Sunday, 31 March 2019

Speed control of dc motor using pll

hurry control of dc motor using pllINTRODUCTIONFeasibility Study, for final year project, is to establish whether the project is technically or financially feasible. The lay for the report is to ascertain an sense between the student and the supervisor on the title of the project. It also conveys establishing an understanding on the matter of aims and objectives. Such understanding is vital for the success of the project. The project work, that is to be undertaken, should be well think so as to oversee the problems that lay ahead. Thus, the report delivers some cortical potential into the planning phase. It gives aims and objectives for the project and explains various stages of work which will be involved. It pull ahead gives out a time plan that would direct the project itself by dint of out the year. Such a planning would ensure the success of the project. Hence, the supporting of such a planning gives Feasibility Study. AIMS Use the technique of bod Locked found trav el estimator to control the fixity of a DC motor.To create the overall system with,A kind Locked grummet (PLL) for the speed feedback.A arrange Detection Logic that would compare the substance ab substance abuser speed (set point/ absolute frequency) to the motors actual speed. A method for detection of the speed of the DC motor.OBJECTIVESA firm grip of surmisal on the stagecoach Locked spiral would clear all the concepts of such a technique and its industrial uses. To conspire a Closed closed circuit command formation that would enable the user to control the speed of the DC motor. It should be based on frequency domain design techniques ( bode diagrams).Detail work on the logic for Phase Detector or Synthesizer.Research on how the potentiality Control Oscillator (VCO) works.To use a suitable optical sensor that senses and returns the speed of the DC motor. The logic behind the foreshadows, to and from the sensor, to be calculated.Using Mat-lab for devising the transf er function and Tina for the move of the system. numbering the hardware for the system. TOPIC OVERVIEWA Phase Lock Loop (PLL) synchronizes an output signal with a reference or input signal in frequency as well as in phase.Phase Locked Loop is used in various communication networks to chuck out flutter from various signals. Here it is used to control the speed of a DC motor. This is because PLL has a capability to control the manner in which the phase of the Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO) follows a changing reference phase. In other delivery it can be said that the designer can make the hand-build to follow quickly or sluggishly to the original input signal. This typical would enable users to control the speed of the DC motor.WORK STAGESLiterature enquiryA brief research, comprising of study link to Phase Locked Loop and Control System such as closed draw in system, was conducted to facilitate in writing the feasibility report. Extensive study in the mentioned fields musti ness be obtained before the practical work is started. Research would be necessary to deal with the prospect of working out the components for the PLL Fig 2. Comprehensive research would also be required to create and build the circuits for the components in Fig1. Phase detection logic have to be devised that would require the time. Study related to transfer functions, of an parliamentary law, that uses frequency domain should be done. Further study for the announce diagrams would be needed. Simulink for the Mat-Lab and Tina would require some attention as they are the primary election tool for testing. A research in optical sensors would be seeming and the transfer of data, to and from the sensor, would need investigation. The speed of the motor and what is given by the user can be represented on a screen. An insight into it would be an option. The equipments provided, like PLL IC and VCO Unit, would require thorough study. Block Diagram DesignProtocol Design This phase of the work will be based on Mat-lab and Tina. The experiment would be simulation of the transfer function. Once the theory for the transfer function is completed, the derived function is written in Mat-lab and the corresponding bode graphs are investigated. These graphs would give a comprehensive illustration of the relevant components in the system. In other words it can be presumed, for the mat-lab simulation, that it would provide both bit of detailed information before the real circuit is strengthened and the motor is accelerated. Pseudo-CodePseudo-Code is a program code unrelated to the hardware of a particular computing machine and requiring conversion to the code used by the computer before the program can be used. This area of work deals with what is called elongated programming. The project would not require such level of programming. It would only require the simulation for the transfer function via using Mat-lab. Hence learning the software package would be crucial for th e success of the project. CAPITAL RESOURCES The total budget parceling to the project is 50. The equipment used within the project are given to be,Phase Locked Loop (PLL) IC.Op-amps ICsVCO Unit and CounterUsual lab equipmentSoftware Mat-Lab 7.0 ( seize the transfer function of the control system)Tina 6.02 (For designing and testing the circuits)PROJECT clock time PLANREFERENCEShttp//dictionary.reference.com/ for definitions http//hem.passagen.se/communication/fm_pll_vco.html an insight for the VCO unit and PLL unit.Phase-locked loops design, simulation, and applications / Roland E. Best.(621.3815364 BES)Phase-locked loops theory and applications / stern L. Stensby (621.3815364 STE)Phase-Lock fundamentals/ William F.Egan(621.3815364 EDA)The art of Electronics, Second Edition/ Paulhorowitz Winfield Hill.Phase Locked Loops, 1993/ J.B.EncinasModern Control System Theory and Design, Second Edition/Stanley M.ShinnersSpeed Control of a stepper motor using PLL, University of Hertfo rdshire,2005/ Anthony RichardPhase Locked Loops, University of Hertfordshire,2003/ Mihir ShahDesign of a phase locked loop for coherent optical demodulat, University of Hertfordshire,2005/ Hua ZhouThe control second order system fo PLL, University of Hertfordshire,2006/ Mingshuhttp//dictionary.reference.com/ for definitions http//hem.passagen.se/communication/fm_pll_vco.html an insight for the VCO unit and PLL unit.Phase-locked loops design, simulation, and applications / Roland E. Best.(621.3815364 BES)Phase-locked loops theory and applications / John L. Stensby (621.3815364 STE)

Saturday, 30 March 2019

SWOT Analysis of Singapore Tourism

SWOT digest of capital of capital of capital of capital of capital of capital of capital of capital of Singapore touristry touristry is at its rapid expanding stand for which just about of people promptly in the 21th century be traveling and see realizeions both around the world. T here be so many states which be Africa, the Americas, East Asia and the Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and South Asia, within all this comp iodinent thither are so many countries and states that green goddess be counted as a tourism destination and attraction as long as it is accessible to people there ordain be touring car.Singapore has sensation of the largest service sectors in tourism. For Singapore to take this advantage as a tourism destination, it has contri plainlyed 3% of Singapores GDP which has generated some of US$ 9.4 trillion. Being one of the most fashionable countries in Asia, Singapore has been growing very(prenominal) promptly for the past few years. With the help of the tourism industry, it has streng and thened the infrastructure developments, in addition of various events and the countries strategic location in the heart of region. This shows how to a greater extent the role of tourism industry kindle play in Singapores economy. To project that tourism remains a key economic pillar, a adventurous tar nab, tourism 2015, was unveiled in the year 2005. The objectives of Singapore is to triple the tourism receipts to US$ 30 Billion, doubling seeor arrivals to 17 Million, and creating an special 100,000 jobs in the service sector by 2015, according to Opportunities in Singapore Tourism Industry (2007-2009). Having all these advantages, the forbids are besides a reckon to look at so by doing this re seek I will suffer a better view on the impacts, advantages and disadvantages.http//www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/463815/opportunities_in_singapore_tourism_industry_20071.3 Literature freshen upIn the few defys I have read akin Tou rism in selenium Asia, Tourism impacts, planning and direction and Tourism management managing for change. These books are written by the following authors Peter Manson, Michal Hitchcock and Stephen foliate. The content of the book have the diametrical kinds of effects from tourism and changes countries have to face and how can they cope with it. I felt that many of the fact that are stated in the books are very agreeable like in the Tourism impacts, planning and management book written by Peter stonemason The impacts of tourism can be positive or beneficial, but also negative or detrimental. Whether impacts are perceived as positive or negative depends on the value position and judgment of the observer of the impacts. This shows that no matter how people research on any of the impacts there are of all time an some other way to view positive to a negative and negative to a positive. For the Tourism management managing for change by Stephen Page quoting It is widely recognized t hat a range of factor impact upon the advantage or failure of visitor attractions as tourism enterprises. This has to be viewed against growing visitor expectations during their visit and the need for attractions to emend standards in many countries worldwide. what I have understood is the touring car has ever changing taste and to commemorate up countries have to upgrade or prevail what they have now or they would overlook out. By using the research question expanding the search of the topic would be a clearer view of achieving the objective.1.4 Source of informationTourism is now a very vase merged subject involving many sectors. So by researching information on Books like Tourism in South-East Asia, Tourism impacts, planning and management and Tourism management managing for change the books tells how and what are the different situations. The other source would be from the internet where I can find millions of information regarding tourism and destinations. Using the sear ch engine Google I would search the key word from Tourism Impact, Singapore tourism, approaching of Singapore 2015. With just these few words I am able to get a few information on tourism. Because of a limitation of cadence I can only use the secondary research data on all that are done.Questions1 What makes Singapore a customary tourism destination?2 What are the challenges faced by Singapore as a tourism destination?3 What are the impacts of tourism?4 How will Singapore maintain its popularity in the future?ObjectivesTo die what attracts tourist to Singapore and whyTo interpret what challenges faced by Singapore in attracting touristEvaluating impacts of tourism on SingaporeTo find what Singapore will do to keep up with other countries in the future.1. What makes Singapore a popular tourism destination?Although Singapore is a nice soil, the amount of entertainment is compatible to other countries. Being one of the leading(a) tourist destinations in Asia and with millions of visits both year, Singapore is also popular for course traveling destination because of the large subject of exhibitions and conferences are organized every month in Singapore. A destination is a place which is created for a purpose, that is what Singapore have done they have created a destination where tourist comes to visit. The following attractions are made or modified in a way so that it can accommodate people. To stay popular Singapore have keep up with the trend of others and improving and expanding it. Examples like allowing casinos to be built when the pass few years which has been denied many times.The main categories of the popularity in Singapore now are listing bellow-Attraction-Stability-economical-cosmopolitan-Events-FestivalWhat I conceive is of how Singapore has to struggle to survive in the economic sense. Singapore have made it big and achieved a better economic structure but all these comes with a price they have to get a number of people to work in the at tractions but also entertain the tourist so the number of people that are working in the tourism industry in Singapore is lavishly resulting a in high spirits in reliance on tourism.SWOT part1(S)trengthsLeading tourist destinations in Asiapopular for business travelingRich in economySafe(O)pportunities strategical locationTourists arrivalsTourism receiptsOutbound tourismOutbound tourism expenditureMedical tourism industryMICE industry(W)eaknessesSmall countryLimitations on amount of visitorsLimited resourcesManmade attractionsLimited infixed environment(T)hreatsCountries pantomimeTerrorism3 What are the impacts of tourism?1.5 MethodologyPESTEPolitical, economical, socio-cultural, technological, environmentalThe half-dozen elements of the tourism have is advantage however the disadvantage are high too in order to understand it we have to look at two different view which is the positive and negative. Everyone have different perspective no matter how good a situation is there is always a downside.(P)olitical controllingMore order in country modify diplomatic ties vetoTerrorismStrict reinforcement(E)conomicPositiveContributes to income and improve standard of living.Improves local economyIncreases jobs that decreases unemployment rateIncreases tax revenues.Improves infrastructuresIncrease investorshttp//wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_positive_economic_impacts_of_tourismNegativeIncrease in food, land, houses would be more expensive for the localsPart-time, semi-skilled, poor gainful and taking away traditional jobsSeasonal jobs such as these could then possibly lead to high rates of unemployment.Dependent on the tourismInflationLeakage(S)ocio-culturePositiveTraditional art or affair result from touristResponsible cultural tourismexperience and understand bare-assed culturereduce negative perceptiontoleranceintegrated worldculture prideNegativelanguage barrier plump down up bad habitscultural conflictsloss culture identity(T)echnologicalPositiveimprovement in technologyimprove in booking scheme which leads to easier booking so therefore a subjoin in tourismable to get information easily onlineNegativeincrease in scammight have a negative perspective on a country after reading reviews(E)nvironmentPositiveincrease in national park for tourist bound damage / even limited damage still does damageincrease awareness of maintaining nature partially because of profit because when maintained more tourist would come back to visit againhttp//www.gdrc.org/uem/eco-tour/envi/four.htmlNegativePollution from more vehicles demandlitters dropped by visitors dislocation of natural habitats and cause damages the landscapeland clear for more attractions/ amenitiesheavy usage on resources4. How will Singapore maintain its popularity in the future?Singapore to compete with other countries would be a challenge but it has made it. Being 1st in doing what others could not. Examples like that F1 Night race and the coming 2010 youth Olympics will be here 1st . The need for Singapore to stay competitive is the ideas that are made and are being able to be executed. In 2005 Minister for Trade and Industry, Mr. Lim Hng kiang shows the planning that is being done to triple Tourism Receipts (TR) to S$30 billion, doubling visitor arrivals (VA) to 17 million, and creating an additional 100,000 jobs in the services sector by 2015.1.6 RecommendationsThe current tourism situation in Singapore is doing quite well and achieving the 2015 would not be a problem with all the new attractions and events coming up. However currently there are advantages and disadvantages in Singapore, the advantage Singapore has now should be maintained and improved. The disadvantages should be chastise to be competitive in the future.ADVANTAGEScounted the safeties countryminimum crime (robbery, stabbing, riots, and protests)natural disaster harder hits Singapore cause of being surrounded by other countriesDISADVANTAGESlack of service experiencebad servicesstrict lawshig h in tax1.7 AnalysisAfter doing all the research I have analyzed that tourism is like a product and there is the product life cycle and Singapore is at its growth stage and with the coming youth Olympic, the growth will increase because in the future there would be more new attractions like the two new integrated resorts and theme parks that comes with it to boost the economy. Although there still by chance a few disadvantages and negative impacts Singapore could improve and control on what is bad. Being a small country has its disadvantage but how different people look at it is that because it is small it is more easily teachable compared to a big country. To see it this way Singapore can increase the tourism weather now or in the future disrespect the negatives. I will do a further in prescience study on the PEST and SWOT analysis to see it more in detailed.1.8 ConclusionSingapore Tourist could be a very useful element in the countrys economic how ever there are many other re asons they can be helpful too. In my sight best thing about tourism is mainly because of the economic that is why almost every country they are promoting tourism and trying to attract people to their country. Same thing goes to Singapore without tourism the country would lose three per cent of Singapores GDP and more than S$12 billion in tourism receipts. Looking at the PEST and SWOT analysis countries can help understand and improve the tourism and look after the locals so both party would not be affected in a bad way.

My Hospital Experience | Short Story

My Hospital Experience Short StoryI fuck youre always thinking on the grave side, and youre thinking every one and only(a) good should be treated advantageously, and everyone disobedient, ex tilt satisfactory criminals, shouldnt be here. But, sometimes, good people have bad issues done to them, for unknown reasons. Rarely, no one is doing it to them, most of the time its a bad thing. My story is different, extremely different. Its non something normal, its something unknown..Im a in truth good person. I have great grades, I try to stop fights with no violence, yet now merely talking it out, I have nice friends, and Ive alone visited to principals office to pick something up. But, Ive had something horrible done to me. You know how you sop up a cold? Yeah, I had gotten sick, not with a cold, just an unknown illness that caused me to actually go to the hospital, and it seemed same(p) I had to get brain surgery. nada compared to cold, right there.Youre probably thinking , Brain Surgery? What happened? Well, you see, it all started out on a hot tame-day. I noticed my eyeball moving back up and forrard, in an unseen speed, on the way to lunch. Of course, Id freak out, only if this was school I on the nose closed my eyes for a bit, and opened them aft(prenominal), and it seemed wish nothing had flushtide happen. I purview it was just my imagination. But, it did get worse. Weeks later, it happened again. I was at a hotels pool, and it was happened when I and my mother were walking back to the room. My eyes flickered back and forth, and I was staring directly at her. Her face changed from in one case enjoyment to a reaction of worry and anger. She told me, Stop that, youre exhalation to endure yourself. I asked her, Stop what? She steadied her eyes, That eye thing, dont play dumb. I sighed, Oh, Im not doing that on purpose. The conversation just stopped there. We went inside, and I think we some(prenominal) just ignored it, I think..This s o-called eye trick wasnt going to stop any time soon. I had at last thought it had took its monetary value and found its way out of my system.. But, I was so wrong.. This darknessmare had and begun. Later that school- year, Spring Break to be exact, my eyes flickered back and forth in front of my mother again, change surface longer this time, and I couldnt even stop it when I closed my eyes I was terrified, and my mother told me she was victorious me to the hospital. I sincerely didnt want her to do that, because I was disturbed about how much by money she had, and I really didnt want to be a burden, plainly I didnt really have a choice. a lot later, on a rainy ride that seemed to be forever, we finally reached Camden checkup Center. My mother took me inside, holding my hand in a firm and stung grip and told them what was happening. She signed in, and we waited patiently in the room, sitting down. A smallish wait later, they got a wheel-chair and took me inside the eme rgency room. My mind was numb, and I couldnt really think straight, so more than things were going on at one time. All I remember was having an IV in one of my arms, and I waited for something in a hospital bed, with a clean, heated blanket on me.Again, I still couldnt figure out what was going on, but they vomit me into a gurney and put me inside of the ambulance and told me everything was going to be okay. I just lied down, and closed my eyes. I knew the other doctors in the ambulance were saying things, but I couldnt hear them that well.. The ride seemed long, but short at the like time. I could still feel my mother holding my hand as we reached the next hospital.I only remember opening my eyes, inside of a room, laying on a hospital bed. I could tell my parents were worried for me. I didnt know why, though. A doctor came inside and told me I take brain surgery. I was terrified inside, and I wanted to cry and scream, but I just agreed and nodded when he told me I needed to d o some ladders. There was valety tests during that while in the hospital. Blood tests, see tests, x-rays, a spinal tap, and other tests I dont remember.. My family came in a lot, when a test was done and I could go back to my room. I really just wanted to go dwelling.. I was so tired of the hospital, but I couldnt leave.. I didnt feel tortured, I just matt-up trapped. I wanted to leave so bad, but I couldnt I felt like I was a caged animal for some wacky scientist to test on. For devil weeks that seemed like the days would not end, I was told that white production line cells were attacking my cerebellum that caused my eyes to move back and forth, so they told me I just needed some steroids and I think a few to a greater extent tests before I could go home. I was so happy, I could finally leave. For two days, the nurses gave me steroids and I felt a burning in my wrists, but I just didnt care for it. I was going to go home.. I could finally go back to school.. afterwards those days, I was finally allowed to go home. I was taken out of the hospital in a wheel-chair, and I crawled into the back of my fathers car. It took a couple of hours before we were home, but when we were, I smiled with gloat and tried to run inside, but I could only stride.Days seemed normal, and aft(prenominal) the weekend, I was informed that I could return to school This normal thing continued until I had been able to go into the sixth grade, and I was told underweight the middle of the school year I needed a shot, and I didnt get it. So, I spoke of the truth and told them I didnt know, and I got a slip and took it to my mother.. But, apparently, I keistert get this shot because of the incident at the hospital. So, I have to wait and continue my school year until two school years have passed. Now, because of that terrible misfortune of trouble in the hospital, I have to been home schooled.. Great, just peachy, I thought my year of bad luck was over. It just goes to show, life isn t fair at times, even if youve never done anything wrong.The trigger-happy Convertible Literature AnalysisThe departure Convertible Literature AnalysisThe power of family relationships is a very goodish force. It plunder change the course of one persons life or the lives of many people in a positive or negative manner. The lodge between family members is especially strong and it is believed that it nookie stand the test of roughly anything that is thrown to warfareds the family members. However, this is not always true. There are many things that can tear apart relationships and ties within a family, such as war and death. Death simply severs the relationship very bluntly and devastates a family. contend can cause a soldier to act differently towards their relationships and to never be able to be precipitate their old selves again. In the story of The Red Convertible by Louise Eldrich, the very same happens to brothers hydrogen and Lyman Lamartine. total heats appearanc e, the shoot of the brothers, and transmutable symbolize the change in their relationship from the time before and after atomic number 1 goes to war. total heats physical appearance has changed since access home from war, as well as how he acts around his family. After coming home from war, enthalpy wore the same outfit everyday. He wore his army jacket and his army boots, and he never took them off. This unwillingness to change out of his army clothes shows that Henry feels that he is permanently connected to the war. Generally when soldiers wear their army clothes, even after they arrived home, it signifies their need to go back into combat because it is all that they had come to know and that they do not know anything outside of combat. It is often thought that soldiers feel the need to go back to combat so that they can die within a situation that they had come to know. Additionally, the soldiers that are able to return back home feel guilty for living and want to go back to war to die so that they can get rid of the guilt they feel.The army boots that Henry wears constantly brings about his literal error death with Lyman describing, his boots filled with water on a windy night (394) and Henry drowning as the result. The boots also symbolize the war and since the boots filled up with water and caused the death of Henry, the war itself drowned Henry. Henry was not able, or or else was unwilling to save himself from drowning, the weight of the horrors of wars. Henrys personality changed since coming home from war. He used to be a carefree young man that would clowning around with his brother, such as when he went to Alaska and joked, I always wondered what it was like to have long pretty hair. (395) when they discovered that Susy had hair that reached the ground. Lyman recalls these times and notices the change in his brother from beingness playful and happy-go-lucky to a man that cannot laugh anymore, stating Hed always had a joke, wherefore, too, and now you couldnt get him to laugh (396). Henry also could not sit still after coming home from war, probably fearing that if he sat still for too long then the images of war would creep back into his head.The photograph that is taken by their jr. sister Bonita indicates the change that Henry underwent prior to the war and after coming home from the war. The picture shows the contrast in their personalities after Henry returns. Lyman describes himself as being right out in the sun, big and round. (398), showing that Lymans person is whole and content with life, while Henry is described as having shadows on his face as deep as holes. (398), indicating that is soul is scarred and abject from what he experience while at war. This photography also introduces the foremost time that Henry smiles since coming home. His smile is described as if it looked as like it might have hurt his face. (398) and this represents the aftermath of the war and the unfitness to be truly happy again.T he redeemable epitomizes the freedom that Henry and Lyman experienced and their relationship between each other. The freedom they experience is shown by the bridle-path trip they had the summer before Henry was drafted to war. This freedom that they had before the war is destroyed by the war. Henrys refusal to do anything with the car shows his feeling of losing his freedom and that he feels that he is a slave to the war. Both brothers were untroubled by the worries of the foundation and traveled around the United States together. Their relationship becomes stronger after they bought the convertible, repaired the car, and traveled around. After coming back from war, Henry loses interest in the convertible and more importantly, his brother.The convertible also represents the war-torn relationships of soldiers. Lymans destruction of the convertible after he had spent a great deal of time and money on pay backing it up represents the broken relationship between the brothers. When H enry confronts his jr. brother about it, Henry claims, when I left field, that car was running like a watch. Now I dont even know I can get it to start again, let alone get it anywhere airless its old condition. (397). Henry is communicating that he does not know how to fix the broken relationship with his brother and that he is uncertain of the future of their relationship. Henry also knows that he cannot restore their relationship back to the way it was before. When Henry works on fixing the car, it shows his attempt to fix his brotherly relationship to the best of his ability and Henrys reasoning for trying to fix his relationship is his actualisation of his brothers love. When Henry enters into the river intentionally drowning, the bond that the brothers shared was severed. Lyman is left the convertible, which Henry had obdurate for him. Lyman pushed it into the river to that he does not have to carry the guilt of not being able to save his brother.The relationship between He nry and Lyman is struck a deadly blow by the Vietnam War. Henry and Lymans relationship undergoes a translation with the significance in change in appearance of Henry, a photograph of the brothers after the war, and the convertible that they purchased together. Henrys appearance signifies his attachment to the war he left behind in a different country and this affected how he interacted with his brother. His boots were symbolic of the war causing his death, even though he was not in Vietnam when he died. The photograph of Lyman and Henry compares how the brothers differed after Henrys return from war. The convertible indicates the actual relationship between the brothers and how the condition of the car reflects the integrity of their relationship.

Friday, 29 March 2019

Crossover Design for Speakers

Cross over Design for SpeakersCrossover DesignIn terms of crossover design, there are two distinct fillings in agile or supple crossovers. Passive crossovers are the most common implementation, since precisely iodin amplifier is needful. In this case, filters comprising hands-off components (inductors, capacitors and resistors) are partd to ensure that the illuminate frequency range is supplied to each driver. Low-pass, high-pass and band-pass filters are commonly used and wishing to be matched to ensure that the frequency roll-offs compliment each other, such that in the crossover zone(s) the combined acoustic output of the drivers maintains a flat frequency response.In terms of these passive filters, it is the localize of the filters used that is the primary consideration. A first frame filter has a roll-off of -6dB per Octave and a Butterworth characteristic. prototypal come in filters are undesirable for two reasons a +3dB peak is introduced at the centre of the cr ossover band and the crossover bandwidth is large due to the tranquillise roll-off, which means the drivers need to be capable of handling a great frequency range. thus far, first roam filters require the least components, incur less(prenominal) place loss as a result and do non introduce a phase change in the output.Second order filters are the most commonly used type in passive crossovers, since they are relatively simple solely solve the problems associated with first order filters. The roll-off is -12dB per octave and the filters may be designed with a Linkwitz-Riley characteristic which maintains a flat frequency response across the crossover band, unlike the combine of Butterworth filters.Third order filters offer a roll-off of -18dB per octave, however there is a problem of phase separation in a two-way frame there is a phase shift of 270 degrees which can result in lobing and tilting of the coverage pattern (DellaSala, G. 2004). Some designs such as the DAppolito co nfiguration1, which uses one-third drivers, actually make use of this phase separation in order to minimise lobing, however the DAppolito configuration is notoriously interlacing and catchy to implement well without precise driver measurements.If a high-order crossover is desired, fourth part order filters are by chance the best choice. Although they are more complex in terms of design and require more components, the advantages are a small crossover bandwidth (roll-off is -24dB per octave) and a 360 degree phase shift wherefore no phase correction is required. Passive crossovers beyond fourth order are generally not considered. Borwick (2001, p.267) notes these are seldom used in passive crossover designs because of their complexity, cost and insertion losses.The other preliminary to crossover design is the fighting(a) crossover. In this case active filters (normally establish around op-amps) are used to divide the input signal into the required frequency bands prior to amp lification the crossover has multiple outputs and a separate power amplifier is needed for each frequency band. Some audiophiles complain that active crossovers (which normally employ high-order active filters) are not a in effect(p) choice, due to the poor flying response of high order filters. However as Elliot (2004) notes, the additional control that the amp has over the drivers behaviour improves the transient performance, and especially so at (or near) the crossover frequency the most tiny frequency point(s) in the design of any loudspeaker.Apart from the increase complexity and multiple power amplifier requirement, active crossovers are far superlative to their passive counterparts in almost every way, although some purists may disagree. solid quality op-amps are cheap, as are the required resistors and capacitors (since these do not need to handle much power). The active solution means frequency response is no longer defined by the quite mingled combined resistive, ca pacitive and inductive load of the passive crossover and drivers. olibanum the frequency response of the crossover is independent of dynamic changes in the load. Furthermore, the active crossover makes it easy to tune the crossover dynamically with most commercially available active crossovers one can simply dial in the required frequency bands.Efficiency is improved with active crossovers, since no power is lost by the amplifier in driving passive inductors or resistors. The amplifier likewise has the best possible control over transient response, since there is nada between it and the driver other than cable. Thus the amplifier can respond flat and presents the maximum damping factor at all times, regardless of frequency (Elliot R. 2004).In view of the above one may then wonder wherefore passive crossovers continue to remain so popular, since it seems far more synthetical to implement frequency division before amplifying the signal. Ease of installation is perhaps the main f actor. Almost all commonly available hi-fi arrangings use speakers with passive crossovers. For the consumer this makes things easy the speakers are simply connected to the amplifier and installation is complete.In contrast, turnkey active solutions for the average consumer are not forthcoming, although rack-mounted professional active crossovers can be obtained for quite reasonable prices (around 150 for a quaternate order 2 way Linkwitz-Riley design)2. However, these require a fair mensuration of audio engineering expertise to set up correctly and the typical home listener simply does not possess this knowledge.For the high-budget client want the best audio reproduction, active crossovers are certainly the best option the technical advantages have been seen to be numerous. This is offset by the fact that the system will be far more complicated to correctly install, but it is assumed in this case that complexity of installation is of little apprehension to the high-budget cli ent who is unlikely to handle the installation themselves in any case.For the low-budget client, the best solution is the passive crossover. It is a simple option, only requires one amplifier and yet produces acceptable sound quality. It is far from the best solution, but adequate to(predicate) if a competitive price point is desired.In conclusion, all but a few dyed-in-the-wool purists will agree that the active crossover is a superior solution in terms of quality and control. What it lacks in chasteness is outweighed by a far superior level of control over frequency response and the drivers themselves. However, due to issues of complexity one can endure that the traditional passive crossover shall continue to lead a rose-cheeked existence in the majority of loudspeaker designs.SourcesBorwick, John. (2001). Loudspeaker and Headphone Handbook, central Press.DellaSala, G. (2004). Filter Crossover Types for Loudspeakers, Audioholics Magazine.Dickason, V. (1995). The Loudspeaker Design Cookbook, Audio Amateur Publications.Elliot R. (2004). quick vs Passive Crossovers, Elliot Sound Products.Rossing, T. (1990). The Science of Sound, Addison-Wesley.11 DAppolitos across-the-board 1983 paper may be obtained here http//www.aes.org/e-lib/browse.cfm?elib=117622 For example the Samson S-2 http//www.inta-audio.com/products.asp?partno=sto-oth-sam2w

F Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom Oceans Policy

F Australia, Canada and the unify landed e estate seas form _or_ ashes of g overnmentIntroductionThe Worlds current barbel to navalic insurance and sustainable mari shipboard soldierson growth is ground on twain main Inter subject ara strategical foundations UNCLOS and UNCED. Both if consecrated they hand over the nates for navals constitution and nauticals insurance polity frame of reference work. They enable states to containative and foster issues supreme rights and jurisdiction over nautical mental imagerys and onshore atomic number 18as. At the same time they obligate states to discover ocean practice sessions argon ecologic tout ensembley sustainable. The murder of the pro dream of UNCLOS, link up prescripts, rules and standards relating to the certificate and hand over of the oceanic environs and to the saving and perplexity of living shipboard soldier imaginativenesss, as swell as the performance of the commitments concord to in Chapter 17 of agenda 21, present whatever of the study chall(a)enges veneering the lay to rest guinea pigistic ocean company. These challenges cannot be met by superstar parting, mavin State, one ministry, or one local anaesthetic club alone. It is therefore very authoritative to strengthen cooperation and coordination at all levels. At the study level, the nautical ratio moldiness be embodied within the overall study insurance. The bankers acceptance of an ocean insurance is a very important mechanism to achieving an integrated, interdisciplinary, inter sphere of influenceal and ecosystem- base go on to oceans focus. A coherent legislative cloth is overly essential. However the nurture of this field of study oceans form _or_ system of governance depends on every state situation. Vertical and plain desegregation amid these deuce foundations, need a high semi establishmental umbrella and a premise ministry for lotting the field of study oce anic order of business. This agenda must be establish on sound scientific priorities increase plan compulsory for sagacity how best to protect topics ocean biologic diversity, the ocean environment and its imagerys, and on a wide audience summons with all stakeholder. Comparative synopsis of the commencement puzzle out of national ocean constitution in major nautical nations such(prenominal)(prenominal) as Australia, Canada, the unite country, shows in spite of the particular that Agenda 21 has leaved a decipherable defined create mentally and solicitude activities, individually country have fol wiped out(p)ed a different progress in evolution its national oceans solicitude outline. altogether of them have employd these devil global foundations and their guiding principles in on a lower floordeveloped their oceans policies. These approaches are integrated in content and are precautionary and prevenient in ambit, as require by UNCLOS and as reflect ed in the Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 programme areas. The rootage programme in chapter 17 is incorporated solicitude and sustainable teaching of coastal areas, including exclusive sparing zones. (Agenda 21, 1992). To this end, and according to Chapter 17 the state should establish the necessary strengthening suspend coordinating mechanisms (such as a high-level policy planning body) (Agenda 21, 1992). It get on states Such mechanisms should include citation, as appropriate, with the academic and private sectors, non- organisational organizations, local communities, resource substance ab mappingr groups, and autochthonal people. excessively coastal states are required to purify their mental ability to collect, analyse, task and procedure education for sustainable consumption of resources, including environmental impacts of activities touch the coastal and naval areas. Information for guidance purposes should receive anteriority erect in date of the intensity and magnitude of the changes occurring in the coastal and devil dog areas. Other related charge activities include conceptualisation and performance of land and wet use and sitting policiesImplementation of integrated coastal and nautical precaution and sustainable development plans and programmes at appropriate levelsPreparation of coastal profiles identifying critical areas, including gnaw at zones, physical operationes, development patterns, user conflicts and unique(predicate) priorities for chargePrior environmental impact judgment, systematic observation and carry by means of with(predicate) of major projects, including the systematic internalization of results in decision-makingContingency plans for human bring on and graphic disasters, including likely do of potential climate change and sea level rise, as well as happening plans for degradation and taint of anthropogenic origin, including spills of oil and different materialsImprovement of coastal human congea ltlements, in particular in housing, drinking water and treatment and disposal of sewage, solid wastes and industrial effluentsPeriodic assessment of the impacts of transnational factors and phenomena to reckon that the objectives of integrated steering and sustainable development of coastal areas and the devil dog environment are metpreservation and amends of altered critical habitatsintegration of sectoral programmes on sustainable development for settlements, agriculture, tourism, fishing, ports and industries affecting the coastal area al-Qaeda adaptation and alternative employmentmilitary personnel resource development and planningPublic education, awareness and discipline programmesPromoting environmentally sound engine room and sustainable practices organic evolution and simultaneous execution of environmental quality criteria.The res mana of Saudi-Arabian-Arabian Arabia stands at a cross road. The Kingdom has the opportunity to develop its naval sector and sust ainably manage national shipboard soldier resources. The status of national naval resources and governance is not good devil dog resources are degraded and nautical governance is in adapted. This indicates that an urgent action is requisite to save the threatened national seas and opportunities. As has been highlighted and underlined in previous chapters, Saudi Arabia devil dog governance must be reorganized under one document a cosmopolitan case nautical policy. Comprehensive national nautical policies are a relatively rude(a) trend in ocean governance. As implied they dole out all leatherneck and coastal issues. NMPs are a resolution to the sectoral disconnected approach currently dominating maritime governance which often leads to unincorporated worry and authority as sassy responsibilities are delegated to different agencies as they arise. In addition to incorporating all shipboard soldier and coastal issues, NMPs seek to integrate all levels of governanc e local, provincial, national, regional and planetary. The verge integrated management is utilise to describe this approach. Although many countries and regions have created encyclopaedic shipboard soldier or ocean policies, I focus on marine policy development bring and governance as highly- developed and experienced in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom for 2 reasons First they represent the offset troika direct countries in the world that have developed nationwide ocean policy and governance framework and is being implemented and time-tested to differing levels of success Canada enacted the nauticals Act of 1996 followed by the release of Australias Ocean policy in 1998. Great Britain followed in may 2002, with Safeguarding Our Seas A system for the Conservation and sustainable culture of our oceanic environs. from each one country has followed a different policy route to sustainable oceans development. date Australia has followed a totally pure policy frame work by providing a untried structure, mechanism and policy guidance for delivering its comprehensive national oceans policy Canada followed a different approach by first providing a comprehensive legal framework for oceans uses and resources management within Canada different maritime zones including the 200nm EEZ and continental shelf, here and now by producing Canada Oceans schema in July of 2002. The United Kingdom has followed a totally different approach by first growing a preservation strategy followed by introducing a single turn of legislation to protect the marine environment by enacting in 2009 the marine and coastal Act. Second, the three countries have developed their policies in accordance with Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 and base on the 1994 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Being the world leaders in oceans policies, I focus on oceans policy development growth in these three countries as examples their successes and leadership role in oceans policy can bunk the creation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depicted object nautical indemnity.Comparative Overview of Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom oceans policyAustraliaInitiation paradeAustralia is the first country to set in place a policy framework for an integrated and ecosystem establish planning and management for all of Australias marine jurisdictions. With the release of Australias Oceans constitution (AOP) in 1998, Australia has demonstrated a world leadership by implementing a coherent, strategic planning and management framework for conducting with complex issues confronting the long frontier future of Australias oceans (AOP1, 1999). AOP was initiated by a political announcement from the prime minister, followed by a wide humans consultation process using a consultation document (Oceans- recent thought). AOP process was initiated by the end of 1995 when the run ag cps curate at that time announce that the people presidency had agree to the development of an integrated oceans strategy that would deal with the management of Australias marine resources (AOP, 1998). However, out-of-pocket to the federal election and change of government little progress was achieved, just in 1996 the bracing government announced that it would continue underdeveloped the oceans policy as being an environmental protection policy and stirred the responsibility for developing the policy agenda from the reciprocation section of the roseola Minister and console to the plane section of environment, Sport and Territories (DEST) (Bateman, 1997). Later on the earn of this department has been changed to the Department of purlieu and hereditary pattern (DEH) charged with protecting and conserving Australias lifelike environment and cultural heritage. go away MinistryIn 1996 the new Australian government announced that it would continue developing the oceans policy as being an environmental protection policy and transferred the responsibility for developing the policy agenda from the Department of the Prime Minister and console to the Department of environment and hereditary pattern (DEH) (Vince, 2003). As a result of the transfer of responsibility for oceans policy development, Australia environment Minister led the process by establishing an intergovernmental committee to back upance with the preparation of the policy (Vince, 2003). Using the collaborative emplacements and orchis intergovernmental linkages, the Minister open up a committee addressing members from major race agencies involved in marine affairs. in like manner a number of different committees were formed during these early stages of development to assist with the development of a discussion paper (Vince, 2003). The citizens committee has prepared the Oceans-New celestial horizon paper which has been launched in attest 1997 to assist in the first consultations round with State, Territory and Local governments, top side bod ies and organizations and the general public. The New Horizon set out a selective service vision, goal and objectives for Australia Oceans Policy and an indication of some of the broad issues relevant to an Oceans Policy as well as before long introducing some of the features of Australia oceans (New Horizon, 1997).Consultation abutAfter the publication of the New Horizon paper a second round of consultation begun done a public forum to appraise the draft policy paper (MAGOP, 1998). During this process, purlieu Australia organised public forums where the public could get an overview of the Issues Paper and to provide comment. The forums consisted of two parts, the first part include a formal briefing from Environment Australia officials while the second segment was an information session organised by the state branches of the oceanic and Coastal Communities Network (MCCN) (Vince, 2003). naval ministerial plug-inBefore the release of AOP the Australian regime schematic a M inisterial consultive conclave on Ocean Policy in 1997 to provide advice to the Minister for Environment and heritage on the views of the broad range of stakeholders of the policy and any some some separate issues the Group thought relevant to the development of the policy (AOP1, 1998). It has excessively been suggested that the MAGOP was established to cook the actualise of NGOs during the Policy process as well as to upgrade public awareness (Vince, 2003). Later on the MAGOP was replaced by a depicted object Oceans Ministerial Board (NOMB) of divulge estate Ministers, chaired by the Minister for the Environment and hereditary pattern (Foster, 2005). The task of the board is to crowd the death penalty of the AOP by overseeing regional planning processes, furthering policy development, overseeing cross sector coordination, setting priorities for program expense and coordinating the Oceans Policy with State governments (AOP1, 1998).Oceans StrategyBased on the wide po licy consultation process Australia was pronto able to develop its sustainable theme Ocean Policy and vision of Healthy oceans cared for, understood and utilize wisely for the benefit of all, directly and in the future(AOP1, 1998). The aim of the strategy is to get well problems perceived to arise from a contribution of powers and responsibilities leading to jurisdictional lap and inconsistencies in ocean management (Vince, et al. 2003). The strategy also intends to overcome the problems and limitations enforce by sector based management by supporting integration across sectors through and through regional marine planning. AOP came in two piles (AOP1, 1998). The first script targeted nine major objectives 1) exercise and protect Australias rights and jurisdiction over inshore areas, including offshore resources. 2) To satiate Australias international obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and other international treaties. 3) To understand and protect Australias marine biological diversity, the ocean environment and its resources, and ensure ocean uses are ecologically sustainable. 4) To elevate ecologically sustainable economic development and frolic creation. 5) To establish integrated oceans planning and management arrangements. 6) To accommodate community necessitate and aspirations. 7) To better expertise and capabilities in ocean-related management, science, technology and engineering. 8) To identify and protect Australias natural and cultural marine heritage. 9) To promote public awareness and understanding (AOP1, 1998). The key principles that were used in developing Australia ocean policy intrinsically indigenous peoples interests stewardship ethic intergenerational and social equity ecologically sustainable use conservation of biological diversity participatory, transparent and accountable decision making and management and integrated planning and management(AOP1, 1998).Ocean work seeThe second volume of A ustralias Oceans Policy complements the first volume of the Policy by outlining specific measures that are being or will be pursued by the area across ocean sectors and interest(AOP2, 1998). The Specific vault of heavenal Measures volume is comprehensive in its scope, masking the major environmental, industry, community, look into, scientific, international and defence interests that the Commonwealth has responsibility for in marine jurisdictions. The document has identified 390 commitments across those quintet broad areas and detailed executing schedule of actions. The schedule identified organisations creditworthy for(p) for implementing actions, priorities, milestones and resourcing (AOP2, 1998). This detail facilitated the auditing of the Policy and contributed to an assessment of its impressiveness.New InstitutionTo implement AOP a internal Oceans Office (NOO), was established to provide secretariat and technical support and programme delivery for oceans policy initiati ves(AOP1, 1998). The NOO was trustworthy for coordinating the overall implementation and finalize the detailed implementation schedule of actions and further development of the Oceans Policy(AOP2, 1998). NOO also was responsible for coordination and distribution of information on oceans policy implementation and regional marine planning matters to all stakeholders(Addison and Chenko, et al. 2005). Other new institutions included the National Oceans Ministerial Board, Regional leatherneck computer programme Steering Committees and the National Oceans informative Group (NOAG). In 2005 NOO woolly its executive agency status and is now located within the Marine Division of the Department of Environment and Heritage (DEH, 2005). The Minister of Environment and Heritage has the responsibility for NOO through the department and reports to Cabinet on its progress (Haward and Vince, 2006).Ocean Research Priorities designWhilst AOP development process was progressing, the Marine Science and engineering science Working Group, comprising representatives of Australian Government marine science and related agencies, as well as State question institutions and non-government marine science interests were workings to develop Australias Marine Science and engineering Plan (Alder, 2001). The government aimed to develop and release the Plan as a companion to Australias Oceans Policy(Vince, 2004). The Marine scientific advisory committee was tasked with promoting coordination and information share-out between Government marine science agencies and across the broader Australian marine science community(AMSTP, 1999). The MSTC prepared a Marine Science and Technology Plan to provide a strategy, consonant with the Oceans Policy, for integrated and innovative science, technology and engineering. The Plan encompasses three major programs under each program multiple objectives(AMSTP, 1999) . catch the Marine Environment ( 7 objectives)Using and Caring for the Marine Environment ( 15 objectives)Infrastructure for rationality and Utilising the Marine Environment ( 6 objectives). mandateAustralia Oceans Policy has established new institutions to oversee the implementation of the Regional Marine think process. The institutions have emphasise a departure from traditional sectoral arrangements whilst incorporating over 100 laws and policy instruments addressing aspects of the management of the marine environment and the legal jurisdictional framework established through offshore federalism(Haward and Vince, 2006). The Offshore Constitutional colonization (OCS) returned the jurisdiction over 3nm from the low water mark to the states(Stark, 2004). OCS remains the native feather intergovernmental arrangement governing ocean and marine resources in Australia and makes up the jurisdictional framework for the development and implementation of the Ocean Policy(Vince, 2004). Since Australia Ocean Policy has been developed as being an environmental protection poli cy the principal Australian legislation is the environmental breastplate and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999(cth) (EPBC Act)(Akwilapo, 2007). The EPBC Act and the associated Environment testimonial and Biodiversity Conservation order 2000 (EPBC Regulation) provide a national framework for Environment protection through focusing on protecting areas of national environmental significance and on the conservation of Australias biodiversity (Akwilapo, 2007). On the other hand, a commitment to ecologically sustainable development and multiple use management is embedded within the Oceans Policy framework emphasising a commitment to, inter alia, the United Nations Conference on Environment and growings (UNCED) Agenda 21 principles and UNCLOS (Akwilapo, 2007).Integrated Marine spacial PlanningThe AOP emphasised that Australia Regional Marine Plans is based on swelled marine ecosystems. This system helps to maintain ecosystem health and justice while promoting multiple use of oceans by integrating sectoral commercial interests and conservation requirements. Australia approach to Integrated Ocean Planning and Management encompass the following(AOP2, 1998)Development of a new institutional arrangement comprising the National Oceans Ministerial Board, the National Oceans Advisory Group and the National Oceans Office and Regional Marine Plan Steering Committees.Providing policy guidance for oceans planning and management.Regional Marine Plan, based on large marine ecosystems. The first plan was developed for the south-eastern region of Australias EEZ.Funds for National marine resource surveys development of sustainability indicators and monitor and speedy assessments of the biological resources of Australias oceans. The resulting information based was used to underpin hard-hitting regional integration for planning and management. These assessments also benefit industry by providing information on potential new resources such as deep-water fisheries and pharmaceut icals.Development of National Representative establishment of Marine Protected Areas.Development of Marine Parks and World Heritage Areas. oceanic gum elastic and Environment Protection PlanThe Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) has developed a strategy to protect the marine environment from transfer operations through improved environmental management of raptus and related activities(Stark, 2004). The strategy encompass designation of marine sharp areas, promote improvement of waste answer facilities at ports, marinas and boat harbours, improve anti-fouling practices, management and piloting a national observe programme for marine debris, community and industry awareness, and support for the heighten National Plan to struggle Pollution of the Sea by inunct and Other Noxious and unwarranted Substances (the National Plan) (AOP1, 1998). under the AOP the Government perpetrate to enhance maritime safe and highlighted the importance of enhancing regional cooperative arrangement for search and rescue, development and implementation of search and rescue arrangements implementation of the spherical Maritime Distress Safety System(GMDSS), pursue consistent requirements for the use of fatality Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs) and maritime communications for small vessels(AOP2, 1998). To further ensure the Safety of Navigation, the Government act to maintain efficient coast-effective maritime galosh navigation services and infrastructure, involution of the local area Differential planetary Positioning Systems (DGPS) services scientific development in marine navigation, and occasion in the International connective of Lighthouse Authorities and other international forums to ensure global navigational safety policies, standards and new technologies(AOP2, 1998).Maritime superintendence and Security PlanTo ensure that there is an effective and efficient surveillance capacity for Australias marine jurisd ictions and effective enforcement of national legislation throughout Australias marine jurisdictions. Under the Oceans Policy the Australian government move to pursue through the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) and other to increase action addressing misappropriated fishing in CCAMLR and adja centime amnionic fluid increased surveillance and enforcement measures in the Great Barrier Reef continued to cooperate to review and tailor effort involved in and capacity for surveillance and enforcement including reviewing legislation relating to enforcement in Australias marine jurisdictions(AOP2, 1998). The Oceans Policy highlighted that the Australian defence mechanism Forces (ADF) tasks encompass safeguarding these areas, controlling of maritime approaches to exercise and protect Australias supremety and sovereign rights. This involve preparedness and contingency planning maritime surveillance and response fisheries law enforcement search and rescue hydrographic services and the Australian Oceanographic info Centre (AODC)(AOP2, 1998).Maritime Sector Development PlanDuring AOP development process the Marine Industry Development Strategy was also announced. The Strategy highlighted what the Marine Industry is worth what should aim for further resourceful developments(AOP2,1998). It illustrated that 90 per cent of Australias oil and gas is sourced offshore that the shipbuilding industry supplies one trine of the worlds high speed convey market wild capture fisheries represent a major primary industry and that marine tourism is a booming industry(Vince, 2004). The Specific Measures people of Australia Oceans Policy underpinned several challenges facing the maritime sector and the various activities such as fisheries aquaculture offshore petroleum and minerals transit marine tourism marine construction, engineering and other industries pharmaceutical, biotechnology and hereditary resources and alternative energy resources. For clashing these challenges the policy proposed numerous activities under each one of them. For example to meet the shipping sector challenge to increase trade and regional development by delivering safe, efficient, competitive and environmentally responsible maritime infrastructure and shipping services(AOP2, 1998). The policy identified measures including regulatory renew of the maritime sector with a view to removing barriers to competition, rationalise jurisdictional arrangements, tally standards and promote mutual light and encourage continuous improvements in shipping and waterfront sectors to enhance the competitiveness of Australian trade and industry to continue Australia leading role in international trade and maritime forums to ensure approach to competitive and efficient international shipping services is maintained(AOP2, 1998).Marine precept and Training PlanUnder Australias Marine Science and Technology Plan, NOO is responsible for providing advice to the Ministerial Board on marine search priorities relevant to the Oceans Policy to ensure that the marine research agencies are kept informed of the Governments acclivitous priorities(TFG, 2002). The NOMB is responsible to consider Government priorities for publicly funded marine research related to the implementation of the Oceans Policy including community capacity building, networking opportunities, and community participation in marine management, research and supervise and entropy collection and provide opportunities for community representation on advisory committees in regard to marine resource management, the establishment of a new marine science research and instruction centre at Coffs give suck support for the Australian, Pacific and Global Oceans observing Systems establishment and operation of a Regional Office of the International Oceanographic accusation in Perth, Western Australia formulation of quality maritime education and research and training and emplo yment in jointly managed parks development of a long term marine education policy and programme for kindergarten to course 12 to be incorporated in curricula in all States and Territories development of relevant resource materials for use in schools and Technical and Further teaching colleges in cooperation with professional bodies and support for the provision of quality practical educational material for teachers and students(AMSTP, 1999).National Maritime Information CenterTo improve monitoring and understanding of marine ecosystems and the impacts of resource use Australia government has developed the Australian Coastal Atlas, within the Environmental Resource Information Network (ERIN), to impart general access to adequate information for community involvement in oceans management as a fundamental element of the Australian Spatial Data Infrastructure(AOP2, 1998). Thus, the Australian government provided support for the Marine and Coastal society Network to develop a compreh ensive communication strategy to assist the public, industry and governments learn more or less and understand the role of Australias Oceans Policy. Also the government supported the Australian appraise and Land Information Group (AUSLIGs) chronic development of the Australian Maritime Boundaries Information System as a national database of Australias maritime jurisdictional boundary data to provides Australias with an independent and scientifically credible information on Australias environment for decision-makers and the wider community(AOP2, 1998). AUSLIG is the Commonwealth focal intimate for coordination of geodesic information and kit and boodle closely with State and Territory agencies, the Inter-governmental Committee on Surveying and map (ICSM) and industry groups towards the provision of the highest quality geodetic infrastructure(AUSLIG, 2009). Moreover, AUSLIGs under the ocean policy is responsible for the development of a coordinated observations and methods to ana lyse and interpret the data that will make optimum use of information from remote and in situ measurements at the space and time scales required for effective monitoring, use, management and conservation(AOP2, 1998). It is conk that the lack of a comprehensive system of monitoring sites, and lack of long commitment to monitoring inshore and offshore, specially on the scale of large marine ecosystems has affected Australia ability to assess changes in the condition of the marine environment. Thus, AOP recognized that Integration of coastal, inshore and offshore monitoring activities is vital to National capacity for future assessments and maintenance of marine and coastal environments(AOP1, 1998).National Oceans fabricationTo provide for Community representation and participation, the AOP established a National Oceans Advisory Group as a non-government consultatory and advisory body to the National Oceans Ministerial Board(AOP1, 1998). The NOAG is responsible for promoting strate gic management of the ocean environment and its resources to provide opportunities for community representation on consultive committees in regard to marine resource management and facilitate consultation with peak indigenous groups on the requirements for establishing a national consultative mechanism, such as an annual forum(AOP1, 1998). Thus, to promote implementation of Australia Oceans Policy, the policy called for holding a National Oceans Forum to coordinate across the agencies responsible for the development of uncreated and Torres Strait Islander and a broad national cross-section of those with a stake in the management of Australia oceans(IOC, 2007).International CooperationGiven the dynamic constitution of the marine environment, AOP recognized that the effective implementation of the Oceans Policy requires cooperation with immediate neighbours and other countries to address the transboundary impacts and improve regional cooperation on ocean issues(AOP1, 1998). Thus, A OP called for peaceful use of the oceans and cooperation in access for national and international scientific research and monitoring programmes cooperation with neighbouring countries and with industries to maximise resources improved cooperation and coordination between existing coastal moF Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom Oceans PolicyF Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom Oceans PolicyIntroductionThe Worlds current approach to ocean policy and sustainable maritime development is based on two main International strategic foundations UNCLOS and UNCED. Both if integrated they provide the basis for oceans governance and oceans policy frame work. They enable states to exercise and protect Nationals sovereign rights and jurisdiction over marine resources and offshore areas. At the same time they obligate states to ensure ocean uses are ecologically sustainable. The implementation of the provisions of UNCLOS, related Conventions, rules and standards relating to the protectio n and preservation of the marine environment and to the conservation and management of living marine resources, as well as the implementation of the commitments agreed to in Chapter 17 of Agenda 21, present some of the major challenges facing the international ocean community. These challenges cannot be met by one region, one State, one ministry, or one local community alone. It is therefore very important to strengthen cooperation and coordination at all levels. At the national level, the marine dimension must be integrated within the overall national policy. The adoption of an ocean policy is a very important mechanism to achieving an integrated, interdisciplinary, intersectoral and ecosystem-based approach to oceans management. A coherent legislative framework is also essential. However the development of this national oceans policy depends on every state situation. Vertical and horizontal integration between these two foundations, need a high political umbrella and a lead minist ry for setting the national marine agenda. This agenda must be based on sound scientific priorities development plan required for understanding how best to protect Nationals marine biological diversity, the ocean environment and its resources, and on a wide consultation process with all stakeholder. Comparative analysis of the development process of national ocean policy in major maritime nations such as Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, shows in spite of the fact that Agenda 21 has provided a clear defined programme and management activities, each country have followed a different approach in developing its national oceans management strategy. All of them have used these two international foundations and their guiding principles in developing their oceans policies. These approaches are integrated in content and are precautionary and anticipatory in ambit, as required by UNCLOS and as reflected in the Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 programme areas. The first programme in chapter 17 is Integrated management and sustainable development of coastal areas, including exclusive economic zones. (Agenda 21, 1992). To this end, and according to Chapter 17 the state should establish the necessary strengthening appropriate coordinating mechanisms (such as a high-level policy planning body) (Agenda 21, 1992). It further states Such mechanisms should include consultation, as appropriate, with the academic and private sectors, non-governmental organizations, local communities, resource user groups, and indigenous people. Also coastal states are required to improve their capacity to collect, analyse, assess and use information for sustainable use of resources, including environmental impacts of activities affecting the coastal and marine areas. Information for management purposes should receive priority support in view of the intensity and magnitude of the changes occurring in the coastal and marine areas. Other related management activities includePreparation and implementatio n of land and water use and sitting policiesImplementation of integrated coastal and marine management and sustainable development plans and programmes at appropriate levelsPreparation of coastal profiles identifying critical areas, including eroded zones, physical processes, development patterns, user conflicts and specific priorities for managementPrior environmental impact assessment, systematic observation and follow-up of major projects, including the systematic incorporation of results in decision-makingContingency plans for human induced and natural disasters, including likely effects of potential climate change and sea level rise, as well as contingency plans for degradation and pollution of anthropogenic origin, including spills of oil and other materialsImprovement of coastal human settlements, especially in housing, drinking water and treatment and disposal of sewage, solid wastes and industrial effluentsPeriodic assessment of the impacts of external factors and phenomena to ensure that the objectives of integrated management and sustainable development of coastal areas and the marine environment are metConservation and restoration of altered critical habitatsIntegration of sectoral programmes on sustainable development for settlements, agriculture, tourism, fishing, ports and industries affecting the coastal areaInfrastructure adaptation and alternative employmentHuman resource development and trainingPublic education, awareness and information programmesPromoting environmentally sound technology and sustainable practicesDevelopment and simultaneous implementation of environmental quality criteria.The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia stands at a cross road. The Kingdom has the opportunity to develop its maritime sector and sustainably manage national marine resources. The status of national marine resources and governance is not good marine resources are degraded and marine governance is inadequate. This indicates that an urgent action is needed to save the threatened national seas and opportunities. As has been highlighted and underlined in previous chapters, Saudi Arabia marine governance must be reorganized under one document a comprehensive National Marine Policy. Comprehensive national marine policies are a relatively new trend in ocean governance. As implied they address all marine and coastal issues. NMPs are a response to the sectoral fragmented approach currently dominating marine governance which often leads to unorganized management and authority as new responsibilities are delegated to different agencies as they arise. In addition to incorporating all marine and coastal issues, NMPs seek to integrate all levels of governance local, provincial, national, regional and international. The term integrated management is used to describe this approach. Although many countries and regions have created comprehensive marine or ocean policies, I focus on marine policy development process and governance as developed and experienced in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom for two reasons First they represent the first three leading countries in the world that have developed comprehensive ocean policy and governance framework and is being implemented and tried to differing levels of success Canada enacted the Oceans Act of 1996 followed by the release of Australias Ocean Policy in 1998. Great Britain followed in May 2002, with Safeguarding Our Seas A Strategy for the Conservation and Sustainable Development of our Marine Environment. Each country has followed a different policy route to sustainable oceans development. While Australia has followed a totally pure policy frame work by providing a new structure, mechanism and policy guidance for delivering its comprehensive national oceans policy Canada followed a different approach by first providing a comprehensive legal framework for oceans uses and resources management within Canada different maritime zones including the 200nm EEZ and continental shelf, second by producing Canada Oceans Strategy in July of 2002. The United Kingdom has followed a totally different approach by first developing a conservation strategy followed by introducing a single piece of legislation to protect the marine environment by enacting in 2009 the Marine and Coastal Act. Second, the three countries have developed their policies in accordance with Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 and based on the 1994 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Being the world leaders in oceans policies, I focus on oceans policy development process in these three countries as examples their successes and leadership role in oceans policy can guide the creation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia National Marine Policy.Comparative Overview of Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom oceans policyAustraliaInitiation ProcessAustralia is the first country to set in place a policy framework for an integrated and ecosystem based planning and management for all of Australias marine jur isdictions. With the release of Australias Oceans Policy (AOP) in 1998, Australia has demonstrated a world leadership by implementing a coherent, strategic planning and management framework for dealing with complex issues confronting the long term future of Australias oceans (AOP1, 1999). AOP was initiated by a political announcement from the prime minister, followed by a wide public consultation process using a consultation document (Oceans- New Horizon). AOP process was initiated by the end of 1995 when the Prime Minister at that time announced that the Commonwealth government had agreed to the development of an integrated oceans strategy that would deal with the management of Australias marine resources (AOP, 1998). However, due to the federal election and change of government little progress was achieved, but in 1996 the new government announced that it would continue developing the oceans policy as being an environmental protection policy and transferred the responsibility for developing the policy agenda from the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet to the Department of Environment, Sport and Territories (DEST) (Bateman, 1997). Later on the name of this department has been changed to the Department of Environment and Heritage (DEH) charged with protecting and conserving Australias natural environment and cultural heritage.Lead MinistryIn 1996 the new Australian government announced that it would continue developing the oceans policy as being an environmental protection policy and transferred the responsibility for developing the policy agenda from the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet to the Department of Environment and Heritage (DEH) (Vince, 2003). As a result of the transfer of responsibility for oceans policy development, Australia Environment Minister led the process by establishing an intergovernmental committee to assist with the preparation of the policy (Vince, 2003). Using the collaborative arrangements and formal intergovern mental linkages, the Minister established a committee encompassing members from major Commonwealth agencies involved in marine affairs. Also a number of other committees were formed during these early stages of development to assist with the development of a discussion paper (Vince, 2003). The Committee has prepared the Oceans-New Horizon paper which has been launched in March 1997 to assist in the first consultations round with State, Territory and Local governments, peak bodies and organizations and the general public. The New Horizon set out a draft vision, goal and objectives for Australia Oceans Policy and an indication of some of the broad issues relevant to an Oceans Policy as well as briefly introducing some of the features of Australia oceans (New Horizon, 1997).Consultation ProcessAfter the publication of the New Horizon paper a second round of consultation begun through a public forum to review the draft policy paper (MAGOP, 1998). During this process, Environment Austral ia organised public forums where the public could get an overview of the Issues Paper and to provide comment. The forums consisted of two parts, the first part included a formal briefing from Environment Australia officials while the second component was an information session organised by the state branches of the Marine and Coastal Communities Network (MCCN) (Vince, 2003).Maritime Ministerial BoardBefore the release of AOP the Australian Government established a Ministerial Advisory Group on Ocean Policy in 1997 to provide advice to the Minister for Environment and Heritage on the views of the broad range of stakeholders of the policy and any other issues the Group thought relevant to the development of the policy (AOP1, 1998). It has also been suggested that the MAGOP was established to gain the support of NGOs during the Policy process as well as to promote public awareness (Vince, 2003). Later on the MAGOP was replaced by a National Oceans Ministerial Board (NOMB) of key Common wealth Ministers, chaired by the Minister for the Environment and Heritage (Foster, 2005). The task of the board is to drive the implementation of the AOP by overseeing regional planning processes, furthering policy development, overseeing cross sector coordination, setting priorities for program expenditure and coordinating the Oceans Policy with State governments (AOP1, 1998).Oceans StrategyBased on the wide policy consultation process Australia was quickly able to develop its sustainable National Ocean Policy and vision of Healthy oceans cared for, understood and used wisely for the benefit of all, now and in the future(AOP1, 1998). The aim of the strategy is to overcome problems perceived to arise from a division of powers and responsibilities leading to jurisdictional overlap and inconsistencies in ocean management (Vince, et al. 2003). The strategy also intends to overcome the problems and limitations imposed by sector based management by supporting integration across sectors through regional marine planning. AOP came in two volumes (AOP1, 1998). The first volume targeted nine major objectives 1) exercise and protect Australias rights and jurisdiction over offshore areas, including offshore resources. 2) To meet Australias international obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and other international treaties. 3) To understand and protect Australias marine biological diversity, the ocean environment and its resources, and ensure ocean uses are ecologically sustainable. 4) To promote ecologically sustainable economic development and job creation. 5) To establish integrated oceans planning and management arrangements. 6) To accommodate community needs and aspirations. 7) To improve expertise and capabilities in ocean-related management, science, technology and engineering. 8) To identify and protect Australias natural and cultural marine heritage. 9) To promote public awareness and understanding (AOP1, 1998). The key principles that were used in developing Australia ocean policy intrinsically indigenous peoples interests stewardship ethic intergenerational and social equity ecologically sustainable use conservation of biological diversity participatory, transparent and accountable decision making and management and integrated planning and management(AOP1, 1998).Ocean Action PlanThe second volume of Australias Oceans Policy complements the first volume of the Policy by outlining specific measures that are being or will be pursued by the Commonwealth across ocean sectors and interest(AOP2, 1998). The Specific Sectoral Measures volume is comprehensive in its scope, covering the major environmental, industry, community, research, scientific, international and defence interests that the Commonwealth has responsibility for in marine jurisdictions. The document has identified 390 commitments across those five broad areas and detailed implementation schedule of actions. The schedule identified organisations respo nsible for implementing actions, priorities, milestones and resourcing (AOP2, 1998). This detail facilitated the auditing of the Policy and contributed to an assessment of its effectiveness.New InstitutionTo implement AOP a National Oceans Office (NOO), was established to provide secretariat and technical support and programme delivery for oceans policy initiatives(AOP1, 1998). The NOO was responsible for coordinating the overall implementation and finalize the detailed implementation schedule of actions and further development of the Oceans Policy(AOP2, 1998). NOO also was responsible for coordination and distribution of information on oceans policy implementation and regional marine planning matters to all stakeholders(Addison and Chenko, et al. 2005). Other new institutions included the National Oceans Ministerial Board, Regional Marine Plan Steering Committees and the National Oceans Advisory Group (NOAG). In 2005 NOO lost its executive agency status and is now located within th e Marine Division of the Department of Environment and Heritage (DEH, 2005). The Minister of Environment and Heritage has the responsibility for NOO through the department and reports to Cabinet on its progress (Haward and Vince, 2006).Ocean Research Priorities PlanWhilst AOP development process was progressing, the Marine Science and Technology Working Group, comprising representatives of Australian Government marine science and related agencies, as well as State research institutions and non-government marine science interests were working to develop Australias Marine Science and Technology Plan (Alder, 2001). The government aimed to develop and release the Plan as a companion to Australias Oceans Policy(Vince, 2004). The Marine scientific advisory committee was tasked with promoting coordination and information sharing between Government marine science agencies and across the broader Australian marine science community(AMSTP, 1999). The MSTC prepared a Marine Science and Technolo gy Plan to provide a strategy, consistent with the Oceans Policy, for integrated and innovative science, technology and engineering. The Plan encompasses three major programs under each program multiple objectives(AMSTP, 1999) .Understanding the Marine Environment ( 7 objectives)Using and Caring for the Marine Environment ( 15 objectives)Infrastructure for Understanding and Utilising the Marine Environment ( 6 objectives).LegislationAustralia Oceans Policy has established new institutions to oversee the implementation of the Regional Marine Planning process. The institutions have emphasised a departure from traditional sectoral arrangements whilst incorporating over 100 laws and policy instruments addressing aspects of the management of the marine environment and the legal jurisdictional framework established through offshore federalism(Haward and Vince, 2006). The Offshore Constitutional Settlement (OCS) returned the jurisdiction over 3nm from the low water mark to the states(Stark , 2004). OCS remains the primary intergovernmental arrangement governing ocean and marine resources in Australia and makes up the jurisdictional framework for the development and implementation of the Ocean Policy(Vince, 2004). Since Australia Ocean Policy has been developed as being an environmental protection policy the principal Australian legislation is the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999(cth) (EPBC Act)(Akwilapo, 2007). The EPBC Act and the associated Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulation 2000 (EPBC Regulation) provide a national framework for Environment protection through focusing on protecting areas of national environmental significance and on the conservation of Australias biodiversity (Akwilapo, 2007). On the other hand, a commitment to ecologically sustainable development and multiple use management is embedded within the Oceans Policy framework emphasising a commitment to, inter alia, the United Nations Conferenc e on Environment and Developments (UNCED) Agenda 21 principles and UNCLOS (Akwilapo, 2007).Integrated Marine Spatial PlanningThe AOP emphasised that Australia Regional Marine Plans is based on large marine ecosystems. This system helps to maintain ecosystem health and integrity while promoting multiple use of oceans by integrating sectoral commercial interests and conservation requirements. Australia approach to Integrated Ocean Planning and Management encompass the following(AOP2, 1998)Development of a new institutional arrangement comprising the National Oceans Ministerial Board, the National Oceans Advisory Group and the National Oceans Office and Regional Marine Plan Steering Committees.Providing policy guidance for oceans planning and management.Regional Marine Plan, based on large marine ecosystems. The first plan was developed for the south-eastern region of Australias EEZ.Funds for National marine resource surveys development of sustainability indicators and monitoring and r apid assessments of the biological resources of Australias oceans. The resulting information based was used to underpin effective regional integration for planning and management. These assessments also benefit industry by providing information on potential new resources such as deep-water fisheries and pharmaceuticals.Development of National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas.Development of Marine Parks and World Heritage Areas.Maritime Safety and Environment Protection PlanThe Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) has developed a strategy to protect the marine environment from shipping operations through improved environmental management of shipping and related activities(Stark, 2004). The strategy encompass designation of marine sensitive areas, promote improvement of waste reception facilities at ports, marinas and boat harbours, improve anti-fouling practices, management and piloting a national monitoring programme for marine debr is, community and industry awareness, and support for the enhanced National Plan to Combat Pollution of the Sea by Oil and Other Noxious and Hazardous Substances (the National Plan) (AOP1, 1998). Under the AOP the Government committed to enhance maritime safety and highlighted the importance of enhancing regional cooperative arrangement for search and rescue, development and implementation of search and rescue arrangements implementation of the Global Maritime Distress Safety System(GMDSS), pursue consistent requirements for the use of Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs) and maritime communications for small vessels(AOP2, 1998). To further ensure the Safety of Navigation, the Government committed to maintain efficient coast-effective maritime safety navigation services and infrastructure, expansion of the local area Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS) services technological development in marine navigation, and involvement in the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities and other international forums to ensure global navigational safety policies, standards and new technologies(AOP2, 1998).Maritime Surveillance and Security PlanTo ensure that there is an effective and efficient surveillance capacity for Australias marine jurisdictions and effective enforcement of national legislation throughout Australias marine jurisdictions. Under the Oceans Policy the Australian government continued to pursue through the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) and other to increase action addressing illegal fishing in CCAMLR and adjacent waters increased surveillance and enforcement measures in the Great Barrier Reef continued to cooperate to review and rationalise effort involved in and capacity for surveillance and enforcement including reviewing legislation relating to enforcement in Australias marine jurisdictions(AOP2, 1998). The Oceans Policy highlighted that the Australian Defence Forces (ADF) tasks encompass safeguarding these areas, controlling of maritime approaches to exercise and protect Australias sovereignty and sovereign rights. This involve preparedness and contingency planning maritime surveillance and response fisheries law enforcement search and rescue hydrographic services and the Australian Oceanographic Data Centre (AODC)(AOP2, 1998).Maritime Sector Development PlanDuring AOP development process the Marine Industry Development Strategy was also announced. The Strategy highlighted what the Marine Industry is worth what should incur for further resourceful developments(AOP2,1998). It illustrated that 90 per cent of Australias oil and gas is sourced offshore that the shipbuilding industry supplies one third of the worlds high speed ferry market wild capture fisheries represent a major primary industry and that marine tourism is a booming industry(Vince, 2004). The Specific Measures Volume of Australia Oceans Policy underpinned several challenges facing the ma ritime sector and the various activities such as fisheries aquaculture offshore petroleum and minerals shipping marine tourism marine construction, engineering and other industries pharmaceutical, biotechnology and genetic resources and alternative energy resources. For meeting these challenges the policy proposed numerous activities under each one of them. For example to meet the shipping sector challenge to increase trade and regional development by delivering safe, efficient, competitive and environmentally responsible maritime infrastructure and shipping services(AOP2, 1998). The policy identified measures including regulatory reform of the maritime sector with a view to removing barriers to competition, rationalise jurisdictional arrangements, harmonise standards and promote mutual recognition and encourage continuous improvements in shipping and waterfront sectors to enhance the competitiveness of Australian trade and industry to continue Australia leading role in internation al trade and maritime forums to ensure access to competitive and efficient international shipping services is maintained(AOP2, 1998).Marine Education and Training PlanUnder Australias Marine Science and Technology Plan, NOO is responsible for providing advice to the Ministerial Board on marine research priorities relevant to the Oceans Policy to ensure that the marine research agencies are kept informed of the Governments emerging priorities(TFG, 2002). The NOMB is responsible to consider Government priorities for publicly funded marine research related to the implementation of the Oceans Policy including community capacity building, networking opportunities, and community participation in marine management, research and monitoring and data collection and provide opportunities for community representation on consultative committees in regard to marine resource management, the establishment of a new marine science research and teaching centre at Coffs Harbour support for the Australi an, Pacific and Global Oceans Observing Systems establishment and operation of a Regional Office of the International Oceanographic Commission in Perth, Western Australia provision of quality maritime education and research and training and employment in jointly managed parks development of a long term marine education policy and programme for kindergarten to year 12 to be incorporated in curricula in all States and Territories development of relevant resource materials for use in schools and Technical and Further Education colleges in cooperation with professional bodies and support for the provision of quality practical educational material for teachers and students(AMSTP, 1999).National Maritime Information CenterTo improve monitoring and understanding of marine ecosystems and the impacts of resource use Australia government has developed the Australian Coastal Atlas, within the Environmental Resource Information Network (ERIN), to allow general access to adequate information for community involvement in oceans management as a fundamental element of the Australian Spatial Data Infrastructure(AOP2, 1998). Thus, the Australian government provided support for the Marine and Coastal Community Network to develop a comprehensive communication strategy to assist the public, industry and governments learn about and understand the role of Australias Oceans Policy. Also the government supported the Australian Surveying and Land Information Group (AUSLIGs) continuing development of the Australian Maritime Boundaries Information System as a national database of Australias maritime jurisdictional boundary data to provides Australias with an independent and scientifically credible information on Australias environment for decision-makers and the wider community(AOP2, 1998). AUSLIG is the Commonwealth focal point for coordination of geodetic information and works closely with State and Territory agencies, the Inter-governmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM) an d industry groups towards the provision of the highest quality geodetic infrastructure(AUSLIG, 2009). Moreover, AUSLIGs under the ocean policy is responsible for the development of a coordinated observations and methods to analyse and interpret the data that will make optimum use of information from remote and in situ measurements at the space and time scales required for effective monitoring, use, management and conservation(AOP2, 1998). It is clear that the lack of a comprehensive system of monitoring sites, and lack of long-term commitment to monitoring inshore and offshore, particularly on the scale of large marine ecosystems has affected Australia ability to assess changes in the condition of the marine environment. Thus, AOP recognized that Integration of coastal, inshore and offshore monitoring activities is vital to National capacity for future assessments and maintenance of marine and coastal environments(AOP1, 1998).National Oceans ForumTo provide for Community representat ion and participation, the AOP established a National Oceans Advisory Group as a non-government consultative and advisory body to the National Oceans Ministerial Board(AOP1, 1998). The NOAG is responsible for promoting strategic management of the ocean environment and its resources to provide opportunities for community representation on consultative committees in regard to marine resource management and facilitate consultation with peak indigenous groups on the requirements for establishing a national consultative mechanism, such as an annual forum(AOP1, 1998). Thus, to promote implementation of Australia Oceans Policy, the policy called for holding a National Oceans Forum to coordinate across the agencies responsible for the development of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and a broad national cross-section of those with a stake in the management of Australia oceans(IOC, 2007).International CooperationGiven the dynamic nature of the marine environment, AOP recognized that the effective implementation of the Oceans Policy requires cooperation with immediate neighbours and other countries to address the transboundary impacts and improve regional cooperation on ocean issues(AOP1, 1998). Thus, AOP called for peaceful use of the oceans and cooperation in access for national and international scientific research and monitoring programmes cooperation with neighbouring countries and with industries to maximise resources improved cooperation and coordination between existing coastal mo