Friday, 31 May 2019
Happy Hunger Games And may the odds be ever in your favor., a very well known quote from the mass serial publication The Hunger Games (The Hunger Games, Pg 19). The Hunger Games Trilogy written by Suzeanne Collins has become enormously popular. The Hunger Games, Catching Fire, and Mockingjay are the three works that make up the series. A major motion picture was released titled The Hunger Games, after the first book in the series, and it instantly became a box office hit. Those who pee non read the books may be left wondering why a book series focused on kids ages 12-18 are put into an plain and fight to the death is creating such a commotion. Not only are the books popular among adolescents, many adults have also found the series captivating as well. With books so focused on violence, there must be an underlying factor that draws readers in and makes them feel so passionately about the characters in these books. In completely three books, but particularly in the first, Suzean ne Collins captivates readers by creating such vivid and emotional relationships between the characters. Suspense is created by the anticipation of not knowing what will happen between the characters. A strong bond between sisters, a broken mother-daughter relationship, and a love triangle are or so of the main relationships built and focused upon throughout the book that draw readers in.The main character Katniss Everdeen has a very strong and powerful relationship with her younger sister, Prim. When their tyro died in a mining accident and their mother slipped into depression, Katniss took responsibility for Prim and became her main source of protection and stability. It is very apparent from the very beginning of the book that Katniss is extremely protective of Pri... ...ident Snow newcomer Amanda Stenberg as Katniss young ally, Rue or the various other young tributes who die one by one, gives their all to this captivating commentary on government, entertainment, and self-iden tity. The Hunger Games is violent, but in a heartbreaking way that will both make audiences think and count the age until Catching Fire is in theaters (Hunger Games Tops modal(a) April).Works CitedCollins, Suzanne. Catching Fire. New York Scholastic, 2009. Print.Collins, Suzanne. Mockingjay. New York Scholastic, 2010. Print.Collins, Suzanne. The Hunger Games. New York Scholastic, 2008. Print.The Hunger Games. Commonsensemedia.org. Web. 04 May 2012. .Hunger Games Tops Average April. Boxofficemojo.com. Web. 04 May 2012. .
Thursday, 30 May 2019
Alice Walker makes a great argument against smoking in her short essay, My Daughter Smokes, by sharing with the reader a personal consider that she had concerning cigarette smoking. She describes what happened to her father because he was a smoker for most of his life. Walker talks about what happened to his appearance and his health because of smoking. She also makes a point in showing how society and Hollywood make smoking out to be attractive. Walker wrote this essay against smoking for one purpose, to try to get her daughter to assure smoking so she wouldnt have to go through what her grandfather did. I agree with Walkers argument against smoking, there are no benefits to smoking everything associated with smoking is harmful. While Walker does talk about a few of the health affects associated with smoking, she doesnt go into much detail about them. fume is a major killer in this country. It contributes to the premature deaths of up to two million Americans each year, and chron ic diseases in millions more. Tobacco is both toxic and addictive. The nicotine in tobacco is five to ten times more addictive than cocaine and a thousand times more powerful than alcohol in fix the mood and behavior. It is classified as a euphoriant drug, because of its ability to alleviate anxiety and boredom. The tar in cigarettes destroys the sacs in the lung where air exchange takes place, and causes a build up up of mucus. ...
Wednesday, 29 May 2019
Gender Bias in Othello Shakespeares tragic play Othello is an unfortunate example of sexuality bias, of sexism which takes advantage of women. The three women characters in the drama are all, in their own ways, victims of mens skewed attitudes regarding women. Let us delve into this topic in this essay. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine comment in the Introduction to Shakespeare Othello that sexism is a big factor in the play At this point in our civilization the plays fascination and its horror may be greater than ever before because we have been made so very sensitive to the issues of race, class, and gender that are twist into the texture of Othello. . . . The issue of gender is especially noticeable in the final scenes of the play with the attacks on Bianca, Emilia, and Desdemona which are vivid reminders of how terrible the power traditionally exerted by men over women can be. (xiii-xiv) In the opening scene, while Iago is expressing his hatred for the general Othell o for his having chosen Michael Cassio for the lieutenancy, he contrives a plan to partially avenge himself (I follow him to serve my turn upon him), with Roderigos assistance, by alerting Desdemonas father, Brabantio, to the fact of his daughters elopement with Othello Call up her father, / Rouse him make by and by him, poison his delight . . .. Implied in this move is the fact of a fathers assumed control over the daughters choice of a marriage partner. Brabantios admonition to Roderigo implicitly expresses the same message The worser welcome I have charged thee not to haunt about my doors In honest plainness thou hast heard me say My daughter is not for th... ...on Twayne Publishers, 1985. Mack, Maynard. Everybodys Shakespeare Reflections Chiefly on the Tragedies. Lincoln, NB University of Nebraska Press, 1993. Mowat, Barbara A. and Paul Werstine, ed. Introduction. Shakespeare Othello. New York Washington full-strength Press, 1993. Pitt, Angela. Women in Shakespeares T ragedies. Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from Shakespeares Women. N.p. n.p., 1981. Shakespeare, William. Othello. In The Electric Shakespeare. Princeton University. 1996. http//www.eiu.edu/multilit/studyabroad/othello/othello_all.html No line nos. Wayne, Valerie. Historical Differences Misogyny and Othello. The Matter of Difference Materialist Feminist critical review of Shakespeare. Ed Valerie Wayne. Ithaca, NY Cornell University Press, 1991.
Dantes Divine Comedy is a multi-layered epic, containing not only a story ab away his incredibly difficult journey from earth to the depths of hell then up to the peaks of heaven, yet it also contains many insights on theology, politics, and even his hold life. Broken into three canticlesInferno, Purgatorio, and Paradisothe work is written in the terza rima form. In Infernoin 33 CantosDante makes a vast journey through the nine circles of hell. In the Eighth Circle (specifically, the Ninth Pouch), Dante meets with those who were, when alive, the sowers of dissension (Inf. XXVIII.35-36). Dante encounters a myriad of characters in many realms of interest, including theological and political figures.This Canto adequately flows in the context of the rest of the work, but in order to understand why, the general tr blockade of Inferno must be pointed out. The Bible states, Whoever does not jockey does not know God, because God is love (1 John 48, NIV). As Dante descends deeper into th e realm of hell, he becomes closer to the center of the earth and farther away from God, or farther away from love. Each meter down is a progressive step away from God. With Limbo, there ar people who would love Christ if he existed in the Second Circle, people are punished for love as a sin. But descend further, in the Eighth Circle, love is almost gone, for there are people who sin out of hate. Even in pouch one (where seducers reside), the love of person is still there. In pouch nine, the subject of Canto XXVIII, the people are sowers of schism and the scandaloushaters of somebody else. At this point, Dante and his guide Virgil have essentially trekked the entirety of hell, as they are currently in the eighth of nine circles and the second to last... ...l of Achitophel, one of Davids advisors. The of import difference between Bertran and Achitophel is that, while Bertran won, Achitophel lost. The punishment of Bertran is a worthy one he is beheaded. The father is always seen as the head of the household, and when performing the holy bollix after prayers, the head always represents the Father. By having Bertran beheaded, it symbolizes the separation between Father and son (The Godhead separated from the body of the Son). The theme of anti-love is prominent in this Canto, as by this point, Dante is already so close to the end of hell that love seems non-existent. From this trend, there is one thing to learn love God with all of your heart, as this will prevent you from being far from Him. If one cannot love God for some reason, at least love others this way, you will at least end up in a better circle of Hell.
Tuesday, 28 May 2019
George Catlett marshallGeorge Catlett Marshall served as a representative of the public service from 1939 to 1951, proposed the Marshall Plan, and was awarded the Nobel Prize. From 1924 to 1927, Marshall served in China and then successively as instructor in the Army War College in 1927, as assistant commandant of the Infantry School from 1927 to 1936. In 1936, Marshall was appointed commander of the Fifth Infantry Brigade. I July of 1938, Marshall accepted a position with General Staff in Washington, D. C (The Nobel keister 1). In September of 1939, President Roosevelt named George Catlett Marshall as Chief of Staff, which he took command of the army and its air forces on the day war began in atomic number 63 (Perkins 210). He became General of the Army in 1944. George Catlett Marshall built and directed the largest army in history. He became responsible for the building, supplying and recruiting over eight and a half million soldiers (The Nobel mental institution 1). Winston Ch urchill pronounced him the true organizer of victory for his work as trainer, planner, and strategist. Shortly after the war ended, Marshall decided to resign. He resigned in November of 1945 (Foner and Garraty 702). After his career in military ended, he pursued a diplomatic career. Marshall was sent to China to make peace amidst the Nationalists and the Communists, besides the mission failed. On January 21, 1947, Marshall was named secretary of state (Luce 24). In 1950, after the outbreak of the Korean War, President Truman asked Marshall to return to the government as the head of the Department of defense.Page 2In that year, Marshall increased the size of the army, promoted a plan for the universal military training, and helped to develop the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (Foner and Garraty 703). As Marshalls position as chief of staff, he urged military readiness prior to the attack on os Harbor in 1941. From 1941 he was a member of the policy committee that supervised t he atomic studies engaged in by American and British scientists (The Nobel Foundation 1).President Harry Truman had many a(prenominal) big decisions to make. Those decisions would greatly affect Americans and people around the world. In one of the most important of Trumans decisions, he persuaded the American people to act generously to the defeated nations. What he had in mind had never been done before in the history of t... ...han brilliant, but his record of action stands almost unequaled. Primarily a military man, he served with immense distinction in other fields, and he had much to do with bringing out many of the distinguished soldiers of the war period, says Dexter Perkins (Perkins 211). He was not only loved and respected by our nation and world, but also by his family and friends. Before Marshalls death in Washington, D.C., on October 16, 1959, Winston Page 5Churchill paid him the following tribute During my long and close association with successive American administr ations, at that place are few men whose qualities of mind and character have impressed me so deeply as those of General Marshal. He is a great American, but he is far more than that. In war he was as wise as understanding in counsel as he was unyielding in action. In peace he was the architect who planned the restoration of our battered European economy and, at the same time, labored tirelessly to bring a system of Western defense. He has always fought victoriously against defeatism, discouragement, and disillusion. Succeeding generations must not be allowed to forget his achievements and his example (The Nobel Foundation 1)
George Catlett MarshallGeorge Catlett Marshall served as a representative of the public service from 1939 to 1951, proposed the Marshall Plan, and was a struggleded the Nobel Prize. From 1924 to 1927, Marshall served in China and so successively as instructor in the Army War College in 1927, as assistant commandant of the Infantry School from 1927 to 1936. In 1936, Marshall was decreed commander of the Fifth Infantry Brigade. I July of 1938, Marshall accepted a position with everyday Staff in Washington, D. C (The Nobel Foundation 1). In family line of 1939, President Roosevelt named George Catlett Marshall as Chief of Staff, which he took command of the army and its air forces on the day war began in Europe (Perkins 210). He became General of the Army in 1944. George Catlett Marshall built and directed the largest army in history. He became responsible for the building, supplying and recruiting over eight and a half billion soldiers (The Nobel Foundation 1). Winston Churchill pronounced him the true organizer of victory for his work as trainer, planner, and strategist. Shortly after the war ended, Marshall decided to resign. He resigned in November of 1945 (Foner and Garraty 702). afterwards his career in military ended, he pursued a diplomatic career. Marshall was sent to China to make peace between the Nationalists and the Communists, but the burster failed. On January 21, 1947, Marshall was named secretary of state (Luce 24). In 1950, after the outbreak of the Korean War, President Truman asked Marshall to return to the government as the head of the incision of defense.Page 2In that year, Marshall increased the size of the army, promoted a plan for the universal military training, and helped to develop the North Atlantic Treaty face (Foner and Garraty 703). As Marshalls position as chief of staff, he urged military readiness prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. From 1941 he was a member of the policy committee that supervised the atomic st udies engaged in by American and British scientists (The Nobel Foundation 1).President kindle Truman had many big decisions to make. Those decisions would greatly affect Americans and people around the world. In one of the most important of Trumans decisions, he persuaded the American people to flirt generously to the defeated nations. What he had in mind had never been done before in the history of t... ...han brilliant, but his record of achievement stands almost unequaled. chiefly a military man, he served with immense distinction in other fields, and he had much to do with bringing out many of the distinguished soldiers of the war period, says Dexter Perkins (Perkins 211). He was not only loved and respected by our nation and world, but also by his family and friends. Before Marshalls devastation in Washington, D.C., on October 16, 1959, Winston Page 5Churchill paid him the following tribute During my long and close association with successive American administrations, ther e are a couple of(prenominal) men whose qualities of mind and character have impressed me so deeply as those of General Marshal. He is a great American, but he is farthermost more than that. In war he was as wise as understanding in counsel as he was resolute in action. In peace he was the architect who planned the restoration of our battered European economy and, at the same time, labored tirelessly to establish a carcass of Western defense. He has always fought victoriously against defeatism, discouragement, and disillusion. Succeeding generations must not be allowed to forget his achievements and his example (The Nobel Foundation 1)
Monday, 27 May 2019
Case Study 1 Prioritizing Projects at D. D. Williamson Due Week 3 and worth 240 points Read the good example titled Prioritizing Projects at D. D. Williamson found in Chapter 2. Write a 3-5 page paper in which you 1. Critique the prioritizing process at D. D. Williamson. 2. Suggest at to the lowest degree one (1) recommendation to improve the prioritizing process. 3. Create a scenario where the implemented process at D. D. Williamson would not work. 4. Project five (5) years ahead and speculate whether or not D. D. Williamson will be utilize the same process.Justify your answer. 5. Use at least four (4) resources in this assignment. Your assignment must ? Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. ? Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the students name, the professors name, th e course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not include in the required assignment page length.The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are ? Assess organizational strategies that contribute to effective project focal point of human resources. ? Use technology and information resources to research issues in managing human resource projects. ? Write clearly and concisely about managing human resource projects using proper writing mechanics. Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic/organization of the paper, and language and writing skills, using the pastime rubric.
Sunday, 26 May 2019
An appreciation of Ã¢â¬ËThe Tell Tale HeartÃ¢â¬â¢ by Edgar Allan Poe and Ã¢â¬ËThe ConfessionÃ¢â¬â¢ by Charles Dickens Essay
This assignment asks for an appreciation of the stories by Edgar Allen Poe The Tell Tale Heart and Charles Dickens The Confession. I will start by exploring Edgar Allen Poes account and style of writing, how it captivates the reader, building suspense and terror. I will then explore Charles Dickens ConfessionAnd last following my analysis of the two stories I will compare and contrast the different styles.Edgar Allen Poes story The Tell Tale Heart describes how the perpetrator plans and executes a vicious attack on an centenarian humanness. This story is told in an autobiographical format with the author describing his state of mind, questioning his own sanity. He calmly describes how at that place was no object or passion that ca economic consumptiond him to endow the heinous act of murder as he describes his love for the old man. His only explanation is his dupes philia which he describes as vulture like and intimidating. He disassociates the eye from the old man and it is the eye that drives him to commit the crime.He talks of his dissimulation in cooking the old mans death and how e treated him during the week prior to killing him, how he taunted him, stalked him, and preyed upon him at midnight (witching hour), this sinister act of voyeurism is grim and adds to the tension of the story. It was only until the seventh night when he realised that to rid himself of the Evil Eye he need to have the old mans eye open to commit the act.On the eighth night he describes how he carefully taunts the old man describing his actions as clever and skilled, hysteria sets in and finds the events exhilarating, which is further compounded by his knowledge that the old man was fearful of intruders and robbers to realise the real danger is from within. He describes the fear and panic the old man is experiencing when he hears someone in his room, he goes on to empathise and understand how the old man is rationalising for the noise he heard.The author gives a descripti on of a Grim Reaper, stalking in the shadows and enveloping the victim. He builds suspense and describes the web that hes weaving to rid himself of the vulture eye. He describes seeing the eye as freezing him and bringing his focus purely on the eye completely detaching the old man from the eye. He recalls comprehend the old mans heart beating like a drum It was a low, dull, quick sound- oftentimes such as a watch makes when enveloped in cotton. His acuteness of hearing increases the loudness of the heart beat its then he describes nervousness mixed with excitement.Its with this increasing loudness that he fears he will by heard by neighbours that he enters the room dragging the old man to the floor pulling the mattress on top of him, where as the heart beat becomes muffled and finally stops. He describes the man as cosmos stone dead and not troubling him any longer. In the last(a) paragraphs he talks of how he concealed the body, dismembering the body cutting off the old mans head and limbs and depositing them under the floor boards, believing himself to be clever. However the actions at such early hours raised suspicions. This brought three policemen knocking at the door, alerted by a neighbour hearing a shriek, in the mettle of the night.The liquidator invited the policemen in to search the house and take a rest from their duties. He showed his boldness, by placing the chairs above where he concealed the body. It was then he describes hearing a ringing much the same as the beating of the heart. He describes it as catching his breath, in fear that the officers also heard the beating. His anxiety increase and his paranoia set in. With the policemen not making a move to go he feared that they had heard the beating, it was so loud to him he thought they were bound to hear it and that he confessed to committing the deed and exposed the body to the police. at that place the story ends and we can only guess at the murderers sentence.The ConfessionThis is an autobiographical story which takes places in a retrospective view of the authors life. This is a story that tells a acknowledgment of a condemned man.He talks of his electric shaverhood where he is victim to his own low self esteem with a few friends and his relationship with his brother. He is extremely jealous of his sibling because he perceives him as better than him He was open-hearted and generous, handsomer than I, more accomplished, and generally beloved his friends and acquaintances would say they were surprised to find two brothers so unlike in their manners and appearance. Then it tells of how his brother has been taken with(p) with a terminal illness.He talks of his marriage to his brothers sister-in-law and describes this additional tie as estranging them further. He disliked his sister-in-law for he matt-up she could see through him, and see his jealousy, and so he could not meet her eyes but felt hers constantly digging into him. Only relieved by a quarrel, and h er subsequent death, she both frightened and haunted him. She died shortly after her birth of her son. And on his brothers death bed the child was lay in his care and should the child die all property and possessions pass onto to his wife. With a few brotherly words with me, deploring our long separation and being exhausted, discharge into a slumber, from which he never awoke. The author talks of his own childless relationship and how his wife took the place of the childs mother. It was the childs crushed leather with his wife that he piece disturbing as within him he saw his natural mothers intuition, her face and her spirit which caused him to mistrust the male child to the point of obsession.He increasingly become uneasy in the childs presence, he showed him fear and hate. The boy kept his distance whenever possible. He could not recall when these feelings came upon him and initially he wished the child no ill. The thoughts crept upon him until they overtook his whole though t patterns. He describes uneasiness when in the childs focus, he become fixated on how easy it would be to kill the child. He began stalking the child, watching him, undertaking his tasks. As in the Tell Tale Heart this unhealthy voyeurism is vividly draw to great effect- I never could bear that child should see me in the Confession and a pale blue eye, with film over it. Whenever it fell upon me, my credit line ran cold in a Tell Tale Heart.He goes on to describe how he grooms the child by modelling a model gravy boat and waiting for him to go to the river to float it where he had planned to carry out the crime. He describes how he waited for three twenty-four hourss until the child went to the river and when he was about to commit the crime the child saw his shadow in the water. It was as if the childs mothers eyes were starring back at him. In a moment incapacitated in time the author appears to have mixed recollections of the event, one the child running for escape and the other when he is confronted with the childs dead body lying at his feet stabbed by his sword.With his wife away from home he planned to bury the child in the tend and he became obsessed by the murder he committed. He talks of his feigned distress at being told the child was missing and how he had to mute the news to his wife. He carried out the actions of a grieving parent raising no suspicions whilst all day long watching the new turf being laid hoping to add speed to the process. He talks of disturbed sleep, waking from nightmares and constantly needing re-assurance and thus I spent the night in fits and starts, getting up and lying down full twenty times, and dreaming the same dream over and over again, he became paranoid and terrorised by his actions, fearful of discovery he started to hear whispers on the wind- a breath of air sighed across it, to me it whispered murder.This increased his fear. Then he goes on to describe how on the fourth day visitors from his earlier reg iment called upon him. He invited them into the garden and set the chairs out on top of the childs grave. They ask after his wife and the child, unsettling him a head in his life and his paranoia sets in. He is obviously terrified they would discover his secret. In attempt to hide his fear he asks the men if the child has been murdered. They attempted to re-assure him in that respect was nothing to gain from killing an innocent child. Then as they were attempting to raise his spirits, two bloodhounds bounded into the garden and began pacing and sniffing the ground, until they came upon the murderers chair they began to howl.The visitors utter that the dogs had made a discovery. It was then the murderer became hysterical that his two visitors after a battle restrained him, during which time the dogs tore at the earth and on seeing this, the murderer dropped to his knees and confessed the truth and begged for forgiveness. Then he retracts his confession for which hes tried and foun d guilty. His only Solace is the fact that his wife has lost all her faculties and does not know his and hers own misery and his guilt. I wonder, however, if our hero was truly repentant or just searching for sympathy since he has been found out disguising what was really inside as he had done all his life. Perhaps well never know the real badness.There are many similarities amid both stories. The Tell Tale Heart is autobiographical description/confession of the murder of a victim known by the perpetrator. It describes the careful process and preparation/planning of the murder and how the murderers own paranoia and psychosis results in the confession. They both describe the careful stalking of the victims.The Confession by Charles Dickens is also an autobiographical description/confession of the murder in which the victim is known to the murderer and also he describes the preparation and once again has confessed as a result of paranoia. Both stories use the technique of repetition to create tension and suspense, and the use of short sharp sentences are also used to construct the state of panic of which both murderers encounter when they are discovered.The contrasts between the two stories are that The Tell Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe talks of his love for the victim, but fear of the eye. There is no financial gain to the murder on the death of the victim. The author describes no regret or remorse for the act and prides himself on the cleverness of his actions, Edgar Allan Poe tells the story through a psychotic murderer, whereas in Charles Dickens The Confession, the author tells the story through more of a thinking and tactical murderer. The author dislikes the victim altogether with no love loss between them. There is a gain from the death of the victim. And during more rational times the murderer talks of much regret and remorse.
Saturday, 25 May 2019
The ruby-red Letter Essay In the novel, The Scarlet Letter, the author, Nathaniel Hawthorne depicts major themes of the book through usage of various symbols. By utilizing symbolism, Hawthorne portrays humanitys lust towards those rejected by society and the effects of being an proscribedcast, along with other various meanings conveyed in Hawthornes novel. The most obvious symbol, and the most important, is the scarlet letter that Hester is burdened to wear due to her conviction of adultery. Such symbols convey an intriguing message of hypocrisy that lies beyond the naked eye.Through his use of symbolism, a privy message portraying hypocrisy is revealed line after line. Early in the novel, as the crowd awaits Hester to emerge, Hawthorne vividly describes a prison in which the puritan disciplinal system is symbolized. Hawthorne writes that whatever Utopia of human virtue and happiness(Hawthorne 45) the founders hoped to achieve, but Hawthorne deflates the tradition of American dreams of Utopia and new hearty orders(Pearl) by pointing out that both a burial ground and a prison were among the first structures to be built.However, Puritan society is based on religious enlightenment, yet despite their clean-livings, the first structure to be built in Boston was a prison, a place of punishment, darkness, and sin. Puritan morals expect tranquility within the society and to surely repress sin, but by building a prison, they almost antagonize sin to be committed as the prison proves to be borne the black flower of civilized society (Hawthorne 46). The prison symbolizes corrupt society plagued by hypocrisy within the religious system as it defies puritan beliefs of a sin-free environment by bringing darkness upon social life in Boston.Hawthorne brings light upon the darkness by contrasting the prison with a rose bush that . had merely survived out of the stern old wilderness, so long after the fall of the gigantic pines and oaks that originally over-shadowed it ,- or whether, as there is fair authority for believing.. (46). The rose bush signified Sweet moral blossom (46) that emerged from the hypocrisy of Puritan society. Hawthorne makes several reference to the rose bush throughout the novel as in chapter 8 when pearl claims she was plucked by her mother off the bush of wild red roses that grew by the prison door(102).Salvation for the prisoners is depicted by the rose bush, this symbolizes that Pearl is the key to buyback for both Hester and Dimmesdale. Pearl was born through an act of sin, as she lives in a world of sin she must be sanctified along with religious service as salvation to all the characters as she represents light among darkness. To truly sympathise the nature of Hawthornes symbolism used to depict hypocrisy, one must understand the meaning of the infamous Scarlet Letter A. Throughout the novel, the scarlet letter takes on several different meanings (Pearl) for each of the characters.For the public, the letter is taking Hester out of the ordinary relations with humanity and inclosing her in a sphere by herself(51). Due to Hawthornes unique usage of symbolism we are invited to enter a separate sphere, where both imagination and moral growth can occur(Pearl). As Hester becomes accustomed to wearing the lettter, the meaning of the A gradually transcends from meaning fornicator to symbolizing able or angel. Apart from symbolizing the obvious, the letter also depicts a major theme of the book, hypocrisy.Puritans believe that people should not be punished for sin, however the Puritan leaders made Hester face a lifetime of embarrassment by making her wear the letter. Keep in heed these leaders are also the leaders who preach the word of God while condemning Hester revealing their nature of hypocrisy. Hawthornes symbolism usage leads the commentator to reflect on why followers of a religion that stood for forgiveness would merciless condemn its own for the most rational actions. Symbols portray ed in The Scarlet Letter range from representing the hypocrisy and corruptness of Puritan society, to showing how salvation can exist in a world full of sin.
Friday, 24 May 2019
* Problem/Purpose * Background Information The faithfulness of conservation of set was created by Antoine Lavoisier in the 18th century. This right stated that plurality could matter could neither be created nor destroyed. During a reaction the bonds of the reactants are broken and form new substances. As stated in the Law of Conservation, matter can neither be created nor destroyed because of this the products should have the same number and type of atoms as seen in the reactants. * Purpose Test the Law of Conservation of Mass.* Hypothesis If we weight the mass of the materials before and after the reaction, then we can prove if the Law of Conservation of Mass is true.* Materials* Goggles* 25mL graduated cylinder* 2 resealable root words* Scale* Antacid tablet* Scoopula* CaCl2 , Calcium Chloride* NaHCO3 , Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate* Universal Indicator* ProcedurePart A1. Measure 25mL of water and rate into a resealable bag. Flatten air out of the bag and seal it. Record the ma ss in Table 1. 2. Record the mass of the antacid tablet in Table 1 3. Tip the bag sideways, and while holding the bag this way, add the tablet and water so not mix. Do not golf hole any extra air in the bag. Reseal the bag. 4. Let the tablet drop into the water. Observe the reaction until it comes to a complete stop. Record the observations. 5. When the reaction is complete, eternalize the mass of the bag and its circumscribe in Table 1. Part B6. Add two scoops of CaCl2 to the second bag 7. Add one scoop of NaHCO3 to the bag and shake gently to mix. 8. Determine the mass of the bag and its contents. Record in Table 2. 9. Measure 25mL of water in a graduated cylinder. Add 10 drops of Universal Indicator to the water. 10. Tip the bag sideways, and while holding the solids in the upper part of the bag, pour the water into the bag so the solids dont mix. 11. Keeping the trapped air to a minimum, reseal the bag. Hold the bag and let the liquid move from one end of the bag to the other until the contents are mixed. 12. Observe the reaction until it comes to a complete stop. Record your observations 13. Record the mass of the unopened bag in Table 2. Clean up your incline and wash your hands before leaving the laboratory.* Data/ResultsTable 1 Antacid and WaterMass of bag and water 27.085gMass of tablet 3.21gMass of bag and reactants 30.305gMass of bag and products 28.14gTable 2 CaCl2, NaHCO3, and WaterMass of bag and dry reactants 4.09gVolume of water 25mLMass of water 24.925gTotal mass of bag and reactants 29.015gMass of bag and products 27.37g* Analysis/ConclusionA. Analysis Questions1. How do the values for the total mass before and after each reaction bear witness the law of conservation of mass? The values seem to be in the same general value 2. What were three observations you made that indicated a reaction had occurred in part A? The tablet started to fizz, the bag began to fill with gas, and you could hear the tablet reacting with the water. 3. An indica tor changes color when the acidity of a solution changes. What evidence is thither that such(prenominal) change occurred in Part B? The universal indicator changed to a yellowish orange color 4. Did the reaction in Part B mystify more acidic or basic? More acidicB. Conclusion The lab showed us that the Law of Conservation of Mass is correct. I feel that there were some mis take aways in the lab. The size of the scale we were using was not large enough to fit the entire bag on for weighing. I feel that this impact the results we recorded for mass. If I were to redo this experiment I would be sure to use a bigger scale. I feel the data was also bear on by extra air left in the bag. The results are close enough to show that the Law of Conservation of Mass is possible though when you take into accounts the problem we had with the lab.
Thursday, 23 May 2019
The word hero conjures an image in ones head of a valiant, courageous, strong individual one who puts the needs of others before their own, a being who defies evil with their handsome charm and fearless reputation. However, this stereotypical image does not accurately depict the full extent to which the term hero covers, as there ar some(prenominal) different types of hero including the Byronic Hero, Classic Hero, Medieval Hero, and Romantic Hero.Classic Heroes atomic number 18 those in Greek and Roman literature they are often of royal birth or even like the Titan Prometheus half mortal, half god. Although Edgar Linton is not of royal descent, he is from a family of the highest social kin throughout the country which allows him to fall loosely into this category of noble birth. Heathcliff on the other hand, is from a discernible background and is brought into the household at Wuthering Heights as a gipsy brat after Mr. Earnshaw saw, it starving, and houseless, and as good as du mb in the streets of Liverpool.Another characteristic of a Classic Hero is that they do extraordinary feats. Throughout the novel Edgar Linton displays no obvious signs of having done anything extraordinary he is a calm, weak natured individual who avoids conflict and allows himself to be easily overpowered both by Heathcliff and his wife allowing the latter to mock him, I wish Heathcliff may flog you sick, for daring to think an evil thought of me In contrast to this, Heathcliff performs many extraordinary deeds however, few of which are in any way admirable and for the benefit of anyone but himself for example, after being degraded for years at the abusive hands of Hindley, Heathcliff disappeared for three years and that space of time turned himself into an outwardly respectable and wealthy man.In addition to the former points, a undefiled hero must be a perfectly ideal individual but for one fatal flaw. Ones opinion of Edgar Linton can be altered to allow him to fit into this c ategory as he is a well-mannered character who is obviously fully devoted to both his wife and his young woman Nelly Dean observes, I dont believe he ever did speak a harsh word to her. However, his gentle, spoiled upbringing may be his flaw as it has made him subservient character that lacks the confidence and passion Heathcliff possesses and thus lacks the ability to keep hold of Catherine and make her happy. Heathcliff again, does not fit the fashion of the Classic Hero as he fails to meet this criterion he is an abusive, evil, sadistic individual who shows no hint of remorse or of possessing any admirable qualities. Although neither Edgar nor Heathcliff perfectly fit the mould of a Classic hero, Edgar has more salutary to be called a Classic Hero than Heathcliff does.However, Heathcliff does fully reserve the right(a) to be classed as the Byronic Hero within the novel as he possesses all the characteristics of one of these heroes while Edgar has none of them. These heroes ar e manipulative, violent and unrepentant. Heathcliff shows his manipulative nature when he allows Isabella Linton to fall in make out with him, he tells Nelly, she abandoned them under a delusion, showing he was fully aware of her feelings and used them to his advantage, employing them as a tool in which he could gain control and ownership over both properties Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange.His displays of violence are prominent throughout the novel, author as a young boy and developing into adulthood. As a young child he, seized a tureen of apple sauce and threw it over Edgar Lintons face. As an adult his violence worsens as, he snatched a knife from the table and flung it at his wife, Isabellas head. In addition to this, he comes close to murdering Hindley and even with Catherine, his true love he does not possess the capability to be gentle, so inadequate was his stock of gentleness I saw four distinct impressions left fat in her colourless skin.Heathcliffs unrepentan t nature is evident via the lack of regard he holds toward his victims which stems from his arrogant personality. The height of his arrogance is seen when he tells Catherine in expect of Edgar, This lamb of yours threatens like a bull It is in danger of splitting its skull against my knuckles. By God, Mr. Linton, Im mortally sorry that you are not charge knocking down. Arrogance is also a common trait of Byronic Heroes.Despite the fact that both men can be called heroes in their own right to a certain extent, it is because of his amiability and good nature Edgar Linton has the right to claim the title of the respectable hero within the novel. However, in saying this looking at all the characters within the novel, it may be argued that neither man deserve the title but a woman does as the women in the novel are strong, independent and highly feministic characters.
Wednesday, 22 May 2019
There was a great deal of Imperialism in the 19th century, led by mostly Hesperianers from Europe. Imperialism is the act in which one nation extends its everyplacelook over a nonher. Imperialism had a substantial effect on the 19th century throughout the entire domain of a function by bringing upon changes to homoy variant countries, for give a itinerary and for worse, especially to Africa.Prior to the nineteenth century, westerners did interfere with many of the affairs of nations outside of their boarders, so signs of loftyism are shown many clock throughout history. Examples of this would be the European colonies in the Americas and also influence in Asia. Whenever a western country was involved with the economy of an outside country,There were many reasons for Imperialism, two of which were economical and political. What better way to boost an economy than to open markets in early(a) areas of the world? The colonized nations had abundant supplies of resources that coul d not be found in Europe, which is what first attracted the westerners. Because of imperialism, not simply did Europeans have access to resources in Africa and Asia, but they also had access to cheap labor by forcing the natives of the lands to work for little or no money. The desire of origin and security for the military were also causes for Imperialism. By having control over distant lands, it would be a benefit, militarily, to have bases spread out around the world, especially during times of war. (Wakefield, Edward Gibbon A Letter from Sydney and Other Writings on resolution)Racism on account of mixer Darwism was another major factor contributing to Imperialism. Social Darwism (survival of the fittest) led to the Europeans belief that they were of a higher race and it was their duty to go into other areas and improve the lives of the people who inhabited those lands. Improving lives meant spreading western religion (Christianity), culture, and influence. The following quote from The Backward Peoples and Our Relations with Them by Sir Harry H. Johnston shows an example of how westerners thought Let us proceed to define who and what these backward or unprogressive peoples are and to what extent they may be considered to be retrograde and ineffective as compared with the dominating white race.There were many other examples of writing, much(prenominal) as The White Mans Burden by Rudyard Kipling, which supported the belief of white men being of some supremacy and of the white mans need to colonize. Nationalism also played a role in support of racism by allowing people to become extremely reassured in their nationality and in turn, creating a form of the feeling of superiority. (Johnson, Sir Harry H. The Backward People and Our Relations with Them)There was a lot of competition between the different European states economically and politically. Imperialism made this competition worse by creating another factor to contend over. Obviously a nation with man y colonies throughout the world would be to a greater extent powerful than one with very few colonies. So, when one western nation begins to take over foreign lands, it would nevertheless be inseparable for many others to follow the example as to not be left behind in the competition and for their own economic wealth. This occurred during the scamper for Africa, wherein European nations raced to overhear control over different areas in Africa.During the mid nineteenth century, Europeans were beginning to colonize along the coast of Africa, but couldnt go much nevertheless because disease would spread, quickly killing of much of the European settlers. Since at the time Europe was going through the Industrial Revolution, there were many advances not only made technologically, but also in the field of science and medicine. With impudent technology, goods could be mass produced in factories and so a surplus of goods was ofttimes an occurrence.Europeans saturnine to Africa for new markets as to make money off of their surpluses and Africa also was rich in natural resources to fuel Europes many growing industries. Since new medicines had been discovered, Europeans could move further into Africa and stay for longer periods of time. In addition to advances in medicine and in industry, new weapons were developed, which could easily defeat those of the Africans. This allowed for larger European settlements to be set up in Africa and hence, the race for territories began.Another reason for the scramble for Africa was the fear of upsetting the balance of power. Every European nation was c at oncerned closely their rivalsbecoming more powerful than they were. The main nations involved were Britain, France, Germany, and Italy. During the late nineteenth century, all of these countries, and a few others went into a scramble to claim territories in Africa. (Mastanduno, Michael Imperialism)The scramble for Africa began with an attempt by King Leopold II of Belgium def icient to gain control of the area of the Congo Basin. Tensions arose between the British and the French, because of the British gaining more control over Egypt, which was the country they had once had joint control over the finances of. France was also competing with Italy in northern Africa, so tensions were strong everywhere. Germany felt pressured by the other European nations who were gaining control over territories on Africa.Bismarck, who happened to be ruler at the time, declared control over three territories in eastern and western Africa, which caused even more strain between European nations. Since the control for African territories arose very quickly, the Berlin Conference was set up to discuss the policies of claiming lands in Africa to avoid any more bitingly rivalries. (The Scramble for Africa The Economist)Fourteen European countries and the United States were in attendance at the Berlin Conference that took place between 1884 and 1885. Boundaries were determined a nd also rules for art and for future subjugation within Africa. Of the countries present at the conference, only half of them had their own colonies in Africa and none of the represented nations were the nations colonized or any other African nation. What essentially came out of the Berlin Conference was the Berlin Act, which called for free trade in the Congo basin and free navigation along the Niger among other things. When it came to the rules of further domination in Africa, for each one country had to inform the other countries whenever they took over an African territory and had their decision to colonize had to be based on effective occupation. Freedom of trade was declared with all nations and also, it was agreed that slavery and the slave trade would be suppressed. (Mastanduno, Michael Imperialism)Imperialism affected colonized nations in many ways especially economically, politically, and culturally. There were often many positive and negativeaffects of imperialism on t he colonies that were taken over. The culture and religion of the colonized people was often condemned to try to have the people move in the way of the westerners. In Africa, economically, Africans made very little profit off of the goods they produced. All of the capital went to the Europeans. Also, before colonization, Africans traded within the continent, but this practice was ended once the westerners became involved in their affairs. So if anything, the colonial period, was one of economic corruption, rather than economic development. (Boahen, A. Adu, ed. widely distributed History of Africa (Abridged Edition) VII Africa below Colonial Domination 1880-1935)Colonization in Africa led to an overall increase of the African population, which could be thought of as a positive social affect. The quality of life was improved in terms of there being hospitals, a sewage system, and sanitary facilities and there was also an increase in employment opportunities. Hesperian inventions su ch as the steam engine and other machinery were introduced to Africa. Christianity and Islam were spread and so was western education. Colonialism caused a change in the social structure of Africans was it allowed mobilization between the classes. Social class was not determined by birth, but by a persons success individually. (Boahen, A. Adu, ed. General History of Africa (Abridged Edition) VII Africa under Colonial Domination 1880-1935) foot all of the positive social effects, there were many negative ones. A larger division was created between those who dwelt in urban areas and those in rural areas. Western education had made the barrier between these people larger. Colonization allowed for the rich, white Europeans to take over all of the good and fertile lands and also allowed them to monopolize in trade in Africa. Even though there were educational institutions set up, they were inadequately spread out and didnt have much of an effect on Africa as a whole.There were still ver y large illiteracy trains. Also, there was no emphasis made on technical or industrial education, which wouldve been more useful. Racism was stressed during imperialism in Africa and created a sense of inferiority for the people who inhabited the continent at the time. (Boahen, A. Adu, ed. General History of Africa (Abridged Edition) VIIAfrica under Colonial Domination 1880-1935)Politically, colonialism in Africa created a larger degree of continuous peace and stability than there ever was before. There were now definite boundaries in Africa, which was a good call in terms of organization. There was also a new found nationalism that spread throughout the continent. On the other hand, a lot of the political changes were negative. Because of boundaries set up by the westerners, many ethnic and religious groups were torn apart, which affected the lives of the natives on a personal level and created many disputes.The boundaries also did not ensure that natural resources were distribute d evenly, which would serve as a problem since the economy of Africans was dependent on what they could gather from their land. Africans lost their emancipation and were basically ruled by the white colonial leaders, who also owned almost all of their property. For a long time, the people of Africa had lost their right of liberty. (Boahen, A. Adu, ed. General History of Africa (Abridged Edition) VII Africa under Colonial Domination 1880-1935)In conclusion, imperialism was an enormous part of nineteenth century history. There were many different reasons for western nations wanting to colonize and many different outcomes that came about from colonization. Imperialism showed many affects toward all of the nations involved whether they were being dominated or doing the domination. The scramble of Africa was an example of what occurred in western imperial rule and clearly shows the positive and negative consequences of imperialism.
Tuesday, 21 May 2019
What Parental feelings does McCarthy explore in the poem and how does she use language to present them to you?Football after school is a poem about a engenders, or the poets, struggles in the harsh realisation of her son maturing, and having to experience school. Patricia is feeling powerless and worried about her sons inevit fit forthcoming of him going to school which he has to endure. We observe the poet sharing her thoughts, and digits, in each verse her view changes on how she thinks her son will combat Football after School . The theme of football game fears her, as he dribbles the sin about the place, which conveys how she thinks the football as the sun will develop his bearing, and will become his focus rather than his mother ahead. We see her worries change, from be concerned about how she can help him and how his attitudes will change when he matures into a teenager. The mother is affectionateness for her son, but we dont know how the son feels towards the mother. I nsecurity is a key role in how the mother feels, as she becomes more distant to her touchy son generateing up.McCarthy explores the idea of growing up is inevitable, and insists to the son that he is going to mature and play football with the repetition of Youll and you secures the proof of her son having to grow up, and the mother is agnizeing this by empathising on it, particularly in the begining as the perfect rhyme empathises this imminent future, and how convinced McCarthy is that her son is going to grow up to be common.There is a continuous theme of worry that the world of school will be violent and aggressive. The use of alliteration produces an escort of potential violence stiff striped stumper, the alliteration has harsh continents adding to the aggression of the dagger, as they are stiff is describing the harsh strength of the dagger and striped go fors the resource of the dagger pain.The image of warpaint slicked over your face, this imagery is symbolising battl es within school, and how this paint makes you look stronger and confident. The use of harsh sounding images, and actions butting it with your head adds to the violence of the boys later life. Football, being a sport which is sometimes competitively aggressive, making the mother fear her sons teenage development, with the premature swagger of human race, showing the bravado attitude, and false over confidence, along with language jeers, which describes the pretentious and arrogant teenage future mindset compared to now being young and having porcelain grate.The metaphor of Dwarf a tree, stab a flower illustrates the violent contrast of images, he does this by a kick, this is portraying how his actions reverse what they were previous(prenominal)ly were, which reflect how he is going to develop, transform and switch characters. As now he is fragile, and later he will scram premature swagger of humans, evoking him growing up and becoming a man, further to the point she adds that it is premature, which echoes the fact that she thinks he will be too young to mature, change and have granite jowls.The poet negatively looks on violence and aggression, doubting her sons ability as the poem moves on. In the 3rd and 4th verses we see the mother apprehending, which is contrasting with before as she expected her son to be involved in bullying, rather than now fearing her son will be the victim of bullying no bimestrial having stiff striped dagger, as he would have to tackle fouls with ink stained fists and feet. The alliteration of the f is adding to the aggression of the language, and the voice sounds like it is seek to overcome emotions along with the imagery conveying the boy as more of an academic sister who had been studying, than being a football player.We cansee that he would be clever enough, which shows the mother has hope in her son, even if he is a geek. In the previous verses Patricia had started on positive comments, as yet as she sees the weaker si de of her son she says, Yet and not hooligan enough, which are showing how she thinks her son may turn out to be deficient and lacking in courage. This is a clear change in the t wizard of her voice as she begins to fear her sons vulnerability, reflecting how her son may turn out to be.This image of the boy having to sample punches below the belt, portrays the image of being bullied, and being anillegal boxing move, it will tranquil be allowed in schools,and some children have to sample it, and endow up with it as they cant fight back, and usually sample means you are trying something because you want to rather than having to be forced, this juxtaposes .Patricia McCarthy successfully uses enjambment to convey her ideas running on as the lines progress, because her ideas are building up and becoming stronger in what she believes will happen. McCarthy says punches below the belt from one you know, the next line Without flinching. I cant prevent , as she advances in the foreshadowin g future, and her feelings are overflowing, which is stopped by the sudden caesura which make her ideas change, and she puts herself in to shelter her son.The mother is constantly trying to protect her sons future, as he would be exposed to the life of school. Patricia doesnt want to imagine her child growing up as he has porcelain skin, showing he is delicate, precious and cant be touched or harmed, compared with their granite jowls, which are opposites, and show life can toughen you, and you will crack if you stay porcelain. Later on in the poem, Patricia uses juxtaposing ideas to, turn bullies into cement, the use of a more modern satisfying later shows as time goes on the material becomes modern and he toughens up.The mother admits that she thinks her son is, too vulnerable for living, showing she cant prevent crossbones on your knees, this creates an image of poison and evil on her sons knees which she wishes she could help, butshe cant protect him at school, therefore he is d efenceless. McCarthy is hoping for her son, to stand up for himself, and not to trample into the sod your shadow that grows twice as fast as yourself, because she doesnt want him to be in the darkness that developes quicker about him and have no friends, and the violent gesture of trampling, shows her concerns for the constant aggression at schools if he is alone in gloom, people will be able to hurt him as he has nobody to protect him.She also says she cant confiscate the sun, further repetition of the sun being the football or life, she is saying she cant be liable for what happens at school, as it i not the end of life even if theyll punter and put out. However she says youll be picking scabs of kisses off your skin, she is telling him that he will have to stand up for himself, but there is juxtaposing imagery of scabs and kisses, this maybe describing how he is growing up, no longer needing kisses son consequent get picked off as he gets kicked. Being oxymoronic plays with the comparison of changing images and how the mother is actually feeling inside as she suaveanxious about the prospects of violence in the school, as using emotions of kisses reminds her of wanting to protect him.The rhyming physique throughout the poem does not stay constant, as the poets feelings change and thoughts develop. The first verse is a confident perfect rhyme as she is projecting her certainty as to how her son will turn out to be. Her assurance changes as the rhyme stops being so constant in the rhyme, but still including two lines of perfect rhyme until the fourth verse when it isnt as perfect compared to the first. this reflects how the mothers hope changes, until the last paragraph where it is perfect until she projects her own thoughts. Her realisation at the end has no rhyme, illustrating the change in her emotions.The poets has an insight into her concerns for her son as she has regrets in her school life, the poet reflects the mood of the mothers thoughts. She does nt want him to idolise her previous life at school, as she wants him not to inherit herfragility, so he can stick up to bullies, as he will still be delicate with porcelain skin, which will break as he has not developed granite jowls. Overall McCarthy burrowed into all of her parental feelings, justifying her fears which many other parents understand and do not like to have to experience. Being a woman she expresses her emotions more, making the poem test her affection in the rhythm of the poem.
Monday, 20 May 2019
The first about who we will chew out is Edmund Spenser (1522-1599), who was an English poet best kn take for The Faerie Queene, an epic poem and fantastical allegory celebrating the Tudor Dynasty and Elizabeth I. he is recognized as one of the premier crafts hands of Modern English verse in its infancy, and one of the superlative poets in the English language. The first verses ever published by Spenser were six sonnets translated from Petrarch. Then followed The Shepherds Calendar, whose subject was suggested to him by Sydney. In writing it, Spenser used foreign models derived from Greek poetry, Latin, French, and Italian lit sequenceture.The verses are still very conventional and show obvious signs of immaturity, the content is mythological-scholarly, though on that point are m each beautiful descriptions of English clownish scenery. The melody is often interrupted however, it inaugurates a new era in English poetry. This new era is superbly by The Faerie Queene. The models whi ch Spenser used when he embarked upon the difficult task of composing this poem, the most definitive and popular of all that he ever wrote, were Ariostos Orlando furioso and Tassos Gerusalemme Liberato.Conceived in the midst of the uncanny beauties of the Irish landscape, The Faerie Queene is far from indifferent to them, finding in them an important extension of inspiration for his natural orbit as important as medieval English and Celtic poetry were for the narrative. The chief task Spenser club himself was to amalgamate all these poeticalal elements and, by deepening the moral content of court poetry and by fertilizing it with the new clementistic ideas, to write an impressive national epic. Few poems more(prenominal) clearly illustrate the physique of allures from which most great literary works result.In many respects the most direct source was the body of Italian romances of chivalry, especially the Orlando Furioso of Ariosto, which was written in the early part of th e sixteenth century. These romances, in turn, fuse the personages of the medieval French epics of Charlemagne with something of the spirit of Arthurian romance and with a Renaissance atmosphere of magic and of bounteous fantastic truelove. Spenser borrows and absorbs all these things and moreover he imitates Ariosto closely, often merely translating whole passages from his work.But this use of the Italian romances, further, carries with it a large employment of characters, incidents, and imagery from classical mythology and literature, among other things the elaborated similes of the classical epics. Spenser himself is directly influenced, also, by the medieval romances. Most important of all, all these elements are shaped to the dissolve of the poem by Spensers high moral aim, which in turn springs largely from his Platonic idealism. To the beauty of Spensers imagination, ideal and sensuous, corresponds his brilliant command of rhythm and of sound.As a verbal melodist, especia lly a melodist of sweetness and of stately grace, and as a harmonist of prolonged and complex cadences, he is unsurpassable. But he has full command of his rhythm harmonise to the subject, and can range from the most delicate suggestion of airy beauty to the roar of the tempest or the strident energy of battle. In vocabulary and phraseology his fluency appears inexhaustible. Here, as in The Shepherds Calendar, he deliberately introduces, especially from Chaucer, obsolete words and forms, much(prenominal) as the inflectional ending in -en which distinctly contribute to his sentimentalist effect.His constant use of alliteration is very skilful the frequency of the alliteration on w is conspicuous but apparently accidental. For the external medium of all this beauty Spenser, modifying the ottava rima of Ariosto (a stanza which rimes abababcc), invented the stanza which bears his own name and which is the only artificial stanza of English origin that has ever passed into currency. Th e rime-scheme is ababbcbcc and in the last line the iambic pentameter gives place to an Alexandrine (an iambic hexameter).Whether or not any stanza form is as well adapted as blank verse or the rimed couplet for prolonged narrative is an interesting question, but in that location can be no doubt that Spensers stanza, firmly unified, in spite of its length, by its cardinal couplet and by the finality of the last line, is a discovery of genius, and that the Alexandrine, forever feeling for the contiguous stanza, does oftentimes to bind the stanzas together. It has been adopted in no small number of the greatest subsequent English poems, including such various ones as Burns Cotters Saturday Night, Byrons Childe Harold,Keats Eve of St. Agnes, and Shelleys Adonais. In habitual dash and spirit, it should be added, Spenser has been one of the most powerful influences on all succeeding English romantic poetry. Two further sentences of Lowell well stubmarize his whole general achieve ment His great merit is in the ideal treatment with which he glorified common things and gilded them with a ray of enthusiasm. He is a standing protest against the tyranny of the Commonplace, and sows the seeds of a noble discontent with prosaic views of bread and butter and the dull uses to which it may be put. The next famous Elizabethan that should be mentioned and about whom we will make a a few(prenominal) references concerning his life, his work and his innovations in literature is Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593), who was an English dramatic playtist, poet and translator of the Elizabethan era. As the foremost Elizabethan tragedian, he is cognise for his blank verse, his overreaching protagonist, and his mysterious death. Marlowes reputation as a dramatist rests on five plays Tamburlaine, Doctor Faustus, The Jew of Malta, Edward II, and Dido, Queen of Cartage.To these five masterpieces might be added The Massacre of Paris, a bloody-thirsty melodrama now, it seems, littl e read. In this handful of plays appears the first true voice of the Renaissance, of the rate of flow of a new learning, new forfeitdom, new try, of the period of worship of Man rather than God. Marlowe sums up the new age. The old restrictions of the Church and the limitation on friendship have been destroyed the world is opening up and the ships are sailing to new lands wealth is be amassed the great national aggressors are rising.But, above all, it is the spirit of human freedom, of limitless human power and enterprise that Marlowes plays convey. Tamburlaine is the great conqueror, the embodiment of tyrannical power Barabas, the Jew of Malta, stands for monetary power Faustus represents the most deadly aridness of all, for the power which supreme knowledge can give. Each one of Christopher Marlowes plays is, in a sense, a tour de force, a special creation. The Jew of Malta, Dido, and The Massacre of Paris, though abounding in passages of strength yet do not fulfill the requ irements the author himself had set up.The Jew, however, was very popular, being performed thirty-six times in quaternary years, which in those days was an unusual record. Marlowes first and most important service to drama was the betterment of blank verse. Greene had condemned its use as being unscholarly Sackville and Norton had used it, but were not able to short-change it above commonplace. In their work, it usually consisted of isolated lines, one following another, with no grouping according to thought. altogether the verses were made after one rhythmical pattern, with the same number of feet and the caesura always in place.Marlowe invented numberless variations period still keeping the satisfying rhythm within a recurring pattern. Sometimes he remaining a redundant syllable, or left the line one syllable short, or moved the position of the caesura. He grouped his lines according to the thought and adapted his various rhythms to the ideas. Thus blank verse became a hold organism, plastic, brilliant, and finished. Marlowes second best gift to drama was his conception of the heroic tragedy built on a grand scale, with the three-fold unity of character, impression, and interest, instead of the artificial unities of time and place.Before his time tragedies were built both according to the loose style of the chronicle, or within the mechanical framework of the Seneca model but in either case the dramatic unity attained by the Greeks was lacking. Marlowe and Shakespeare, with their disregard of the so-called classic rules, were in fact much nearer the spirit of Aeschylus and Sophocles than the slavish followers of the pseudo-classic schools. Marlowe painted gigantic ambitions, desires for impossible things, longings for a beauty beyond earthly conception, and sovereigns destroyed by the very powers which had raised them to their thrones.Tamburlaine, Faust, Barabbas are the personifications of arrogance, ambition and greed. in that location is sometime s a touch of the extravagant or bombastic, or even of the puerile in his plays, for he had no sense of humor nor had he the ability to portray a woman. He wrote no drama on the subject of love. Furthermore, his world is not altogether our world, but a remote field of the imagination. It has been remarked that in Marlowes superb verse there is very little to indicate that the writer had ever encountered any human beings. 1In spite of this, he was great, both as a dramatist and poet. His short life, the haste of his work, the irregularities of his habits, these things combine to keep him from perfecting the creations of his imagination. Taken together, his plays imposed a standard upon all succeeding theatrical compositions. Before him, in England, there was no play of great importance but after him, and based upon his work as a model, rose the greatest drama of English history.A friendlier critic, Mr. A. C. Swinburne, observes of this poet that the father of English tragedy and the overlord of English blank verse was therefore also the teacher and the guide of Shakespeare. In this sentence there are two misleading assumptions and two misleading conclusions. youngster has as inviolable a human action to the first honour as Marlowe Surrey has a better title to the second and Shakespeare was not taught or point by one of his predecessors or contemporaries alone.The less questionable judgment is, that Marlowe exercised a strong influence over later drama, though not himself as great a dramatist as Kyd that he introduced several new tones into blank verse, and commenced the dissociative process which drew it farther and farther outside from the rhythms of rhymed verse and that when Shakespeare borrowed from him, which was pretty often at the beginning, Shakespeare either made something inferior or something different.To sum up we can say that Marlowes major contribution to the Elizabethan drama is due to his diligent and masterly use of blank verse (his migh ty line) a poetic form consisting of rimeless iambic pentameters which is much nearer to conversational, natural English than any other metrical form. It is vigorous, flexible, and it can guinea pig itself to the necessities of declamation, oratory, exposition, speechmaking, etc. , being used by Shakespeare himself to extraordinary effect. The last but not the least famous Elizabethan we have to speak is Ben Johnson (1572-1637), who was an English renaissance dramatist, poet and actor.A contemporary of William Shakespeare, he is best known for his satirical plays, particularly Volpone, The Alchemist and Bartholomew Fair, which are considered his best and his lyrical poems. A man of vast reading and unusual breadth of influence on Jacobean and Caroline playwrights and poets. The second place among the Elizabethan and Jacobean dramatists is universally assigned, on the whole justly, to Ben Jonson, who both in temperament and in artistic theories and practice presents a pad contr ast to Shakespeare.Most conspicuous in his dramas is his realism, often, as we have said, extremely coarse, and a direct watching of his intellect, which was as strongly masculine as his body and altogether lacking, where the regular drama was concerned, in goody of sentiment or poetic feeling. He early assumed an view of pronounced opposition to the Elizabethan romantic plays, which seemed to him not only lawless in artistic structure but unreal and flirtation in atmosphere and substance. That he was not, however, as has sometimes been said, personally hostile to Shakespeare is clear, among other things, from his poetic tributes in the folio edition of Shakespeare and from his direct statement elsewhere that he loved Shakespeare almost to idolatry. ) Jonsons purpose was to present life as he believed it to be he was thoroughly acquainted with its worser side and he refused to conceal anything that appeared to him significant.His plays, therefore, have very much that is flatly o ffensive to the taste which seeks in literature, prevailingly, for idealism and beauty but they are, nevertheless, loosely speaking, powerful portrayals of actual life. Jonsons purpose, however, was never unworthy rather, it was distinctly to uphold morality. His frankest plays, as we have indicated, are attacks on vice and folly, and sometimes, it is said, had important reformatory influence on contemporary manners. He held, indeed, that in the drama, even in comedy, the function of teaching was as important as that of giving pleasure.His attitude toward his audiences was that of a learned schoolmaster, whose ideas they should accept with deferential respect and when they did not approve his plays he was outspoken in indignant contempt. Jonsons self-satisfaction and his critical sense of intellectual superiority to the generality of mankind asseverate also a marked and disagreeable lack of sympathy in his portrayal of both life and character. The world of his dramas is mostly made up of knaves, scoundrels, hypocrites, fools, and dupes and it includes among its really important characters very few excellent men and not a single really good woman.Jonson viewed his fellow-men, in the mass, with complete scorn, which it was one of his moral and artistic principles not to disguise. His characteristic comedies all belong, further, to the particular type which he himself originated, namely, the Comedy of Humors. In opposition to the free Elizabethan romantic structure, Jonson stood for and deliberately intended to revive the classical style though with characteristic good sense he declared that not all the classical practices were applicable to English plays. He generally bserved unity not only of action but also of time (a single day) and place, sometimes with heartbreaking resultant loss of probability. In his tragedies, Sejanus and Catiline, he excluded comic material for the most part he unbroken scenes of death and violence off the stage and he very careful ly and slowly constructed plays which have nothing, indeed, of the poetic greatness of Sophocles or Euripides ( rather a Jonsons broad solidity) but which move steadily to their climaxes and because on to the catastrophes in the compact classical manner.He carried his scholarship, however, to the point of pedantry, not only in the informatory extracts from Latin authors with which in the printed edition he filled the lower half of his pages, but in the plays themselves in the scrupulous exactitude of his rendering of the details of Roman life.The plays reconstruct the ancient world with much more minute accuracy than do Shakespeares the student should consider for himself whether they succeed better in reproducing its human reality, making it a living part of the readers mental and spiritual possessions. Jonsons style in his plays, especially the blank verse of his tragedies, exhibits the same general characteristics. It is strong, compact, and sometimes powerful, but it entirely lacks creative poetic beauty, it is really only rhythmical prose, though sometimes suffused with passion.Last, and not least Jonsons disintegration from romanticism to classicism initiated, chiefly in non-dramatic verse, the movement for restraint and regularity, which, making slow headway during the next half century, was to issue in the triumphant pseudo-classicism of the generations of Dryden and Pope. Thus, notable in himself, he was significant also as one of the moving forces of a great literary revolution.
Sunday, 19 May 2019
How is the theory of maturation used to explain the tremendous diversity of life on Earth? Describe how variation at bottom a population arises and how natural selection differs from artificial selection. Finally, describe how bacteria that become insusceptible to advanced(a) antibiotics Is a clear example of evolution In action. The theory of evolution Is used to explain the protracted diversity of life on Earth by looking at why creatures evolve. The main condition they are able to evolve is that they have a quality that helps them survive in their environment.If two identical animals re put in very different habitats the future generations will end up with very different characteristics. For example, if a bird of multilayered origin is put in the jungle it could be said that at last they will evolve to be a species of green birds because they have the best camouflage against predators. Natural selection Is most easily described by how a species survives because of traits d ictated by their surroundings. An example of this Is an animal of give that drop run faster than Its heard, will escape a predator and live to breed In the future.The offspring will have the genes of a fast parent and likely be fast themselves and so able to byrun the predator as well. Artificial selection is when humans interfere and only(prenominal) seize certain characteristics to be passed onto the near generation. An example of this is a dog breeder only breeding the dogs with the shiniest coats. The next generation will be heavily influenced to have shiny coats, an example of what they deem a precious characteristic. A very interesting way to see evolution is how bacteria are evolving to become resistant to modern antibiotics.Once thought to be the cure to many dangerous actuarial Infections antibiotics started to be handed out to Ill patients. Unfortunately, some patients are not finishing their prescribed antibiotics leaving bacteria alive In their bodies that are res istant to the drug. These mutant bacteria quickly reproduce making future generations that are immune to the antibiotics. I can utilize my knowledge of the dangers of antibiotics in my career as a nurse when I work with the elderly in a hospital. I observe that an older patient has abdominal cramping and profligacy I will assess whether they have recently taken antibiotics because of the risk of C. Official. Being aware of this transmittal I can collect a stool test to diagnose it. Once diagnosed, I can instruct the patient to stop taking the antibiotic. Then I will counsel them about how C. hard Is related to antibiotics. To begin, when the patient takes the drug to treat an Illness It will kill off not only the bacteria making the person sick but the good bacteria found In our Intestines as well. When this Is mammals the dangerous C. Delicate can grow out of control producing toxins that attack the intestine. It is also possible that C. uncorrectable is becoming crucial it is to finish any prescribed medication.
Saturday, 18 May 2019
In the latest travel of Doing Business ranking from the World Bank, one country made a spectacular leapfrom 143rd on the list to 67th. It was Rwanda, whose population and institutions had been decimated by genocide in the 1990s. On the World Bank list, Rwanda catapulted prohibited of the contiguity of Haiti, Liberia, and the West Bank and Gaza, and sailed past Italy, the Czech Republic, Turkey, and Poland. On one subindex in the study, the ease of opening a saucily business, Rwanda ranked 11th human beingwide.You can see and scour smell the signs of Rwandas business renewing at Costco, one of the retail worlds most demanding trade customers, where pungent coffee vainglorious by the nations nonaged farmer-entrepreneurs is stocked on the shelves. And in Rwanda itself the evidence is dramaticper capita gross domestic product has almost quadrupled since 1995.pic Rwanda From Genocide to Costcos ShelvesThis is the kind of change entrepreneurship can bring to a country. As Rwandas president, Paul Kagame, put it late(a)ly, Entrepreneurship is the most sure way of development. He is non a lone character Economic studies from around the globe consistently link entrepreneurship, particularly the fast- receiveth variety, with rapid job creation, GDP growth, and semipermanent productivity increases.Youll see much than palpable evidence of surprising entrepreneurial achiever stories on the Costco shelves. A few steps away from the Rwandan coffee, you can find fresh fish from Chile, which now ranks second solely to Norway as a supplier of salmon. The Chilean fish in Americas supermarkets were supplied by hundreds of new fishing-related ventures spawned in the 1980s and 1990s. A few aisles over are memory USBs invented and manufactured in Israel, a country whose irrepressible entrepreneurs have been supplying innovative technologies to the world since the 1970s. And just around the corner, the Costco pharmacy sells generic drugs made by Icelands Actavis, whose me teoric rise landed it, in just 10 years, among the conduct five orbicular generics leaders.Rwanda, Chile, Israel, and Iceland either are fertile ground for entrepreneurshipthanks in no slim part to the efforts of their governances. Though the companies behind the products on Costcos shelves were launched by innovative entrepreneurs, those businesses were all aided, either flat or indirectly, by regimen leaders who helped build environments that nurture and sustain entrepreneurship. These entrepreneurship ecosystems have become a kind of holy grail for governments around the worldin both emerging and developed countries.Unfortunately, umpteen governments take a misguided approach to building entrepreneurship ecosystems. They pursue some unattainable ideal of an ecosystem and catch to economies that are completely unlike theirs for best practices. scarcely increasingly, the most terminationive practices come from remote corners of the earth, where resourcesas well as legal frameworks, transparent governance, and democratic valuesmay be scarce. In these places entrepreneurship has a completely new face.The new practices are emerging murkily and by trial and error. This messiness should not deter leaderstheres in any case much at stake. governments need to exploit all available experience and commit to ongoing experimentation. They must follow an incomplete and ever-changing tick off of prescriptions and unrelentingly review and refine them. The alternativestaking decades to devise a model set of guidelines, acting randomly, or doing zilchall are unacceptable.But the government cannot do everything on its own the private and nonprofit sectors too must shoulder some responsibility. In numerous instances corporate executives, family-business owners, universities, professional organizations, foundations, labor organizations, financiers, and, of course, entrepreneurs themselves have initiated and level off financed entrepreneurship education, conferen ces, research, and policy advocacy. As we shall show later in this article, sometimes private initiative puzzle outs it easier for governments to act more fast-flyingly and effectively, and all stakeholdersgovernment and some otherwiseshould take every chance to show real leadership.To make progress, leaders need practical if imperfect maps and navigational guidelines. From what we know from both research and practice, heres what seems to actually work in stimulating thriving entrepreneurship ecosystems.Nine Prescriptions for Creating an Entrepreneurship EcosystemThe entrepreneurship ecosystem consists of a set of individual elements much(prenominal)(prenominal) as leadership, culture, capital markets, and open-minded customersthat combine in complex ways. (See the exhibit Do You down a Strong Entrepreneurship Ecosystem?) In isolation, individually is conducive to entrepreneurship still insufficient to sustain it. Thats where numerous governmental efforts go wrongthey addres s only one or two elements. Together, however, these elements turbocharge venture creation and growth. When combine them into one holistic system, government leaders should focus on these nine key principles.pic Do You Have a Strong Entrepreneurship Ecosystem?1 Stop Emulating Silicon valley.The n other(a) universal ambition of becoming other Silicon Valley sets governments up for frustration and failure. There is little argument that Silicon Valley is the coin standard entrepreneurship ecosystem, home to game-changing giants such as Intel, Oracle, Google, eBay, and Apple. The Valley has it all technology, money, talent, a critical mass of ventures, and a culture that encourages collaborative innovation and tolerates failure. So it is understandable when public leaders throughout the world lay to California and say, I want that.Yet, Valley envy is a poor guide for three reasons. unmatchable is that, ironically, even Silicon Valley could not become itself today if it tried. Its ecosystem evolved under a unique set of circumstances a strong local anesthetic aerospace industry, the open California culture, Stanford Universitys supportive relationships with industry, a return lode of invention from Fairchild Semiconductor, a liberal immigration policy toward doctoral students, and pure luck, among other things. either those factors set off a chaotic evolution that defies definitive determination of cause and effect.Further, Silicon Valley is fed by an overabundance of technology and technical expertness. Developing knowledge- base industrythe mantra of governments everywhereis an admirable aspiration, but achieving it requires a massive, generation-long investment in education as well as the ability to develop maiden intellectual property. On top of that, a knowledge industry demands an enormous technology pipeline and toss pile. Consider that top venture capitalists invest in at best 1% of the technology-based businesses they look at, and a significant p roportion of that select pigeonholing fails.A third limit is that although Silicon Valley sounds as if its a place that breeds local ventures, in reality its as much a powerful magnet for ready-made entrepreneurs, who flock there from around the globe, much forming their own ethnic subcultures and organizations in what Gordon Moore, one of the Valleys graybeards, calls an industry of transplants. And difficult as it is to foster an ecosystem that encourages current inhabitants to make the entrepreneurial choice and then succeed at it, it is even harder to create an entrepreneurs Mecca.2 cause the Ecosystem Around Local Conditions.If not Silicon Valley, then what entrepreneurial vision should government leaders drive to? The most difficult, yet decisive, thing for a government is to tailor the suit to fit its own local entrepreneurship dimensions, style, and The striking dissimilarities of Rwanda, Chile, Israel, and Iceland illustrate the principle that leaders can and must fost er homegrown solutionsones based on the realities of their own circumstances, be they natural resources, geographic location, or culture.Rwandas government took a strongly interventionist dodging in the postgenocide years, identifying three local industries (coffee, tea, and tourism) that had proven potential for development. It actively organized the institutions that would support those industries by, for example, training farmers to grow and package coffee to international standards and connecting them to overseas distribution channels. Rwandas immediate priority was to provide paying employment to one million million millions of people. Its efforts led to to the highest degree 72,000 new ventures, almost entirely consisting of two- and three-person operations, which in a decade tripled exports and lessen poverty by 25%.Chile also focused on industries where it had copious natural resourcessuch as fishing. As in Rwanda, the government took a powerfully interventionist approa ch to its entrepreneurship ecosystem in Augusto Pinochets early years, and the dictators free-market ideology made it easier for Chiles middle class to obtain fiscal support and licenses for fishing operations. The government also weakened labor (sometimes brutally) to reduce new ventures input costs and unploughed Chiles currency inexpensive to maintain competitiveness in export markets.Natural resources often are not a key component of an ecosystem, however. Frequently, entrepreneurship is stimulated when such resources are scarce, requiring people to be more inventive. chinaware, Iceland, Ireland, and New Zealand, resource-poor islands far from major markets, all developed ecosystems based primarily on human being capital. So did Israel. In the 1970s and 1980s, its unique ecosystem evolved haphazardly out of a combination of factors, including spillover from large soldiery R&D efforts, strong diaspora connections to capital and customers, and a culture that prized frugality, education, and unconventional wisdom.3 Engage the one-on-one Sector from the Start.Government cannot build ecosystems alone. Only the private sector has the motivation and perspective to develop self-sustaining, profit-driven markets. For this reason, government must call for the private sector early and let it keep or acquire a significant stake in the ecosystems success.Start with a candid conversation.One way to involve the private sector is to reach out to its representatives for early, frank advice in reducing structural barriers and formulating entrepreneur-friendly policies and programs. If the necessary expertness doesnt exist domestically, it can often be found overseas among expatriates. In the 1980s the Taiwanese government engaged with the Taiwanese diaspora, consulting prominent executives in leading U.S. technology companies and establishing ongoing forums to collect their input. The government actually built programs based on the suggestions of these expats, who liked how their ideas were implemented so much that they returned home in droves in the 1990s, many of them to occupy prominent policy positions or run the new plants that were established. For example, Morris Chang, the former group vice president of Texas Instruments, came home and eventually set up and ran TSMC, Taiwans second semiconductor-fabricating plant.Taiwan Bringing Expat Entrepreneurs HomeDesign in self-liquidation.In 1993 the Israeli government created Yozma, a $100 million fund of funds that in three years spawned 10 venture capital funds. In each one, Yozma, an Israeli private partner, and a foreign private partner with proven fund solicitude expertise all invested approximately equal amounts. From the start, the Israeli government gave the private sector partners an option to buy out its interest in the funds at attractive termsa fact often unmarked by other governments that copy the Yozma model. That option was exercised by eight of the 10 funds, profitably for th e government, I competency add. Five years later the founding of Yozma, its remaining assets were liquidated by auction. The governments exit served as market proof that real value had been obtaind and is one of the reasons that the Israeli venture capital industry not only became self-sustaining but simultaneously achieved a quantum leap in growth.4 Favor the mellowed Potentials.Many programs in emerging economies spread scarce resources among quantities of bottom-of-the-pyramid ventures. And indeed, some of them, such as the Carvajal Foundation in Cali, Colombia, have dramatically increased income for segments of the population. But focusing resources there to the exclusion of high-potential ventures is a crucial mistake.In an era when microfinance for modest-scale entrepreneurs has become mainstream, the reallocation of resources to support high-potential entrepreneurs may seem elitist and inequitable. But especially if resources are limited, programs should try to focus fir st on ambitious, growth-oriented entrepreneurs who address large potential markets.The complaisant economics of high-potential ventures and small-scale employment alternatives are significantly different. Whereas 500 microfinanced sole proprietorships and one quick globalizing 500-person operation create the same number of jobs, many experts argue that the wealth creation, power to inspire other start-ups, labor force enrichment, and reputational value are much greater with the latter.One organization that recognizes this is Enterprise Ireland, an operation responsible for supporting the growth of world-class Irish companies. It has created a program specifically to provide mentoring and financial assistance to high-potential start-ups, which it defines as ventures that are export-oriented, are based on innovative technology, and can generate at least 1 million in gross sales and 10 jobs in three years. The global nonprofit tendency, which focuses on entrepreneurship developmen t in 10 emerging economies, has to date adopted some 440 high-impact entrepreneurs, who, with Endeavors mentoring, are turning their successes into persona models for their countrymen.Not all high-potential ventures are technology based in fact, Id argue that the majority are not. SABIS is a perfect example. An educational management organization founded in Lebanon many years ago as one school, SABIS now is one of the worlds largest EMOs, teaching more than 65,000 students in 15 countries, with the goal of reaching 5 million students by 2020.5 Get a Big Win on the Board.It has become clear in new years that even one success can have a surprisingly stimulating effect on an entrepreneurship ecosystemby igniting the imagination of the public and inspiring imitators. I call this effect the law of small numbers. Skypes adoption by millions and eventual $2.6 billion sale to eBay reverberated throughout the small nation of Estonia, supporting highly trained technical people to start thei r own companies. In China, Baidus market section and worldwide recognition have inspired an entire generation of new entrepreneurs. Celtels amazing success as sub-Saharan Africas leading regional mobile provider and acquisition by Zain for more than $3 billion stirred the regions pride and helped African governments fight Africa fright among investors. In Ireland it was Elan Corporation and Iona Technologies, listed on Nasdaq in 1984 and 1997, respectively, that served as guiding lights to a generation of budding entrepreneurs.sub-Saharan Africa Building Shareholder Valueand Better GovernmentEarly, visible successes help reduce the perception of entrepreneurial barriers and risks, and highlight the tangible rewards. Even modest successes can have an impact. Saudi Arabia, a nation with a dearth of entrepreneurial ventures (aside from the powerful family business groups), is fighting hard to tear down the numerous structural and cultural obstacles entrepreneurs face. One young Saudi, Abdullah Al-Munif, left his salaried job, tightened his belt, fought the bureaucracy, and started a business making chocolate-covered dates. He ultimately grew the business, Anoosh, into a national chain of 10 high street stores and turned an eye to overseas markets. like a shot when Al-Munif appears as a panelist at entrepreneurship seminars, he is swamped by aspiring Saudi entrepreneurs who take eagerness from his bravery, realizing that neither capital, nor technology, nor connections are essential to success.Overcelebrate the successes.Governments should be bold about celebrating thriving entrepreneurial ventures. Media events, highly bare awards, and touts in government literature, speeches, and interviews all have an impact.This is not as straightforward as it may seem, because many cultures discourage any public display of success as boastful or an invitation to either disconsolate luck or the tax collector. Whereas in Hong Kong even small-scale entrepreneurs drive blac k Mercedes to project their status, in the Middle East flaunting ones success publicly can attract the envy of neighbors or, worse, the fiendish eye.Kenyas first international call center, KenCall, founded by Nicholas Nesbitt and two partners in 2004, built an international mien by overcoming many bureaucratic and structural barriers, including the lack of a high-speed optical fiber gathering to the international communications grid. The Kenyan government didnt wait until KenCall became big to sing its praises even when it was a fledgling operation, the government brought in foreign delegations for visits, promoted the partnership in official publications and press releases, and hosted an international outsourcing conference. Government officials also used KenCalls example to push for reforms, which expedited the construction of East Africas first undersea optical fiber linkan example of how entrepreneurial success can facilitate structural change, not just the other way around .6 Tackle Cultural Change Head-On.Changing a profoundly ingrained culture is enormously difficult, but both Ireland and Chile demonstrate that it is possible to alter societal norms about entrepreneurship in less than a generation. Until the 1980s employment in government, financial services, or market-gardening was the main aspiration of Irelands young people. There was zero tolerance for loan defaults, and bankruptcy was stigmatized. Parents reject their children from setting out on their own, so few nurtured dreams of starting their own business.But by the 1990s, after successful pioneers paved the way, hundreds of new software companies had been launched in Ireland. Some exported products some went public. Many achieved healthy sales revenues. Just as important, entrepreneurs learned that it was possible to fail and regroup to try again. If you wanted to be reckon and interpreted seriously, you needed to be a founder with a stake in a company trying to do something, recalls Barry Murphy, who was national software director at Enterprise Irelands predecessor in the 1990s.In her research, University of Minnesota professor Rachel Schurman has described how Chileans negative image of entrepreneurs as greedy exploiters was transformed in just one decade, as a direct result of the Chilean governments cooperative effort to liberalize Chiles economy. Until the 1980s, Chiles well-educated middle class wasnt entrepreneurial, avoided opportunity-driven investment, and preferred to consume rather than save and invest. But by the 1990s, Chiles new middle-class entrepreneurs were telling Schurman Today the youth, everybody, wants to be an entrepreneur. If a successful empresario is interviewed in the newspaper, everybody reads it. Why was he successful? How did he do it? Its a model that never existed before.The media can play an important role not just in celebrating wins but in changing attitudes. In Puerto Rico, El Nuevo Da, the largest insouciant newspaper, s upported local entrepreneurship by running a weekly page of start-up success stories. On the small island, these stories have quickly become part of the social dialogue and have raised awareness about the opportunities entrepreneurship presents, as well as the tools it requires.7 Stress the Roots.Its a mistake to flood even high-potential entrepreneurs with easy money More is not necessarily merrier. New ventures must be clear early to the rigors of the market. Just as grape growers withhold water from their vines to extend their root systems and make their grapes arrive more-concentrated flavor, governments should stress the roots of new ventures by meting out money carefully, to ensure that entrepreneurs develop toughness and resourcefulness. much(prenominal) measures also help weed out opportunists.In 2006 Malaysias Ministry of Entrepreneur and Cooperative Development awarded 90% of some 21,000 applicants about $5,000 each in business support, strong evidence of the government s shipment to entrepreneurship. The program was part of an affirmative action program largely aimed at indigenous Malays, who were less entrepreneurial than the countrys business-minded Chinese immigrants. Yet Malay entrepreneurs themselves attribute the disappointing results partly to the fact that musical accompaniment was too loose and even stigmatized the Malay recipients as less capable.More broadly, Malaysian entrepreneurship-development programs, considered by many, including myself, to be among the most comprehensive programs in the world, have been criticized for actually inhibiting entrepreneurship among the Malays by unwittingly reinforcing their lack of risk taking. Similarly, recent reports on South Africas Black Economic Empowerment program have reached the conclusion that BEE has demoralised entrepreneurship among the bulk of black South Africans and has benefited primarily the elite and well-connected.In fact, the hardships of resource-scarce, even hostile, enviro nments often promote entrepreneurial resourcefulness. New Zealanders call Kiwi ingenuity number 8 wire In the countrys colonial days, the only plentiful resource was 8-gauge fencing wire, and New Zealanders learned to fix and make anything with it. Icelandic entrepreneurship is built upon a legacy of fishing when the fish are there, not when the weather is good.For years incubators or entrepreneurship centers that provide financial help, mentoring, and often space to start-ups have been popular with governments. But I have seen skimp rigorous evidence that these expensive programs contribute commensurately to entrepreneurship. One municipality in Latin America established 30 small incubators, but after several years only one venture out of more than 500 assisted by them had reached annual sales of $1 million.Though Israels renowned incubator program has helped launch more than 1,300 new ventures, relatively few of them have been big entrepreneurial successes. On the basis of my dis cussions with Israeli officials, I estimate that, among the hundreds of Israeli ventures that have been acquired at hefty valuations or taken public, at best 5% were hatched in incubators. And incubators definitely are not a quick fix. When well conceived and well managed, they can take 20 years or longer to generate a measurable impact on entrepreneurship. Poorly conceived and managed, they can be white elephants.