Wednesday, 6 March 2019

The Clash of Civilizations: a Summary of Samuel Huntington’s Controversial

POLI 100 F10N01 Gabrielle Bishop The meeting of Civilizations A Summary of Samuel Huntingtons controversial Political Analysis and its Critics Culture and cultural identities, which at the broadest aim be nicetyal identities, ar shaping patterns of cohesion, disintegration, and conflict in the post- ice-cold warfare homo Samuel Huntington POLI 100 F10N01 Gabrielle Bishop In a 1993 article published in unusual personal matters, Harvard Professor of Government and Political Scientist Samuel Huntington made a prediction for the twenty-first century that would go on to be both disputed and support by experts around the globe.As the Iron Curtain of ideology of the heatless War had fallen, Huntington theorized that a new Velvet Curtain of culture would rise1. duration the Cold War divided the humanness up into communist and democratic societies, the twenty-first century would feature con? icts amidst clashing civilizations, whose disputes would be root in various ethnic, cul tural, and/or religious differences 2. In 1996, Huntington wrote a adjudge titled The confrontation of Civilizations and the produce of World Order, which expanded upon these points. or so were intrigued, others, extremely offended.But, few could ignore the controversial predictions Huntington made about the coming(prenominal) of global politics. Huntington divides The strike of Civilizations into ? ve parts, the ? rst of which is titled as Part One A World of Civilizations. In this chapter, he identi? es the six principal civilizations that furbish up up the world, as well as deuce other thinkable civilizations3 1. Sinic4 Includes chinaware and the Chinese communities in South-East Asia. Vietnam and Korea are also in this group. 2. Japanese Huntington stresses that Japanese civilization is very(prenominal) distinct, and does not necessarily ? in with other Far Eastern rustics having split off from China amongst 100 and 400 AD. 3. Hindu (Also referred to as Indian or I ndic) Huntington notes that term there are Muslim communities within India, Hinduism has been essential to the culture of the subcontinent since for well-nigh 4,000 years. 4. Islamic This civilization emerged around 700AD in the Arabian peninsula, and quickly stretch out across northeastern Africa, the Iberian peninsula, central Asia, the Subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. Many preposterous Islamic sub-cultures exist because of this (ex Malay, Turkic, Persian, etc. 5 5. western (formerly kn sustain as western Christendom) This civilization is widely viewed as having emerged at around 700AD, Huntington states, and comprises numerous a(prenominal) states in Europe, and North & Latin America, as well as many European settler countries (such as Australia and New Zealand) 6. Latin American While this civilization has its roots in European civilization, Huntington states that its corporatist & disdainful culture is what sincerely yours sets it apart from Europe and North America. 7. Orthodox (possibly) Huntington mentions brie? that some other academics go through the Orthodox Russian civilization to be separate from Byzantine and Western Christian civilization. 8. African (possibly) Huntington also mentions that most scholars do not insure there to be an African civilization, with the exception of French Historian Fernand Braudel6 . He notes that North Africa is part of the Islamic civilization, and that Ethiopia has been knget to constitute a civilization of its own7 . He theorizes that because of their rapid festering of personal identity element, Sub-Saharan Africa could indeed become its own civilization, with a chance of South Africa being its centre state8.In choosing to station civilizations in this way, Huntington received a number of re simplytals such as the unrivalled from Fethi Keles (who t apiecees in the Anthropology department at Syracuse University)9. In The The Antinomies of Samuel P. Huntington Some anthropological Reflections on the American Pundit, Keles criticizes Huntington for being Eurocentric, and too commonplace for not recognizing that cultures are not so simple that they can be categorized into six (or, eight) several(predicate) civilizations 10.Keles also notes that Huntington never once cited a foreign-language reference (a detail first noticed by anthropologist Hugh Gusterson)11. Feles instead proposes that he pay more attention to detail, of the sort provided by anthropology 12. Only then, she states, result his predictions emend from a constantly risk-running sort to a relatively risk-averse one13. Huntington begins the adjacent section, Part 2 The Shifting Balance of Civilizations, by stating that the power and regulate the West once held is now dying14.Although the civilization did experience success with the infract of the Soviet Union, Huntington argues that the West has become exhausted15. He brings to light two opposing arguments (A) That the West still holds a monopoly over econ omic consumption, soldiers strength, and technology16 and, (B) That the West is losing its allure and power. 17 Huntington takes the side of lineage B, and expands on it further. He notes that while the Wests power and influence may indeed be declining, it depart be a very slow process and is therefore not an immediate threat shortly to global forces 18.Huntington stresses the development role religion is now playing in global politics. He notes that religion often gains popularity in response to a societys changing holds. He mentions, for example, how many South Koreans comport abandoned their traditional Buddhist beliefs in exchange for Christianity as their nation has become increasingly urban and economicallybased. Kang Jun In criticizes Huntington in his article Confucianism and republic in East Asia A Critique of Samuel P. Huntingtons 3rd swing, published in Korea Journal in the Autumn of 1999.In states that Huntington is guilty of competition that East Asiatic cou ntries which have Confucian tradition can build the salvation of democracy only by self-denial the denial of their own tradition and assimilation of modern Western culture. 19 , quoting him saying Confucian democracy may be a contradiction in terms, just democracy in a Confucian society20. Ultimately, people need new sources of identity, new forms of stable community, and new sets of moral precepts to provide them with a sense of meaning and purpose21, Huntington argues.Huntington also notes that Muslim societies, contrary to their Asian counterparts, have expressed their culture through the resurgence of religion, noting that Islam embodies the acceptance of modernity, rejection of Western culture, and the recommitment to Islam as the guide to life in the modern world22. This is mostly because of the emergence of a large, devout and young generation of Muslims has been paired with an authoritarian style of government. In Part 3 the Emerging Order of Civilizations, Huntington n otes that during the Cold War, countries were either labelled as communist or non-communist.Now, countries who cannot easily tendency themselves have entered into an identity crisis 23. Because of this, many new international organizations (Ex the European Union, the North American Free Trade Agreement, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, etc). came unitedly uniting nationstates under common ancestry, religion, language, values, and institutions, and in doing so, distanced themselves from different nations who did not plow these characteristics 24. However, not all nations have been successful in identifying with one crabbed culture, Huntington states, referring to Mexico, Turkey, Russia, and Australia 25.These states, he says, could be described as torn countries26 countries which are torn between multiple cultural identities the tradition cultural identity theyve held, and the new cultural identity they wish to adopt. A torn country has a single predominant culture w hich places it in one civilization, but its leaders want to shift it to another civilization. They say, in effect, We are different peoples and belong in different places27. In Chapter 7 Core States, concentrical States, and Civilized Order, Huntington states that a small, powerful number of core states pass on be the centre of a new structure of civilizations.France and Germany are examples of these states in the European Union. He goes on to describe core states, the divide between Western Europe (Protestantism & Catholicism) and Eastern Europe (Orthodox Christianity & Islam), and the lack of a core state in Islam. In Part 4 confrontationes of Civilizations (arguably the most important section of the book), Samuel Huntington predicts that In the emerging world, the dealing between states and groups from different civilizations will not be close, and will often be antagonistic. 28 He hypothesizes that the three principal roots of conflict will be wax from the interaction of t he following 1. The arrogance of the West 2. Islamic intolerance and 3. Sinic assertiveness 29. As the chapter progresses, Huntington states that Islam and Christianity have almost always been at odds with each other, and that the Islamic and Western civilizations will inevitably clash in the twenty-first century. There are a number of reasons for this, from the Muslim population growth placing large numbers of unemployed and dissatis? ed youth in the transfer of Islamic extremists to the West? attempt to universalize its values, culture, and military (thus generating intense jaundice from Muslim communities), to an exaggerated view of differences between the two civilizations as a result of increased communication and interaction between them30 . Huntington notes that with the emergence of Asia and China? s growing economies has come an antagonistic dealingship with the United States31. He predicts that the combination of China? s growing military with Asia? s growing economy c ould indeed result in an international con? ict. He also notes that the con? cts of the 21st century will be fought on fault lines (such as Islam vs. Christianity). He goes on to provide a list of fault line characteristics Communal conflicts between states or groups from different civilizations well-nigh always between people of different religions Prolonged duration fierce in nature Identity wars (us vs. them), eventually breaks down to religious identity Encouraged and financed by Diaspora communities Violence rarely ends permanently Propensity for peacefulness is increased with third party intervention32 In the last-place Chapter of the book, Part 5 the Future of Civilizations, Huntington oncludes that the West needs to be nimble to accept the growing influence of rival civilizations, if it wants to remain a global political power. As antecedently cited, Anthropologist Fethi Keeles was very critical of Huntingtons approach, in her piece published in the Journal of Third World Studies. Quoting Edward Said, a prominent critic of Samuel Huntington, she noted What culture today whether Japanese, Arab, European, Korean, Chinese, or Indian has not had long, intimate, and extraordinarily rich contacts with other cultures? 33 She then accuses him of being indifferent to the complex nature of the multicultural world, and argues that in his outline he failed to address intra-cultural or civilizational variation34. However, Somali-born human rights activist and former Dutch MP Ayaan Hirsi Ali begs to differ. She argues that the greatest advantage of Huntingtons civilizational model of international relations is that it reflects the world as it is not as one wishes it would be 35. The Clash of Civilizations, she states, is a classic that should be taught in every international relations and history class until a new world emerges. 36 No matter what the readers background is, it is difficult to argue that the nations of the world are not facing any forms of international conflict in the early 21st century. Where many critics choose to differ is on the railway yard of the origins of said international conflict, asking are the growing international conflicts sincerely due to opposing civilizations, or are the issues simply ideological? Samuel Huntington says these conflicts are predominantly rooted in culture and religion, and that the 21st century will inevitably be a period characterized by the Clash of Civilizations.Bibliography Huntington, Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations and the refashion of World Order. New York Simon & Schuster, 1996. Print. Charron, Nicholas. Deja Vu All Over Again A Post-Cold War Empirical Analysis of Samuel Huntingtons Clash of Civilizations Theory. Cooperation & Conflict 45. 1 (2010) 107-27. EBSCO Host. Web. Ali, Ayaan Hirsi. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. Foreign Affairs 89. 6 (2010) 198-99. EBSCO Host. Web. Perry, Glenn E. Huntington and His Critics the West and Isla m. Arab Studies quarterly 24. 1 (2001) 18. EBSCO Host.Web. In, Kang Jung. Confucianism and Democracy in East Asia A Critique of Samuel P. Huntingtons Third Wave. Korea Journal 39. 3 (1999) 315-37. Print. Hendrickson, Holly. script Summary of The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order by Samuel P. Huntington. beyond Intractability More structural Approaches to Destructive Conflict. Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado. Web. Keeles, Fethi. The Antinomies of Samuel P. Huntington Some Anthropological Reflections on the American Pundit. Journal of Third World Studies. 14. 2 (2007) 131-43. Print.Sullivan, Anthony T. Has Samuel Huntingtons Prediction pay off to Pass? Journal of the Historical Society 2. 2 (2002) 169-78. Print. Endnotes Huntington, Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York Simon & Schuster, 1996. Print. 1 2 3 4 Huntington 28. Huntington 45-46. Huntington had previously labelled this civilization as Confucian, in his 1993 Foreign Affairs article. He decided to use Sinic, as he felt Confucian teachings were not at the core of the civilization he was describing. (Huntington 199645) 5 6 7 8 9 Huntington 45. Huntington 47.Huntington 47. Huntington 47. Keeles, Fethi. The Antinomies of Samuel P. Huntington Some Anthropological Reflections on the American Pundit. Journal of Third World Studies. 14. 2 (2007) 131-43. Print. 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Fethi 131. Fethi 142. Fethi 142. Fethi 142. Huntington 82-83. Huntington 82. Huntington 83-90. Huntington 90-91 Huntington 91. In, Kang Jung. Confucianism and Democracy in East Asia A Critique of Samuel P. Huntingtons Third Wave. Korea Journal 39. 3 (1999) 319. Print. 20 21 22 23 Huntington 308 308-310. Huntington 97. Huntington 110. Hendrickson, Holly. Book Summary of The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order by Samuel P. Huntington. Beyond Intractability More Constructive Approaches to Destructive Conflict. Conf lict Research Consortium, University of Colorado. Web. 24 Huntington 126. 10 POLI 100 F10N01 Gabrielle Bishop 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Huntington 139. Huntington 138. Huntington 138. Huntington 183. Huntington 183. Huntington 211. Huntington 218. Hendrickson web. Keeles 143. Keeles 143. Ali, Ayaan Hirsi. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. Foreign Affairs 89. 6 (2010) 198-99. EBSCO Host. Web. 36 Ali 99. 11

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