particular market or industry and the extent to which they participate is the main criteria for classification of markets. (AmosWeb Encyclonimic Web*pedia, 2006). Perfect competition is achieved when there are large number of participants on both sides of the market (buyers and sellers) and no interference by any private or public firm. One of the basic market structures is monopoly which comes from the Greek word "monos" which means one and "polein" which means to sell. In this case, there is only a single seller. This is characterised by a lack of economic competition and lack of substitutes for the good or service provided by the monopolist. (AmosWeb Encyclonimic Webopedia, 2006). Monopolies may be artificially created by government involvement. Or there may be single entry to a resource. Economies of scale or one firm out-competing all other firms constantly are also some reasons for monopolies to exist. Monopolistic competition is the most common market form. Markets for books, clothing, films and service industries in large cities are often monopolies. Selling of bikes is considered as a monopolistic competition. This logic stands because of the presence of a large number of segments in motor bike industry despite the presence of a number of companies producing motor bikes. Each segment is viewed as a different product with each of the segment being lead by one or two major producers. Technology, efficiency and price are the three factors that decide the segment and its type. Hence if we look into the given scenario, we can see that VENOM developed Flexibikes at a much lower cost and were ultimately in a position to rule the new found segment. Bilateral monopoly exists when there is one seller and one buyer in the market. The labor market in such a case is well unionized. Another market structure is the oligopoly which is a market dominated by a small number of sellers called the oligopolist. The term oligopoly is taken from the Greek

Leadership and Persuasion Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Leadership and Persuasion - Term Paper Example The apex of the military efforts is air force strikes. This brings terror to the group and its allies and consequently a suppression of the sect. Have we ever considered the effectiveness of this approach though? Alternatively, is it a strategy to ensure revenge on ISIS for their past terrorist acts? As much as action should be taken, the military action and all the bombing associated should be stopped. ISIS militants usually live around innocent civilians. Bombing causes killing with impunity, which we are fighting actually. This causes ill feelings by the Arab civilians which fuels radicalization of the youths by the sect. Nations therefore ought to seek alternative ways of conflict resolution. The Hezbollah and the Iran oppose ISIS operations. America is also an enemy of the ISIS. However, America has been involved in many military attacks in the Arab countries. This has caused the Arab countries to have ill feelings about America due to military deployment. This has caused constraints in diplomatic relationships making the fight against the ISIS difficult. Countries, especially America that have been intensively involved in the war against the ISIS, need to restructure their relationship with the Arabs. This will provide a safe haven in the Arab countries. This will strengthen war against the ISIS. Intervention without biasness to either party of the conflicting Arab countries will also be beneficial. Arab countries are widely arid with high rates of unemployment. This favors recruitment into the radical ISIS group. Moreover, the continued economic decline due to warfare increases chances of the youth radicalization. The governments involved and the intervening governments need to create more jobs for the youth to counter idleness that make them prone to radicalization. The youth need informing that the ISIS is not a channel that fights for their interests. Critical thinking involves the evaluation of facts from a

Thursday, 17 October 2019

Whole life paper. Electricl engineer Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Whole life paper. Electricl engineer - Essay Example Having been good in mathematics and physics at A levels greatly generated my interest in electrical engineering and I made my final decision in becoming an electrical engineer in future. I used to spend most of time in the laboratory trying to connect circuits and learning more about electronics. As I was in high school we came across this challenging situation with my fellow students. While doing our practical assignment in one our physics laboratory class it happened that the systems stopped working despite the fact that the electric bulbs were still on. No one could figure out what was happening and our assignment was almost due in time and neither the teacher nor the technician could be reached. With my interest and passion in electricity I decided to handle the assess the situation with an intention of resolving the problem. I noted that the fuse had blown off and managed to replace it with a spare. Since then I realized that I had the capacity to handle electronics and also rea lized my positive attitude toward the subject. Working with electrons has been wonderful in my education as have always wondered how electronic engineers have changed these positron antiparticles to transform diverse fields such as robotics, acoustics and medicine, as stated by Cheng (67). These phenomenal developments by the electrical engineers have helped me understand my passion in engineering as well as increased my ambition to join them in changing lives. In addition, the values I learnt from m father who was also an electrical engineer have helped me greatly. For instance, through his dedication to the job, enjoyment and positive attitude towards it helped grow my passion in this career. My undoubted experience during high school, university and during internships has helped understand better my passion for engineering. Nevertheless, my unquestionable courage to handle challenges while at school has increased my understanding of the passion I have in this career. Being hardwo rking and daring in facing challenges is part of my strengths which have influenced my understanding of the passion I have in the field. Being an optimistic, hardworking and goal driven individual clearly sets out my experience, values and strengths in engineering different from that of others. For instance, I used to company my dad to his working cites since I was young and from him I learnt a lot about this field. Similarly, having been the best student in physics in high school my tutors sometimes would give me a contract to work for them and this increased my experience. My teamwork values as well as my innovative skills also set me different from other people in this field. For instance, during my education I liked working with groups because I knew my skills and knowledge would help others in my filed. Similarly, my strengths in facing challenges without fear also makes me different from others given the fact that electricity is very dangerous when improperly handled (Moaveni and Sharma, 121) Impact Some of my goals include the following: To reduce environmental pollution by 30 percent in the next five years to come: I will ensure this by coming up with a model that reduces the amount of heat released to the atmosphere by the use of electricity. To raise the living standards of the communities living in the rural areas. I hope to achieve this by designing equipment that are portable, more energy efficient and use solar. To contribute in the improvement of healthcare. I hope to achieve this by innovatively designing better electronic machines which can detect people’s heath problems in the shortest time possible. Emerging Global,

PepsiCo Inc. Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

PepsiCo Inc. Case Study - Essay Example Pepsi is popular as many people identify with it. Customer’s lifestyles change regularly, and the company should understand consumer characteristics to facilitate construction of integrative communication message(Fill, 2009). All beverage companies struggle to convince the same consumers to purchase their products. For instance, the Coke studio currently running has little to do with drinks but popularizing Coke brand. Again, associating with critical events, such as world cup, increased the brand value of Coke. Pepsi should come up with new ways of appraising its brand and popularize its products. In short, marketing communication tools and design are essential for brand appraisal. Pepsi faces Coca-Cola as its main rival in the beverage market since they both enjoy global presence. However, Coca-Cola is always ahead in sales and market share. Some of the critical challenges that Pepsi faces include stiff competition both locally and internationally, relatively low market penetration, and weak brand. Therefore, the company marketing strategies should aim at solving the above shortcomings to allow it gain new markets. Possible marketing strategies are identifying market differentiation points, applying effective marketing communication initiatives, and increasing its promotional activities. With sizable investment portfolio and relatively strong brand, Pepsi can shake beverage market remarkably. Above all, agility and diversity in marketing aspects are the best way to retain existing customers and gain others.

Wednesday, 16 October 2019

Whole life paper. Electricl engineer Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Whole life paper. Electricl engineer - Essay Example Having been good in mathematics and physics at A levels greatly generated my interest in electrical engineering and I made my final decision in becoming an electrical engineer in future. I used to spend most of time in the laboratory trying to connect circuits and learning more about electronics. As I was in high school we came across this challenging situation with my fellow students. While doing our practical assignment in one our physics laboratory class it happened that the systems stopped working despite the fact that the electric bulbs were still on. No one could figure out what was happening and our assignment was almost due in time and neither the teacher nor the technician could be reached. With my interest and passion in electricity I decided to handle the assess the situation with an intention of resolving the problem. I noted that the fuse had blown off and managed to replace it with a spare. Since then I realized that I had the capacity to handle electronics and also rea lized my positive attitude toward the subject. Working with electrons has been wonderful in my education as have always wondered how electronic engineers have changed these positron antiparticles to transform diverse fields such as robotics, acoustics and medicine, as stated by Cheng (67). These phenomenal developments by the electrical engineers have helped me understand my passion in engineering as well as increased my ambition to join them in changing lives. In addition, the values I learnt from m father who was also an electrical engineer have helped me greatly. For instance, through his dedication to the job, enjoyment and positive attitude towards it helped grow my passion in this career. My undoubted experience during high school, university and during internships has helped understand better my passion for engineering. Nevertheless, my unquestionable courage to handle challenges while at school has increased my understanding of the passion I have in this career. Being hardwo rking and daring in facing challenges is part of my strengths which have influenced my understanding of the passion I have in the field. Being an optimistic, hardworking and goal driven individual clearly sets out my experience, values and strengths in engineering different from that of others. For instance, I used to company my dad to his working cites since I was young and from him I learnt a lot about this field. Similarly, having been the best student in physics in high school my tutors sometimes would give me a contract to work for them and this increased my experience. My teamwork values as well as my innovative skills also set me different from other people in this field. For instance, during my education I liked working with groups because I knew my skills and knowledge would help others in my filed. Similarly, my strengths in facing challenges without fear also makes me different from others given the fact that electricity is very dangerous when improperly handled (Moaveni and Sharma, 121) Impact Some of my goals include the following: To reduce environmental pollution by 30 percent in the next five years to come: I will ensure this by coming up with a model that reduces the amount of heat released to the atmosphere by the use of electricity. To raise the living standards of the communities living in the rural areas. I hope to achieve this by designing equipment that are portable, more energy efficient and use solar. To contribute in the improvement of healthcare. I hope to achieve this by innovatively designing better electronic machines which can detect people’s heath problems in the shortest time possible. Emerging Global,

Tuesday, 15 October 2019

The Problems in Human Patterns of Consumption Essay

The Problems in Human Patterns of Consumption - Essay Example All the sub-topics will support the main subject matter, which are the human patterns and quantities of consumption. By the end of the research paper, all points taken will be analyzed into a conclusive synthesis. As for now, this will be a comprehensive summary and exposition of the research at hand. This will explain the rationale behind the choice of the research topic and the relevance it has in the real world. The topic focuses on the issues that human patterns of consumption have affected negatively the status of the natural environment. There are serious and grave problems that produce unrestrained human patterns of consumption. Environmental research has indicated that human consumption of natural resources is outpacing the capacity which the Earth can produce. It does not help that while this fact is being overlooked by most of the world’s population, it seems that human needs and wants are taken as more important than environmental concerns. Historically, the problems in human patterns of consumption were more apparent during the age of human modernization and industrialization. As human technological development started to improve, so did the rate of consumption by human beings on the environment. As human populations started to grow by the thousands and millions per day, the increasing demand for human wants and needs are multiplied exponentially. This is manifested through different negative effects on the natural environment. As human populations grew, so did the necessity to expand for shelter become more apparent. Towns would expand to become cities, and cities would become a sprawling metropolis. The materials needed to pursue this task would require so many natural resources to get this done. Many trees would require being lumbered or cut down to construct buildings, houses and fixtures for shelter and commercial use. At the same time, many natural wilderness areas would have to be cleared out to provide  land for human shelter and consumption.

Monday, 14 October 2019

Communication And Newspaper Essay Example for Free

Communication And Newspaper Essay Racism and sexism were a major part of the 1950s and 1960s, with very few newspapers or magazines being able to maintain neutrality in their printed word against such hate. The Watts riots of Los Angeles in the movie, Heat Wave, involved attacks of a bigoted police force against black individuals who had very little education, were living in poverty, with most of the people having no jobswith unemployment being higher here than anywhere else. Many of these individuals felt they were being prejudiced against, with only five of the actual 205 police officers involved in the riots being African-American. In the movie, the Los Angeles Times reporter was played by Robert Richardson, as white reporters were not allowed in the area, which was a reverse discrimination of the riot itself. The whole picture was about racism, poverty, desperation, and feelings of anxiety and striking out against the world with feelings of   â€Å"enough is enough.† It also is about how someone in the lead role of a intolerant and racist police chief can influence whole neighborhoods of the African Americans, leading them to feelings of hopelessness and despair, eventually leading to the Watts riot which led to even more riots across the country as people began rebelling against their treatment. The movie Crash was also portrayed in Los Angeles, and also involves racism and prejudice. If possible, in a more dramatic way it regards how people interact with each other and how they develop a first impression based on race or statement, forming feelings of prejudice. It seems as if the movie is totally about relationships and different races of people, telling how we get all messed up inside and form wrong impressions about things that maybe later on we would never consider. The role of Officer Hanson in Crash psychologically seems to continue from the raging police in Heat Wave, yet here it shows that behind the scene of their abusive personality, it shows another side of racism in a different form of view, even though it brings up more violence and maybe other things causing it. It is a step-up in the picture of how discrimination, racism, and sexism develop in societies and within individuals. It is not always a black and white scene, but has many variables involved in it. In Crash, the viewpoint changed from the reporter’s view on how something can happen like a riot of minorities, or a car hi-jacking, as portrayed to the public or world to see how something can develop from the viewpoint of the stereotyped races—eventually even seeing things from the viewpoint of the police and why they feel the way they do. The third way of thinking refers to the scene in the movie Come See The Paradise, almost as if completing the circle of prejudice and racism. The writer of Crash felt that intolerance was a collective problem that needed to be explored along with shared humanity, almost as a â€Å"gang effect.† In the movie Come See The Paradise, Jack McGurn is a union organizer in New York City that is parallel to the police in the other two movies in regard to status and position, but finds himself on the wrong side of the law, also similar to the car hi-jackers or the rioters in the previous two movies. Fleeing to Los Angeles, he becomes involved in the Asia-American world, which involves racist and sexist as the blacks or Japanese, but he is the one who is prejudiced against when he tries to marry Lily, an Asian-American woman, by her father. The state of California also is prejudiced by their relationship by refusing to marry them, which forces them to flee to Seattle where they can wed. Prior to the prejudice and rioting of the 50s and 60s, Civilian Exclusion Order No. 92† became the forced removal of all Japanese and Japanese-Americans from their homes into detention camps, with very few actually knowing where they were going or why. After WWII was over, and the Japanese Internment was actually admitting to as a wrong–doing by the United States, the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 was passed to make sure that the Japanese Americans were repaid for being locked up like criminals, during a time when prejudice and fear took away the rights of our citizens because they were of another nationality involved in a wrong-doing. This was a time when citizens of the United States lost their rights because of who their race was against the power of the United States. They literally had to stand in-line to toilet, to eat, were told when to go to bed, etc.—meanwhile losing their homes, jobs and many family members. Needless to say, their dignity and pride were torn away because they were Japanese, not because of what they did wrong. Similar to the African-American racist riots in the 1960s, with many of the blacks forced into jail and torn away from their homes because they were black, the Japanese were treated just as bad. The African-Americans targeted were jobless, homeless, and drifting throughout life—which were automatic red flags for white police to pick them up. During the Japanese Internment, just being Japanese was an automatic red flag to be put in detention camps during WWII. With about 120,000 of these Japanese-Americans being forced into the camps, it was held in little regard that 2/3 of them were actually American citizens, and had rights under our Constitution, even though they were a minority group. They simply were unlucky enough to be Japanese during a time when the bombing of Pearl Harbor occurred, and they became the focus of the United State’s hate and prejudice. Living in the camps for three years under armed guards, this became a shameful period for our country when we had the audacity to treat our own people this way when they had done nothing wrong other than become a victimized race.   At one time, the Constitution of the United States actually protected the rights of our citizens, but the perfect union was not perfect during this WWII period or even later on, as the minority groups became a separate entity during the WWII as opposed to being a citizen of respect, as did the African-Americans during a later period, and is to this day. In my opinion, the similarity of the Japanese Internment period and the rioting of the 50s and 60s have changed very little, with one group locked up in detention camps and the other in prison. Both groups are imprisoned more due to race and color, by ignorant and bigoted individuals of authority who choose to separate themselves from their victims as beings of superiority. Very few looked at their victims and ask, â€Å"what kind of life did they lead before this moment, and what led to this?† and â€Å"do they consider themselves as criminals and doing wrong, because they were born Japanese or Black?†Ã‚   And did any of the answers justify the actions of their jailers? Race and racism is part of the United States and has very little to do with ethics or morality of the human race. Do we have room for a neighbor of another nationality? No—at the present time due to 9/11 the same thing is happening. How many people who are of the same race as the terrorist groups, are being punished by the United States and its citizen, being questioned in detention camps year after year, and with torturous techniques labeled as acceptable by our President? How different is this from the Japanese Internment period, or the locking up and beating of the African-American people simply because they were overly populated, living in extreme poverty, or uneducated? It is not†¦and we repeat history again and again, never learning compassion or empathy, which is why we are so popular with third world countries that are uneducated, poverty stricken, and over-populated—and who we are 100% prejudiced against.    Bibilography There needs to be the information here of the newspaper coverage, â€Å"the Readings,, of the Japanese-American Intemment during WW2 and the civil Rights movement of the late 1950`s,† which I do not have.

Sunday, 13 October 2019

Identification of Bacillus Coagulans from Agricultural Soil

Identification of Bacillus Coagulans from Agricultural Soil Introduction Soil is a common substance that is found almost everywhere in the world and is home to a diverse community of microorganisms, especially for bacteria. Bacteria are so common in soil that surface soil can be home to 108 to 109 bacterial cells per gram of dry soil (Prescott et al., 1999). This quantity of bacterium in soil, however, decreases deeper into the subsurface of the soil. There are small variations in bacterial quantity in subsurface layers, but the surface layer is always the most numerous in quantity (Weaver et al., 1994). This is because these bacteria prefer the smaller soil pores (2 to 6 ÃŽ ¼m in diameter) that are more commonly found in surface soil. This is likely a method to avoid being eaten by protozoa (Prescott et al., 1999). As small soil pores are common habitats for bacterium, and soils contain higher concentrations of CO2 and CO, with lower concentrations of O2, many of these bacteria have developed the ability to grow in microaerobic or anaerobic conditions (P rescott et al., 1999). Although bacterial quantity is plentiful in the surface layers, it is common to find relatively few bacteria of the same species. Rather, there is much variation in the species of bacterium cohabitating in these soil layers (Weaver et al., 1994). As a diversity of bacteria brings a diversity of metabolic pathways and nutrient fixation, this proves beneficial for plants and insects that live in the soil and rely upon the nutrients produced by these bacteria (Weaver et al., 1994). Through isolation, culturing, and testing of agricultural soil bacterium, this lab attempted to isolate and identify a single species of bacterium from agricultural soil. Methods A 10-2 dilution in distilled water was created using 1 g of agricultural soil. From this dilution, a TSA streak plate was made and incubated at 22Â °C for 48 hours and then chilled at 4Â °C until further analysis could be preformed (Egger 2010). From this streak plate, a single culture was chosen to be sub-cultured on a TSA streak plate and was incubated as above. This culture was also gram stained and observed under microscope. The bacterial cell dimensions were calculated and cell shape and arrangement were recorded. The bacterial subculture was then observed for colony morphology. Individual cells were then tested for starch hydrolysis, H2S reduction and motility, ammonification, nitrification, denitrification, oxygen tolerance, and for catalase production (Egger 2010). Further testing was then performed to determine optimal growth temperature, osmotic pressure, and pH. Temperature testing was done at 4, 22, 37, and 50Â °C; osmotic pressure testing done at 0, 0.5, 2, and 5% NaCl; and pH testing was done at pH 3, 5, 7, and 9 (Egger 2010). Data from tests were pooled and used to determine the possible identity of the unknown culture. Results The streak plate of dilute agricultural soil revealed a large quantity of different bacterial colonies varying in colour, shape, size, texture, and elevation. After isolation of a single bacterial culture, there was little to no variation in these characteristics. This single bacterial culture revealed a circular form with a flat elevation and a rough texture. The colour was observed to be clear to white in colour and translucent in appearance. Further observation under microscope revealed staphylobacillus approximately 40 ÃŽ ¼m in length. Gram staining and testing for starch hydrolysis, and nitrification all turned out positive, while testing for H2S reduction, motility, ammonification, and denitrification all proved negative, which is further outlined in Table 1. This bacterium was then determined to be a facultative anaerobe with an optimal temperature of 37Â °C, optimal pH of 7, and optimal osmotic pressure of 0.5% NaCl. It was also observed that there was little growth at 5% NaCl and reasonable growth at pH 5. Discussion As the bacterium isolated in this experiment was rod shaped, gram positive, and catalase producing, it is likely that this specific bacterium belongs to the genus Bacillus (Butler 1986). Determination of the specific species of Bacillus proved more difficult. As this bacterium was able to hydrolyse starch, was a facultative anaerobe, had an optimal growth temperature around 37Â °C, and an optimal pH around 7, the possibilities were narrowed to either Bacillus coagulans or Bacillus licheniformis (Butler 1986). Although B. licheniformis is common to most ground soils, there proved to be a few common factors that supported the greater plausibility of this specific bacterium to be B. coagulans. The isolated bacterium was unable to reduce nitrate to nitrite and was unable to grow significantly in a NaCl medium of 5%. As B. licheniformis is capable of reduction of nitrate to nitrite and growth in 5% NaCl medium, it is unlikely that this unknown bacterium was B. licheniformis (Butler 1986). It was also noted that the unknown bacterium was capable of growth at pH 5, which is a characteristic of B. coagulans (Butler 1986). Specifically, B. coagulans has been recorded as having an optimal pH of 6 and a minimum of 4.0-5.0 depending on specific stra ins (Butler 1986). In order to further verify that the unknown bacterium was B. coagulans, it would have been beneficial to test the bacteriums ability to hydrolyse casein and gelatine as B. coagulans cannot hydrolyse casein and gelatine while B. licheniformis can. It would also have been beneficial to further investigate growth in 7% and 10% NaCl to further verify the identity of B. coagulans if growth did not occur. Unfortunately, not all tests that were performed were useful in the identification of the specific species of the unknown bacterium. The tests were useful, however, in determining genus. As the genus Bacillus was reasonably simple to identify based on the rod shaped bacterium and catalase production, some of the tests, such as the test for H2S reduction were not as useful as others, such as the test for catalase production. If the unknown bacterium did prove to be B. coagulans, this would be an uncommon isolation as B. coagulans is not common in soil (Butler 1986). For this reason, there is little information recorded on B. coagulans ecological role in soil. It would be advised that further investigation into the ecological role of B. coagulans should be performed as, although uncommon, B. coagulans is still a soil bacterium and must therefore play an ecological role in soil. It may also be beneficial to further investigate B. coagulans as it is a common additive in medicated creams and antacids (Butler 1986). This is because of the possible pro-biotic benefits of B. coagulans in the gastrointestinal tract, although these benefit claims have been questioned as to their validity in recent years (De Vecchi and Drago 2006). There has also been a recent study that suggests that application of B. coagulans to arthritic joints may cause a decrease in pain and a reduction in disability of these joints. Althoug h, these are preliminary studies, and the function of this pain relief is unknown, there is significant reason to peruse B. coagulans as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (Mandel et al. 2010). Although the unknown bacterium is likely B. coagulans there were possible sources of error. A major source of error could have come from the gram staining process. There was a possibility that the stain was not rinsed with ethanol for long enough, which would have caused retention of the dye in the cell wall of the unknown bacterium. This would have lead to a false positive for gram staining. If this was true and the unknown bacterium was gram negative, this would indicate a possibly different genus and definitely different species. Although errors could have lead to misidentification of the unknown bacterium, based on the data collected, it is most likely that the unknown bacterium isolated was B. coagulans. There was no reason to believe that the isolated colony was contaminated with different species of bacteria, and testing lead to a conclusive identification of the unknown bacterium. From this it is reasonable to say that the objectives of this experiment were met.

Saturday, 12 October 2019

The Population Growth Rate In India Essays -- essays research papers

The Population Growth Rate in India For many years concern has been voiced over the seemingly unchecked rate of population growth in India, but the most recent indications are that some success is being achieved in slowing the rate of population growth. The progress which has been achieved to date is still only of a modest nature and should not serve as premature cause for complacency. Moreover, a slowing of the rate of population growth is not incompatible with a dangerous population increase in a country like India which has so huge a population base to begin with. Nevertheless, the most recent signs do offer some occasion for adopting a certain degree of cautious optimism in regard to the problem. One important factor which is responsible for viewing the future with more optimism than may previously have been the case has been the increase in the size of the middle class, a tendency which has been promoted by the current tendency to ease restrictions on entrepreneurship and private investment. It is a well-known fact that as persons become more prosperous and better educated they begin to undertake measures designed to eliminate the size of their families. (The obvious exception would be families like the Kennedys who adhere to religious strictures against artificial birth control, but the major Indian religions have traditionally lacked such strictures.) Ironically, the state of Kerala which had long had a Communist-led government had for many years represented a population planning model because of its implementation of programs fostering education and the emancipation of women. The success of such programs has indicated that even the poorer classes can be induced to think in terms of population control and family planning through education, but increased affluence correspondingly increases the pressure for the limitation of family size, for parents who enjoy good life want to pass it on to their children under circumstances where there will be enough to go around. In contrast, under conditions of severe impoverishment there is not only likely to be lack of knowledge of family planning or access to modes of birth control, but children themselves are likely to be viewed as an asset. Or, perhaps one might more accurately say with regard to India, sons are viewed as an asset. We will have more ... ...spread acceptance considerably more progress needs to be made in raising the standard of living of the Indian masses for "although the wealthier, better-educated urban families do curtail their fertility, the poor have not had the means or motivation to do so." "Most important, perhaps," writes John Cool, is the fact that thousands of years of Indian experience have shaped cultural values and social institutions, which encourage the survival of the family and the community through high fertility. Modernization is slowly changing this situation, but to insure success considerably more progress needs to be made. Bibliography Chandrasekhar, S. Abortion in a Crowded World: The problem of abortion with special reference to India (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1974). Franda, Marcus F. (ed.). Response to Population Growth in India: Changes in Social, Political, and Economic Behavior (New Yew: Praeger, 1975) Bahnisikha. The Indian Population Problem: A Household economics Approach (New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1990) Mandelbaum, David G. Human Fertility in India: Social Components and Policy Perspectives (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974).

Friday, 11 October 2019

Pledge of Allegiance in School Essay

Pledge of Allegiance in School My choice of writing for the Rogerian essay is on the topic of the Pledge of Allegiance in School. â€Å"In a decision that stunned the nation, a federal appeals court in June ruled that reciting the Pledge of Allegiance in public schools is unconstitutional because the pledge contains the words â€Å"under God† â€Å" (Chmielewski). The banning of the Pledge of Allegiance is a very large controversial topic because one side believes that while the foundation of our country is religion, the other side believes that the reciting of the Pledge of Allegiance is an infringement on our First Amendment right. The Pledge of Allegiance began in 1892. It was a way of showing a sense of celebration for being an American. Since 1892 the â€Å"Pledge† has been changed four times, and in 1954 the words â€Å"under God† were added (Chmielewski). A cause of the Pledge of Allegiance being banned from school is mostly because of these two words â€Å"under God†. An Atheist by the name, Newdow, filed the claim against the pledge because he did not want his second grade daughter pressured into saying something that he does not believe (Chmielewski). I believe that this topic has quite a bit of historic meaning because it basis is on our historical beginning. I think that because the times of our country and have changed so much, in that, religion is not just based on Christianity for our country anymore, it does way on peoples mind. I would like to show in this essay that the Pledge of Allegiance is an important part, not just in our schools, but in our nation. My research on this is going to be a bit strenuous. There are so many articles about court proceedings and individual states that it might be difficult to find a common ground. Most of what I have read has just been the individual states versus the Supreme Court or, as in the case above, the Nine District Court. I have read articles from Massachusetts, California, Washington, and Nevada, to name a few. Most of the articles also are very one sided. Meaning that the author shows what the problem in question is and then turns the article to what they believe.

Thursday, 10 October 2019

American Nightmare Essay

Let’s face it, the economy is in a horrible condition and it can be seen all across the nation. Education, employment, and balancing life is an everyday struggle for most Americans during these hard time. Citizens are stuck in their social class and can not move up, instead they might even fall below their current standard of living. Immigrants are still migrating to this once marvelous country, but their chances of success are quite slim. Job availability is steadily decreasing, and people are not making enough income to live a decent life. The truth is, the American dream is dead. The dream everyone of this nation hoped to achieved has ultimately become a nightmare. The main reasons why the dream is dead is because of; the deteriorating economy, no governmental support, and lack of individualism. A dollar today is no longer what it used to be in the early years of America. Everyone needs money, there is no doubt about that. A person without money is a typically seen as worthless and can not afford to live a decent life. The problem is, all the necessities we need in life are becoming expensive. It has become very difficult for many to citizens to earn enough to live their life. On a personal basis, my family was forced to put our house on foreclosure. The cost of maintaining a house has become quite expensive. Thousands of people are losing their homes and forced to move into less costly homes. This is seen on the internet, T. V, and even in our neighborhoods. Another example of the economy breaking down is our nation’s gas prices. Gas prices are steadily rising, and it has become difficult for many Americans to receive that full tank of gas. So it begs the question, where does society get the money to pay these things off? In other words, a majority of the nation can not pay off their dues. There are less jobs available to the public which equals less money around. Most citizens are forced to live their lives on a depressing minimal wage budget. America should not be in a situation in this, the government should help stabilize the economy. The government; which is composed of officials, law makers, and congress who created this once prosperous nation. However, where are they now? The government seems to be worried about their own campaigns are affairs outside of the US. They do not seem to have any interest in fixing this nation’s problems and help citizens achieve their dreams and goals. Most especially in broken down ghetto neighborhoods , where governmental help is needed the most. The nation must be equally supported in all cities, to result in a stable government system. An excerpt from â€Å"When Work Disappears† by William Julius Wilson describes the changed environment of a once great and prosperous city. When I walked down 63rd street when I was younger, everything you wanted was there. But know, coming back as an adult with my child, those resources are just gone, completely†¦ And housing, everybody has moved, there are vacant lots everywhere† (199). If the government took time to reconstruct the foundations of cities like these, the motivation to follow the dream would live on. The government needs to focus on current affairs and problems in the nation, then focus on other tribulations in different countries. Environments like the one describe, demoralizes the citizens making them ultimately give up hope. However, within these depressing times the American dream applies to one person, yourself. The American dream is created by what a person’s belief, goals, and dreams are. But, can a person achieve their dream if they have no sense of freedom or individualism in this nation? There are numerous restrictions on the common man, for us to truly express or goals and aspirations. The people of this nation can not pursue anything, if they are â€Å"chained† down by society. This statement is clearly evident is a quote in an article by an anonymous writer, Corpus Chrsti Caller Times. The first part of the American Dream is a country where any of us is free to think, believe, say and do anything we want (within some limits) without worrying about being arrested and jailed by government agents†(Corpus). The government needs to be more lenient if a person’s free speech and ideals. If the government always stops us from reaching our goals, we will never be able to. There must be a sense of balance between the control and freedom on each individual in this nation. The American dream once thought to be attainable during the early years of American’s foundation, is no longer or very difficult to attain in these day and age. These problems are Due to the fact of the poor economy, unsupported government, and lack of individuality. All these problems, and much more within the system of the United States destroy the very ideals of the American Dream. The reality of attaining the so called â€Å"American Dream† has become difficult. To most Americans the will to live life anymore has turned into a nightmare. The constant struggles and tribulations thousands of Americans face in this current era. America can relive the dream, only if the heart of American changes.

Hardware used in my created system Essay

The hardware my system will use is a keyboard and mouse for input and it will use a monitor and a printer for output. The actual computer tower itself is obviously required hardware, and includes a hard drive, RAM for process storage, the CPU to run all the processes in the computer and there are other things too. The wage slip is my output product (as well as the leaflet), as it is what I want to get out of my system. The input is the data in the spreadsheet, and the spreadsheet is obviously the store of this data. The process itself is getting the input to the output, and the way we do that is by using mail merge. Mail merge automatically moves the data from where we input it into our wage slip which will be printed, which is our output. Each part of my system needs hardware. The input which is the data requires a keyboard. Storage requires a hard drive, obviously. The process requires a CPU and RAM to function and the output (wage slip) requires a printer & monitor. My system can be described as a number of subsystems. The wage slip is a system in itself, having the spreadsheet as input data and storage, the actual mail merge being the process then the wage slip being your output. But deeper down, the spreadsheet alone is a system, with data entered in as input, the cells storing the data. Then the processes are the formulas manipulating the data, finally giving us wage figures as our outputs from the spreadsheet sub-system. The problem with the hardware I am using is that with a keyboard and mouse, lots of errors can be made, even with validation rules. Someone may type a 7 in hours instead of 8 and then that employee would get underpaid. A better system would be to use a card scanner, fingerprint scanner or barcode scanner with recognition of each employee’s card/fingerprint. A person could scan in when they enter the work place and then rescan back out and then the data of how many hours they had worked could automatically enter into the spreadsheet, therefore making error almost impossible. The problem with this is that there is a larger initial cost for the technology needed over a mouse and keyboard input. There are also completely different systems like using pen and paper†¦ The upside of this is that it’s extremely cheap as no expensive hardware or software is needed. There are many downsides to this system though. First of all, it is very slow, as each wage slip must be written out individually and all calculations have to be done by hand and then written down. Furthermore, lots of errors can be made using pen and paper because the calculations aren’t as consistent as using some kind of computer. Hand writing may be misread on the calculations and then it could make catastrophic mistakes when copying out the calculation results onto the wage slip. Writing each wage slip out would take so much time that it probably wouldn’t even be feasible in this day and age. Automated wage slips overcome this problem Commercial systems are normally very accurate but they’re made for very large scale operations, and so cost a lot of money. Also, our system uses very basic hardware that any computer will have, and can be adapted to the user’s needs.

Wednesday, 9 October 2019

Critical Pedagogy Applications in Observed Classroom Management Essay

Critical Pedagogy Applications in Observed Classroom Management - Essay Example Critical Pedagogy Applications in Observed Classroom Management One is interested in the topic since during the course of observing an Advanced English Grammar (ALI 345) class, one came into reckoning with the fact that the instructional style and approach, factors which are within the control of educators, could significantly impact on the behavior and actual academic performance of students within the traditional classroom setting. After the background literature, the discussion would proceed with outlining the course context, the student profile, and the overall observed classroom management approach. A discussion of lessons learned, as well as reflections as mentee would form a major part of the paper. The article written by Kumaravadivelu (1994) was instrumental in supporting the current topic as the author delved into strategies which could actually improve classroom management. As specifically noted, strategic framework for L2 teaching utilize macrostrategies which were differentiated to microstrategies, to wit: â€Å"macrostrategies are general plans de- rived from theoretical, empirical, and pedagogical knowledge related to L2 learning/teaching.A macrostrategy is a broad guideline, based on which teachers can generate their own situation-specific, need-based microstrategies or classroom techniques† (Kumaravadivelu, 1994, p. 32). In so doing, the information synthesized from the article could be used to evaluate the strategies used and observed in the specific classroom setting. Another article, written by Clayton (2010), the author’s design of a critical pedagogy, defined as â€Å"a set of instructional practices that focuses on the structures present in real, situated learning spaces (McLaren, 1986) in order to create egalitarian, participatory, and empowered participants, allowing them to receive language and content learning while interacting as equal partners with others† (381) was acknowledged to be useful in enhancing classroom management in the observed setting. Clayton (2010) emphasized the need to acculturate students from diverse cultural backgrounds to the culture they intend to practice the second language being learned. The method was instrumental in improving participation of culturally diverse students within the ESL learning environment. (Clayton, 2010). The critical pedagogy method was likewise acknowledged by Johnson (1999) who likewise recognized the value of this approach in empowering students through the ESL learning process by designing effective classroom management techniques. It is interesting to note that Johnson’s assertion that â€Å"although students can be more or less empowered-for example, they can be given more responsibility for their own learning, they can take part in the design of their own courses, and they can be given more meaningful and less competitive assignments-teachers still retain authority in the classroom (Oyler, 1996; cited in Johnson, 1999, p. 560). Through the classroom management techniques that were applied in the observed Advanced English Grammar (ALI 345) class, one recognized that the role, style, and application of critical pedagogy

Tuesday, 8 October 2019

Rise of big business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Rise of big business - Essay Example Presence of abundant iron ore provided found use as railroad ties, bridges and buildings, while coal replaced wood as fuel to drive steam engines, replacing wood. Moreover, factories that had been built by the Union were not shutdown after the war ended, but were converted for peacetime purposes. The agricultural industry represented a significant portion of the American economy, which saw the increased output in production of key crops such as wheat and corn. Therefore, this prompted an increase in demand for labor to fill various positions mills, mines and factories, which were serviced by the huge waves of immigrants at the time (Tindall and Shi, 838-840). Distinctive Features of Businesses Before the industrial revolution, goods were manufactured using traditional ways by mean of cottage industries. Moreover, these goods were produced in small-scale quantities, as the rate of production was slow and inefficient. This all changed with the introduction of manufacturing factories, w hich enhanced efficiency, increased production and boosted the economy. Despite the heavy profits gains, the workers did not enjoy much of it, as their wages were low, in addition, they were also required to work long hours and in unhealthy and dangerous working conditions. The businesses received complaints concerning the lack of having good working environment, since in the factory system, large numbers of workers were brought together in a bid to increase productivity through specialization. However, materials and semi-finished goods were often carried from one place to another for further processing or packing. Businesses benefited from new inventions, which boosted production at a cheaper rate, thus raising the profit margins. Railroads provided an exceptional opportunity to expand the market generating more profits with the growing demand of goods and services. Thus, the growing network of transport led to the establishment of towns, which would serve as new stations for busin esses and industries. Therefore, the growing industries created job opportunities for people, which improved their economic status. In addition, business organizations were formed through the formation of trusts, which specialized in the provision of different goods and services to the society. For instance, some family businesses specialized in banking services while others in the mining industry. This specialization ensured efficiency in production of goods and services, consequently, the leading businesses commanded a larger market share, which enhanced monopoly in the industry. However, this created economic powers among few families. During this period, the American political organization lacked vitality and productivity, as it was marred with corruption and moral decadency. Moreover, politicians, who would appoint their friends and supporters to government jobs, owned large businesses. This assured the politicians of a loyal group of supporters in future elections. This is in conflict with the Laissez-faire theory that the government should have a limited role business. Vertical and Horizontal Growth Vertical expansion of businesses is achieved when a company takes over its suppliers and distributors operations, gaining control over the quality and cost of production of its goods. Vertical growth in businesses

Monday, 7 October 2019

The Enduring Wisdom of the Spiritual Master Essay

The Enduring Wisdom of the Spiritual Master - Essay Example She attributed her recovery to St. Joseph, to which she remained devoted. However, her life changed after she experienced â€Å"the sorely wounded Christ’s† vision. After experiencing the vision, Teresa encountered a number of ecstatic experiences that influenced her into focusing more on the passion of Christ. The visions acted as her impetuous that influenced her into setting herself to the reorganization of her order. She began this reformation by attempting to master herself, as well as adhere to her rule. She tried to create a primitive Carmelite by gathering some of her Sisters in Carmel to concretize her idea of a monastery. She received support from St. Peter of Alcantara, her confessor and a number of learned individuals as she started to work towards the achievement idea. This idea materialized in 1562 after the clothing of the four novices and the opening of St. Joseph Monastery. Teresa’s external activities were adjunct to her internal spiritual graces (Cannata 2). The realization of her idea made her happy, after which she tenaciously resisted several revelations for about two years. Subsequently, she experienced the initial intellectual and non-intellectual visions depicting Christ’s humanity. This humanity became the heart of her loving attention, as well as the source of the intimate graces she was able to enjoy for several years. Her possession of the love of God created in her an enormous desire to see God and to die so that she could see Him. These graces were necessary for sustaining her as she was trying to actualize and reinforce her reformation work. Teresa received confirmation for the will to work courageously for God’s glory since her intention was to save the many souls that were being lost. Upon visiting Avila, John Baptist Rossi authorized Teresa to establish other monasteries of nuns. This authorization led her to institute several monasteries

Saturday, 5 October 2019

Entering the conversation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Entering the conversation - Essay Example In the event of such occurrences, human beings have been urged to accommodate the feelings and opinions of other parties involved in the dialogue (14). The author gives a detailed example of the notions a lot of people have on vegetarianism. Most people are of the opinion that vegetarianism is a lifestyle while others hold the opinion the lifestyle is dreadful (15). All in all, the author analyses both sides of the concept so as to include the opposing ideas and the ones for the lifestyle. Essentially, this is to mean that all propositions and opinions of all persons are important and must be considered in entirety. Anything is expected in the course of any form of conversation (14). The author of Reading Strategies indicates that an all-inclusive reading involves various steps. The first must be inclusive of making a preview of the entire text. Through a brief preview, the reader is able to have a quick glimpse of the ideas portrayed by the author (353). The reader must then analyse the thoughts of the author from one’s point of view. This entails the perception one holds regarding the text, either repugnance or acceptance to the author’s ideas. Afterwards, the reader must annotate the key points brought forward by the author in the text, a process that which is only successful whilst weighing the author’s viewpoints in mind. Doubting and validating the author’s views scrutinizes the reliability of the work (358). A good example is Lessig’s work where the author takes the reader through the process of analysis of a piece. On another point of view, the author argues that summarizing the main points in the course of reading helps to confirm that all sections have been analyzed properly (360). At times the author uses some patterns whilst compiling their work, which may help readers have a summary of the text (361). The readers must also use color to highlight main points in the text. All

Friday, 4 October 2019

Hispanic Market Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Hispanic Market - Essay Example Tucson has 35.72% population of Hispanic or Latino. As a group we want to research and learn alternative methods to serve The Hispanic or Latin consumers in not just only Tucson but for Target as whole. In the information given to us in class it states, â€Å"In 2009, U.S. Hispanics purchasing power was $978 billion.† This showed us that the Hispanic consumer has a huge influence on retailers and they need to be able to tailor not only their merchandise but also the way they market themselves in order to gain them as not only customers but also loyal customers. For our topic Miami, Los Angeles, and Chicago are the Hispanic sensitive markets. From statistics we found it stated that in 2010 the Hispanic population made up 16% of the U.S. population. Between 2000 and 2010 the Hispanic population alone increased by 15.3 million. As stated in the information we were given in class â€Å"According to a U.S. Census forecast, Hispanics will compose 30% of the population by 2050.† Currently, Miami has the highest percentage Hispanic population between the three cities that is 65.76%. Los Angeles has 46.53% Hispanic population and Chicago has 28.9% population of Hispanic. From this data, we know that the Hispanic Market has become a big part of the retail marketing. The retailers need to try to focus on the Hispanic market demand and figuring out how to manage these demands efficiently. Each team was assigned a Target â€Å"Buddy† to help better accomplish us getting the information we needed for our project. Our buddy is Michael Lopriore and he works at the Irvington location of Target in Tucson. Due to scheduling conflicts with Michael we had to meet with a different employee of Target to get started on our project. On October 9th we met with Sonny Lopez, the HR manager at the Irvington location. Sonny has also worked with previous classes for this course on this project and he seemed eager to help us with our project. Before Sonny gave