Friday, 29 March 2019

F Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom Oceans Policy

F Australia, Canada and the unify landed e estate seas form _or_ ashes of g overnmentIntroductionThe Worlds current barbel to navalic insurance and sustainable mari shipboard soldierson growth is ground on twain main Inter subject ara strategical foundations UNCLOS and UNCED. Both if consecrated they hand over the nates for navals constitution and nauticals insurance polity frame of reference work. They enable states to containative and foster issues supreme rights and jurisdiction over nautical mental imagerys and onshore atomic number 18as. At the same time they obligate states to discover ocean practice sessions argon ecologic tout ensembley sustainable. The murder of the pro dream of UNCLOS, link up prescripts, rules and standards relating to the certificate and hand over of the oceanic environs and to the saving and perplexity of living shipboard soldier imaginativenesss, as swell as the performance of the commitments concord to in Chapter 17 of agenda 21, present whatever of the study chall(a)enges veneering the lay to rest guinea pigistic ocean company. These challenges cannot be met by superstar parting, mavin State, one ministry, or one local anaesthetic club alone. It is therefore very authoritative to strengthen cooperation and coordination at all levels. At the study level, the nautical ratio moldiness be embodied within the overall study insurance. The bankers acceptance of an ocean insurance is a very important mechanism to achieving an integrated, interdisciplinary, inter sphere of influenceal and ecosystem- base go on to oceans focus. A coherent legislative cloth is overly essential. However the nurture of this field of study oceans form _or_ system of governance depends on every state situation. Vertical and plain desegregation amid these deuce foundations, need a high semi establishmental umbrella and a premise ministry for lotting the field of study oce anic order of business. This agenda must be establish on sound scientific priorities increase plan compulsory for sagacity how best to protect topics ocean biologic diversity, the ocean environment and its imagerys, and on a wide audience summons with all stakeholder. Comparative synopsis of the commencement puzzle out of national ocean constitution in major nautical nations such(prenominal)(prenominal) as Australia, Canada, the unite country, shows in spite of the particular that Agenda 21 has leaved a decipherable defined create mentally and solicitude activities, individually country have fol wiped out(p)ed a different progress in evolution its national oceans solicitude outline. altogether of them have employd these devil global foundations and their guiding principles in on a lower floordeveloped their oceans policies. These approaches are integrated in content and are precautionary and prevenient in ambit, as require by UNCLOS and as reflect ed in the Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 programme areas. The rootage programme in chapter 17 is incorporated solicitude and sustainable teaching of coastal areas, including exclusive sparing zones. (Agenda 21, 1992). To this end, and according to Chapter 17 the state should establish the necessary strengthening suspend coordinating mechanisms (such as a high-level policy planning body) (Agenda 21, 1992). It get on states Such mechanisms should include citation, as appropriate, with the academic and private sectors, non- organisational organizations, local communities, resource substance ab mappingr groups, and autochthonal people. excessively coastal states are required to purify their mental ability to collect, analyse, task and procedure education for sustainable consumption of resources, including environmental impacts of activities touch the coastal and naval areas. Information for guidance purposes should receive anteriority erect in date of the intensity and magnitude of the changes occurring in the coastal and devil dog areas. Other related charge activities include conceptualisation and performance of land and wet use and sitting policiesImplementation of integrated coastal and nautical precaution and sustainable development plans and programmes at appropriate levelsPreparation of coastal profiles identifying critical areas, including gnaw at zones, physical operationes, development patterns, user conflicts and unique(predicate) priorities for chargePrior environmental impact judgment, systematic observation and carry by means of with(predicate) of major projects, including the systematic internalization of results in decision-makingContingency plans for human bring on and graphic disasters, including likely do of potential climate change and sea level rise, as well as happening plans for degradation and taint of anthropogenic origin, including spills of oil and different materialsImprovement of coastal human congea ltlements, in particular in housing, drinking water and treatment and disposal of sewage, solid wastes and industrial effluentsPeriodic assessment of the impacts of transnational factors and phenomena to reckon that the objectives of integrated steering and sustainable development of coastal areas and the devil dog environment are metpreservation and amends of altered critical habitatsintegration of sectoral programmes on sustainable development for settlements, agriculture, tourism, fishing, ports and industries affecting the coastal area al-Qaeda adaptation and alternative employmentmilitary personnel resource development and planningPublic education, awareness and discipline programmesPromoting environmentally sound engine room and sustainable practices organic evolution and simultaneous execution of environmental quality criteria.The res mana of Saudi-Arabian-Arabian Arabia stands at a cross road. The Kingdom has the opportunity to develop its naval sector and sust ainably manage national shipboard soldier resources. The status of national naval resources and governance is not good devil dog resources are degraded and nautical governance is in adapted. This indicates that an urgent action is requisite to save the threatened national seas and opportunities. As has been highlighted and underlined in previous chapters, Saudi Arabia devil dog governance must be reorganized under one document a cosmopolitan case nautical policy. Comprehensive national nautical policies are a relatively rude(a) trend in ocean governance. As implied they dole out all leatherneck and coastal issues. NMPs are a resolution to the sectoral disconnected approach currently dominating maritime governance which often leads to unincorporated worry and authority as sassy responsibilities are delegated to different agencies as they arise. In addition to incorporating all shipboard soldier and coastal issues, NMPs seek to integrate all levels of governanc e local, provincial, national, regional and planetary. The verge integrated management is utilise to describe this approach. Although many countries and regions have created encyclopaedic shipboard soldier or ocean policies, I focus on marine policy development bring and governance as highly- developed and experienced in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom for 2 reasons First they represent the offset troika direct countries in the world that have developed nationwide ocean policy and governance framework and is being implemented and time-tested to differing levels of success Canada enacted the nauticals Act of 1996 followed by the release of Australias Ocean policy in 1998. Great Britain followed in may 2002, with Safeguarding Our Seas A system for the Conservation and sustainable culture of our oceanic environs. from each one country has followed a different policy route to sustainable oceans development. date Australia has followed a totally pure policy frame work by providing a untried structure, mechanism and policy guidance for delivering its comprehensive national oceans policy Canada followed a different approach by first providing a comprehensive legal framework for oceans uses and resources management within Canada different maritime zones including the 200nm EEZ and continental shelf, here and now by producing Canada Oceans schema in July of 2002. The United Kingdom has followed a totally different approach by first growing a preservation strategy followed by introducing a single turn of legislation to protect the marine environment by enacting in 2009 the marine and coastal Act. Second, the three countries have developed their policies in accordance with Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 and base on the 1994 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Being the world leaders in oceans policies, I focus on oceans policy development growth in these three countries as examples their successes and leadership role in oceans policy can bunk the creation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depicted object nautical indemnity.Comparative Overview of Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom oceans policyAustraliaInitiation paradeAustralia is the first country to set in place a policy framework for an integrated and ecosystem establish planning and management for all of Australias marine jurisdictions. With the release of Australias Oceans constitution (AOP) in 1998, Australia has demonstrated a world leadership by implementing a coherent, strategic planning and management framework for conducting with complex issues confronting the long frontier future of Australias oceans (AOP1, 1999). AOP was initiated by a political announcement from the prime minister, followed by a wide humans consultation process using a consultation document (Oceans- recent thought). AOP process was initiated by the end of 1995 when the run ag cps curate at that time announce that the people presidency had agree to the development of an integrated oceans strategy that would deal with the management of Australias marine resources (AOP, 1998). However, out-of-pocket to the federal election and change of government little progress was achieved, just in 1996 the bracing government announced that it would continue underdeveloped the oceans policy as being an environmental protection policy and stirred the responsibility for developing the policy agenda from the reciprocation section of the roseola Minister and console to the plane section of environment, Sport and Territories (DEST) (Bateman, 1997). Later on the earn of this department has been changed to the Department of purlieu and hereditary pattern (DEH) charged with protecting and conserving Australias lifelike environment and cultural heritage. go away MinistryIn 1996 the new Australian government announced that it would continue developing the oceans policy as being an environmental protection policy and transferred the responsibility for developing the policy agenda from the Department of the Prime Minister and console to the Department of environment and hereditary pattern (DEH) (Vince, 2003). As a result of the transfer of responsibility for oceans policy development, Australia environment Minister led the process by establishing an intergovernmental committee to back upance with the preparation of the policy (Vince, 2003). Using the collaborative emplacements and orchis intergovernmental linkages, the Minister open up a committee addressing members from major race agencies involved in marine affairs. in like manner a number of different committees were formed during these early stages of development to assist with the development of a discussion paper (Vince, 2003). The citizens committee has prepared the Oceans-New celestial horizon paper which has been launched in attest 1997 to assist in the first consultations round with State, Territory and Local governments, top side bod ies and organizations and the general public. The New Horizon set out a selective service vision, goal and objectives for Australia Oceans Policy and an indication of some of the broad issues relevant to an Oceans Policy as well as before long introducing some of the features of Australia oceans (New Horizon, 1997).Consultation abutAfter the publication of the New Horizon paper a second round of consultation begun done a public forum to appraise the draft policy paper (MAGOP, 1998). During this process, purlieu Australia organised public forums where the public could get an overview of the Issues Paper and to provide comment. The forums consisted of two parts, the first part include a formal briefing from Environment Australia officials while the second segment was an information session organised by the state branches of the oceanic and Coastal Communities Network (MCCN) (Vince, 2003). naval ministerial plug-inBefore the release of AOP the Australian regime schematic a M inisterial consultive conclave on Ocean Policy in 1997 to provide advice to the Minister for Environment and heritage on the views of the broad range of stakeholders of the policy and any some some separate issues the Group thought relevant to the development of the policy (AOP1, 1998). It has excessively been suggested that the MAGOP was established to cook the actualise of NGOs during the Policy process as well as to upgrade public awareness (Vince, 2003). Later on the MAGOP was replaced by a depicted object Oceans Ministerial Board (NOMB) of divulge estate Ministers, chaired by the Minister for the Environment and hereditary pattern (Foster, 2005). The task of the board is to crowd the death penalty of the AOP by overseeing regional planning processes, furthering policy development, overseeing cross sector coordination, setting priorities for program expense and coordinating the Oceans Policy with State governments (AOP1, 1998).Oceans StrategyBased on the wide po licy consultation process Australia was pronto able to develop its sustainable theme Ocean Policy and vision of Healthy oceans cared for, understood and utilize wisely for the benefit of all, directly and in the future(AOP1, 1998). The aim of the strategy is to get well problems perceived to arise from a contribution of powers and responsibilities leading to jurisdictional lap and inconsistencies in ocean management (Vince, et al. 2003). The strategy also intends to overcome the problems and limitations enforce by sector based management by supporting integration across sectors through and through regional marine planning. AOP came in two piles (AOP1, 1998). The first script targeted nine major objectives 1) exercise and protect Australias rights and jurisdiction over inshore areas, including offshore resources. 2) To satiate Australias international obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and other international treaties. 3) To understand and protect Australias marine biological diversity, the ocean environment and its resources, and ensure ocean uses are ecologically sustainable. 4) To elevate ecologically sustainable economic development and frolic creation. 5) To establish integrated oceans planning and management arrangements. 6) To accommodate community necessitate and aspirations. 7) To better expertise and capabilities in ocean-related management, science, technology and engineering. 8) To identify and protect Australias natural and cultural marine heritage. 9) To promote public awareness and understanding (AOP1, 1998). The key principles that were used in developing Australia ocean policy intrinsically indigenous peoples interests stewardship ethic intergenerational and social equity ecologically sustainable use conservation of biological diversity participatory, transparent and accountable decision making and management and integrated planning and management(AOP1, 1998).Ocean work seeThe second volume of A ustralias Oceans Policy complements the first volume of the Policy by outlining specific measures that are being or will be pursued by the area across ocean sectors and interest(AOP2, 1998). The Specific vault of heavenal Measures volume is comprehensive in its scope, masking the major environmental, industry, community, look into, scientific, international and defence interests that the Commonwealth has responsibility for in marine jurisdictions. The document has identified 390 commitments across those quintet broad areas and detailed executing schedule of actions. The schedule identified organisations creditworthy for(p) for implementing actions, priorities, milestones and resourcing (AOP2, 1998). This detail facilitated the auditing of the Policy and contributed to an assessment of its impressiveness.New InstitutionTo implement AOP a internal Oceans Office (NOO), was established to provide secretariat and technical support and programme delivery for oceans policy initiati ves(AOP1, 1998). The NOO was trustworthy for coordinating the overall implementation and finalize the detailed implementation schedule of actions and further development of the Oceans Policy(AOP2, 1998). NOO also was responsible for coordination and distribution of information on oceans policy implementation and regional marine planning matters to all stakeholders(Addison and Chenko, et al. 2005). Other new institutions included the National Oceans Ministerial Board, Regional leatherneck computer programme Steering Committees and the National Oceans informative Group (NOAG). In 2005 NOO woolly its executive agency status and is now located within the Marine Division of the Department of Environment and Heritage (DEH, 2005). The Minister of Environment and Heritage has the responsibility for NOO through the department and reports to Cabinet on its progress (Haward and Vince, 2006).Ocean Research Priorities designWhilst AOP development process was progressing, the Marine Science and engineering science Working Group, comprising representatives of Australian Government marine science and related agencies, as well as State question institutions and non-government marine science interests were workings to develop Australias Marine Science and engineering Plan (Alder, 2001). The government aimed to develop and release the Plan as a companion to Australias Oceans Policy(Vince, 2004). The Marine scientific advisory committee was tasked with promoting coordination and information share-out between Government marine science agencies and across the broader Australian marine science community(AMSTP, 1999). The MSTC prepared a Marine Science and Technology Plan to provide a strategy, consonant with the Oceans Policy, for integrated and innovative science, technology and engineering. The Plan encompasses three major programs under each program multiple objectives(AMSTP, 1999) . catch the Marine Environment ( 7 objectives)Using and Caring for the Marine Environment ( 15 objectives)Infrastructure for rationality and Utilising the Marine Environment ( 6 objectives). mandateAustralia Oceans Policy has established new institutions to oversee the implementation of the Regional Marine think process. The institutions have emphasise a departure from traditional sectoral arrangements whilst incorporating over 100 laws and policy instruments addressing aspects of the management of the marine environment and the legal jurisdictional framework established through offshore federalism(Haward and Vince, 2006). The Offshore Constitutional colonization (OCS) returned the jurisdiction over 3nm from the low water mark to the states(Stark, 2004). OCS remains the native feather intergovernmental arrangement governing ocean and marine resources in Australia and makes up the jurisdictional framework for the development and implementation of the Ocean Policy(Vince, 2004). Since Australia Ocean Policy has been developed as being an environmental protection poli cy the principal Australian legislation is the environmental breastplate and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999(cth) (EPBC Act)(Akwilapo, 2007). The EPBC Act and the associated Environment testimonial and Biodiversity Conservation order 2000 (EPBC Regulation) provide a national framework for Environment protection through focusing on protecting areas of national environmental significance and on the conservation of Australias biodiversity (Akwilapo, 2007). On the other hand, a commitment to ecologically sustainable development and multiple use management is embedded within the Oceans Policy framework emphasising a commitment to, inter alia, the United Nations Conference on Environment and growings (UNCED) Agenda 21 principles and UNCLOS (Akwilapo, 2007).Integrated Marine spacial PlanningThe AOP emphasised that Australia Regional Marine Plans is based on swelled marine ecosystems. This system helps to maintain ecosystem health and justice while promoting multiple use of oceans by integrating sectoral commercial interests and conservation requirements. Australia approach to Integrated Ocean Planning and Management encompass the following(AOP2, 1998)Development of a new institutional arrangement comprising the National Oceans Ministerial Board, the National Oceans Advisory Group and the National Oceans Office and Regional Marine Plan Steering Committees.Providing policy guidance for oceans planning and management.Regional Marine Plan, based on large marine ecosystems. The first plan was developed for the south-eastern region of Australias EEZ.Funds for National marine resource surveys development of sustainability indicators and monitor and speedy assessments of the biological resources of Australias oceans. The resulting information based was used to underpin hard-hitting regional integration for planning and management. These assessments also benefit industry by providing information on potential new resources such as deep-water fisheries and pharmaceut icals.Development of National Representative establishment of Marine Protected Areas.Development of Marine Parks and World Heritage Areas. oceanic gum elastic and Environment Protection PlanThe Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) has developed a strategy to protect the marine environment from transfer operations through improved environmental management of raptus and related activities(Stark, 2004). The strategy encompass designation of marine sharp areas, promote improvement of waste answer facilities at ports, marinas and boat harbours, improve anti-fouling practices, management and piloting a national observe programme for marine debris, community and industry awareness, and support for the heighten National Plan to struggle Pollution of the Sea by inunct and Other Noxious and unwarranted Substances (the National Plan) (AOP1, 1998). under the AOP the Government perpetrate to enhance maritime safe and highlighted the importance of enhancing regional cooperative arrangement for search and rescue, development and implementation of search and rescue arrangements implementation of the spherical Maritime Distress Safety System(GMDSS), pursue consistent requirements for the use of fatality Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs) and maritime communications for small vessels(AOP2, 1998). To further ensure the Safety of Navigation, the Government act to maintain efficient coast-effective maritime galosh navigation services and infrastructure, involution of the local area Differential planetary Positioning Systems (DGPS) services scientific development in marine navigation, and occasion in the International connective of Lighthouse Authorities and other international forums to ensure global navigational safety policies, standards and new technologies(AOP2, 1998).Maritime superintendence and Security PlanTo ensure that there is an effective and efficient surveillance capacity for Australias marine jurisd ictions and effective enforcement of national legislation throughout Australias marine jurisdictions. Under the Oceans Policy the Australian government move to pursue through the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) and other to increase action addressing misappropriated fishing in CCAMLR and adja centime amnionic fluid increased surveillance and enforcement measures in the Great Barrier Reef continued to cooperate to review and tailor effort involved in and capacity for surveillance and enforcement including reviewing legislation relating to enforcement in Australias marine jurisdictions(AOP2, 1998). The Oceans Policy highlighted that the Australian defence mechanism Forces (ADF) tasks encompass safeguarding these areas, controlling of maritime approaches to exercise and protect Australias supremety and sovereign rights. This involve preparedness and contingency planning maritime surveillance and response fisheries law enforcement search and rescue hydrographic services and the Australian Oceanographic info Centre (AODC)(AOP2, 1998).Maritime Sector Development PlanDuring AOP development process the Marine Industry Development Strategy was also announced. The Strategy highlighted what the Marine Industry is worth what should aim for further resourceful developments(AOP2,1998). It illustrated that 90 per cent of Australias oil and gas is sourced offshore that the shipbuilding industry supplies one trine of the worlds high speed convey market wild capture fisheries represent a major primary industry and that marine tourism is a booming industry(Vince, 2004). The Specific Measures people of Australia Oceans Policy underpinned several challenges facing the maritime sector and the various activities such as fisheries aquaculture offshore petroleum and minerals transit marine tourism marine construction, engineering and other industries pharmaceutical, biotechnology and hereditary resources and alternative energy resources. For clashing these challenges the policy proposed numerous activities under each one of them. For example to meet the shipping sector challenge to increase trade and regional development by delivering safe, efficient, competitive and environmentally responsible maritime infrastructure and shipping services(AOP2, 1998). The policy identified measures including regulatory renew of the maritime sector with a view to removing barriers to competition, rationalise jurisdictional arrangements, tally standards and promote mutual light and encourage continuous improvements in shipping and waterfront sectors to enhance the competitiveness of Australian trade and industry to continue Australia leading role in international trade and maritime forums to ensure approach to competitive and efficient international shipping services is maintained(AOP2, 1998).Marine precept and Training PlanUnder Australias Marine Science and Technology Plan, NOO is responsible for providing advice to the Ministerial Board on marine search priorities relevant to the Oceans Policy to ensure that the marine research agencies are kept informed of the Governments acclivitous priorities(TFG, 2002). The NOMB is responsible to consider Government priorities for publicly funded marine research related to the implementation of the Oceans Policy including community capacity building, networking opportunities, and community participation in marine management, research and supervise and entropy collection and provide opportunities for community representation on advisory committees in regard to marine resource management, the establishment of a new marine science research and instruction centre at Coffs give suck support for the Australian, Pacific and Global Oceans observing Systems establishment and operation of a Regional Office of the International Oceanographic accusation in Perth, Western Australia formulation of quality maritime education and research and training and emplo yment in jointly managed parks development of a long term marine education policy and programme for kindergarten to course 12 to be incorporated in curricula in all States and Territories development of relevant resource materials for use in schools and Technical and Further teaching colleges in cooperation with professional bodies and support for the provision of quality practical educational material for teachers and students(AMSTP, 1999).National Maritime Information CenterTo improve monitoring and understanding of marine ecosystems and the impacts of resource use Australia government has developed the Australian Coastal Atlas, within the Environmental Resource Information Network (ERIN), to impart general access to adequate information for community involvement in oceans management as a fundamental element of the Australian Spatial Data Infrastructure(AOP2, 1998). Thus, the Australian government provided support for the Marine and Coastal society Network to develop a compreh ensive communication strategy to assist the public, industry and governments learn more or less and understand the role of Australias Oceans Policy. Also the government supported the Australian appraise and Land Information Group (AUSLIGs) chronic development of the Australian Maritime Boundaries Information System as a national database of Australias maritime jurisdictional boundary data to provides Australias with an independent and scientifically credible information on Australias environment for decision-makers and the wider community(AOP2, 1998). AUSLIG is the Commonwealth focal intimate for coordination of geodesic information and kit and boodle closely with State and Territory agencies, the Inter-governmental Committee on Surveying and map (ICSM) and industry groups towards the provision of the highest quality geodetic infrastructure(AUSLIG, 2009). Moreover, AUSLIGs under the ocean policy is responsible for the development of a coordinated observations and methods to ana lyse and interpret the data that will make optimum use of information from remote and in situ measurements at the space and time scales required for effective monitoring, use, management and conservation(AOP2, 1998). It is conk that the lack of a comprehensive system of monitoring sites, and lack of long commitment to monitoring inshore and offshore, specially on the scale of large marine ecosystems has affected Australia ability to assess changes in the condition of the marine environment. Thus, AOP recognized that Integration of coastal, inshore and offshore monitoring activities is vital to National capacity for future assessments and maintenance of marine and coastal environments(AOP1, 1998).National Oceans fabricationTo provide for Community representation and participation, the AOP established a National Oceans Advisory Group as a non-government consultatory and advisory body to the National Oceans Ministerial Board(AOP1, 1998). The NOAG is responsible for promoting strate gic management of the ocean environment and its resources to provide opportunities for community representation on consultive committees in regard to marine resource management and facilitate consultation with peak indigenous groups on the requirements for establishing a national consultative mechanism, such as an annual forum(AOP1, 1998). Thus, to promote implementation of Australia Oceans Policy, the policy called for holding a National Oceans Forum to coordinate across the agencies responsible for the development of uncreated and Torres Strait Islander and a broad national cross-section of those with a stake in the management of Australia oceans(IOC, 2007).International CooperationGiven the dynamic constitution of the marine environment, AOP recognized that the effective implementation of the Oceans Policy requires cooperation with immediate neighbours and other countries to address the transboundary impacts and improve regional cooperation on ocean issues(AOP1, 1998). Thus, A OP called for peaceful use of the oceans and cooperation in access for national and international scientific research and monitoring programmes cooperation with neighbouring countries and with industries to maximise resources improved cooperation and coordination between existing coastal moF Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom Oceans PolicyF Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom Oceans PolicyIntroductionThe Worlds current approach to ocean policy and sustainable maritime development is based on two main International strategic foundations UNCLOS and UNCED. Both if integrated they provide the basis for oceans governance and oceans policy frame work. They enable states to exercise and protect Nationals sovereign rights and jurisdiction over marine resources and offshore areas. At the same time they obligate states to ensure ocean uses are ecologically sustainable. The implementation of the provisions of UNCLOS, related Conventions, rules and standards relating to the protectio n and preservation of the marine environment and to the conservation and management of living marine resources, as well as the implementation of the commitments agreed to in Chapter 17 of Agenda 21, present some of the major challenges facing the international ocean community. These challenges cannot be met by one region, one State, one ministry, or one local community alone. It is therefore very important to strengthen cooperation and coordination at all levels. At the national level, the marine dimension must be integrated within the overall national policy. The adoption of an ocean policy is a very important mechanism to achieving an integrated, interdisciplinary, intersectoral and ecosystem-based approach to oceans management. A coherent legislative framework is also essential. However the development of this national oceans policy depends on every state situation. Vertical and horizontal integration between these two foundations, need a high political umbrella and a lead minist ry for setting the national marine agenda. This agenda must be based on sound scientific priorities development plan required for understanding how best to protect Nationals marine biological diversity, the ocean environment and its resources, and on a wide consultation process with all stakeholder. Comparative analysis of the development process of national ocean policy in major maritime nations such as Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, shows in spite of the fact that Agenda 21 has provided a clear defined programme and management activities, each country have followed a different approach in developing its national oceans management strategy. All of them have used these two international foundations and their guiding principles in developing their oceans policies. These approaches are integrated in content and are precautionary and anticipatory in ambit, as required by UNCLOS and as reflected in the Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 programme areas. The first programme in chapter 17 is Integrated management and sustainable development of coastal areas, including exclusive economic zones. (Agenda 21, 1992). To this end, and according to Chapter 17 the state should establish the necessary strengthening appropriate coordinating mechanisms (such as a high-level policy planning body) (Agenda 21, 1992). It further states Such mechanisms should include consultation, as appropriate, with the academic and private sectors, non-governmental organizations, local communities, resource user groups, and indigenous people. Also coastal states are required to improve their capacity to collect, analyse, assess and use information for sustainable use of resources, including environmental impacts of activities affecting the coastal and marine areas. Information for management purposes should receive priority support in view of the intensity and magnitude of the changes occurring in the coastal and marine areas. Other related management activities includePreparation and implementatio n of land and water use and sitting policiesImplementation of integrated coastal and marine management and sustainable development plans and programmes at appropriate levelsPreparation of coastal profiles identifying critical areas, including eroded zones, physical processes, development patterns, user conflicts and specific priorities for managementPrior environmental impact assessment, systematic observation and follow-up of major projects, including the systematic incorporation of results in decision-makingContingency plans for human induced and natural disasters, including likely effects of potential climate change and sea level rise, as well as contingency plans for degradation and pollution of anthropogenic origin, including spills of oil and other materialsImprovement of coastal human settlements, especially in housing, drinking water and treatment and disposal of sewage, solid wastes and industrial effluentsPeriodic assessment of the impacts of external factors and phenomena to ensure that the objectives of integrated management and sustainable development of coastal areas and the marine environment are metConservation and restoration of altered critical habitatsIntegration of sectoral programmes on sustainable development for settlements, agriculture, tourism, fishing, ports and industries affecting the coastal areaInfrastructure adaptation and alternative employmentHuman resource development and trainingPublic education, awareness and information programmesPromoting environmentally sound technology and sustainable practicesDevelopment and simultaneous implementation of environmental quality criteria.The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia stands at a cross road. The Kingdom has the opportunity to develop its maritime sector and sustainably manage national marine resources. The status of national marine resources and governance is not good marine resources are degraded and marine governance is inadequate. This indicates that an urgent action is needed to save the threatened national seas and opportunities. As has been highlighted and underlined in previous chapters, Saudi Arabia marine governance must be reorganized under one document a comprehensive National Marine Policy. Comprehensive national marine policies are a relatively new trend in ocean governance. As implied they address all marine and coastal issues. NMPs are a response to the sectoral fragmented approach currently dominating marine governance which often leads to unorganized management and authority as new responsibilities are delegated to different agencies as they arise. In addition to incorporating all marine and coastal issues, NMPs seek to integrate all levels of governance local, provincial, national, regional and international. The term integrated management is used to describe this approach. Although many countries and regions have created comprehensive marine or ocean policies, I focus on marine policy development process and governance as developed and experienced in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom for two reasons First they represent the first three leading countries in the world that have developed comprehensive ocean policy and governance framework and is being implemented and tried to differing levels of success Canada enacted the Oceans Act of 1996 followed by the release of Australias Ocean Policy in 1998. Great Britain followed in May 2002, with Safeguarding Our Seas A Strategy for the Conservation and Sustainable Development of our Marine Environment. Each country has followed a different policy route to sustainable oceans development. While Australia has followed a totally pure policy frame work by providing a new structure, mechanism and policy guidance for delivering its comprehensive national oceans policy Canada followed a different approach by first providing a comprehensive legal framework for oceans uses and resources management within Canada different maritime zones including the 200nm EEZ and continental shelf, second by producing Canada Oceans Strategy in July of 2002. The United Kingdom has followed a totally different approach by first developing a conservation strategy followed by introducing a single piece of legislation to protect the marine environment by enacting in 2009 the Marine and Coastal Act. Second, the three countries have developed their policies in accordance with Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 and based on the 1994 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Being the world leaders in oceans policies, I focus on oceans policy development process in these three countries as examples their successes and leadership role in oceans policy can guide the creation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia National Marine Policy.Comparative Overview of Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom oceans policyAustraliaInitiation ProcessAustralia is the first country to set in place a policy framework for an integrated and ecosystem based planning and management for all of Australias marine jur isdictions. With the release of Australias Oceans Policy (AOP) in 1998, Australia has demonstrated a world leadership by implementing a coherent, strategic planning and management framework for dealing with complex issues confronting the long term future of Australias oceans (AOP1, 1999). AOP was initiated by a political announcement from the prime minister, followed by a wide public consultation process using a consultation document (Oceans- New Horizon). AOP process was initiated by the end of 1995 when the Prime Minister at that time announced that the Commonwealth government had agreed to the development of an integrated oceans strategy that would deal with the management of Australias marine resources (AOP, 1998). However, due to the federal election and change of government little progress was achieved, but in 1996 the new government announced that it would continue developing the oceans policy as being an environmental protection policy and transferred the responsibility for developing the policy agenda from the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet to the Department of Environment, Sport and Territories (DEST) (Bateman, 1997). Later on the name of this department has been changed to the Department of Environment and Heritage (DEH) charged with protecting and conserving Australias natural environment and cultural heritage.Lead MinistryIn 1996 the new Australian government announced that it would continue developing the oceans policy as being an environmental protection policy and transferred the responsibility for developing the policy agenda from the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet to the Department of Environment and Heritage (DEH) (Vince, 2003). As a result of the transfer of responsibility for oceans policy development, Australia Environment Minister led the process by establishing an intergovernmental committee to assist with the preparation of the policy (Vince, 2003). Using the collaborative arrangements and formal intergovern mental linkages, the Minister established a committee encompassing members from major Commonwealth agencies involved in marine affairs. Also a number of other committees were formed during these early stages of development to assist with the development of a discussion paper (Vince, 2003). The Committee has prepared the Oceans-New Horizon paper which has been launched in March 1997 to assist in the first consultations round with State, Territory and Local governments, peak bodies and organizations and the general public. The New Horizon set out a draft vision, goal and objectives for Australia Oceans Policy and an indication of some of the broad issues relevant to an Oceans Policy as well as briefly introducing some of the features of Australia oceans (New Horizon, 1997).Consultation ProcessAfter the publication of the New Horizon paper a second round of consultation begun through a public forum to review the draft policy paper (MAGOP, 1998). During this process, Environment Austral ia organised public forums where the public could get an overview of the Issues Paper and to provide comment. The forums consisted of two parts, the first part included a formal briefing from Environment Australia officials while the second component was an information session organised by the state branches of the Marine and Coastal Communities Network (MCCN) (Vince, 2003).Maritime Ministerial BoardBefore the release of AOP the Australian Government established a Ministerial Advisory Group on Ocean Policy in 1997 to provide advice to the Minister for Environment and Heritage on the views of the broad range of stakeholders of the policy and any other issues the Group thought relevant to the development of the policy (AOP1, 1998). It has also been suggested that the MAGOP was established to gain the support of NGOs during the Policy process as well as to promote public awareness (Vince, 2003). Later on the MAGOP was replaced by a National Oceans Ministerial Board (NOMB) of key Common wealth Ministers, chaired by the Minister for the Environment and Heritage (Foster, 2005). The task of the board is to drive the implementation of the AOP by overseeing regional planning processes, furthering policy development, overseeing cross sector coordination, setting priorities for program expenditure and coordinating the Oceans Policy with State governments (AOP1, 1998).Oceans StrategyBased on the wide policy consultation process Australia was quickly able to develop its sustainable National Ocean Policy and vision of Healthy oceans cared for, understood and used wisely for the benefit of all, now and in the future(AOP1, 1998). The aim of the strategy is to overcome problems perceived to arise from a division of powers and responsibilities leading to jurisdictional overlap and inconsistencies in ocean management (Vince, et al. 2003). The strategy also intends to overcome the problems and limitations imposed by sector based management by supporting integration across sectors through regional marine planning. AOP came in two volumes (AOP1, 1998). The first volume targeted nine major objectives 1) exercise and protect Australias rights and jurisdiction over offshore areas, including offshore resources. 2) To meet Australias international obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and other international treaties. 3) To understand and protect Australias marine biological diversity, the ocean environment and its resources, and ensure ocean uses are ecologically sustainable. 4) To promote ecologically sustainable economic development and job creation. 5) To establish integrated oceans planning and management arrangements. 6) To accommodate community needs and aspirations. 7) To improve expertise and capabilities in ocean-related management, science, technology and engineering. 8) To identify and protect Australias natural and cultural marine heritage. 9) To promote public awareness and understanding (AOP1, 1998). The key principles that were used in developing Australia ocean policy intrinsically indigenous peoples interests stewardship ethic intergenerational and social equity ecologically sustainable use conservation of biological diversity participatory, transparent and accountable decision making and management and integrated planning and management(AOP1, 1998).Ocean Action PlanThe second volume of Australias Oceans Policy complements the first volume of the Policy by outlining specific measures that are being or will be pursued by the Commonwealth across ocean sectors and interest(AOP2, 1998). The Specific Sectoral Measures volume is comprehensive in its scope, covering the major environmental, industry, community, research, scientific, international and defence interests that the Commonwealth has responsibility for in marine jurisdictions. The document has identified 390 commitments across those five broad areas and detailed implementation schedule of actions. The schedule identified organisations respo nsible for implementing actions, priorities, milestones and resourcing (AOP2, 1998). This detail facilitated the auditing of the Policy and contributed to an assessment of its effectiveness.New InstitutionTo implement AOP a National Oceans Office (NOO), was established to provide secretariat and technical support and programme delivery for oceans policy initiatives(AOP1, 1998). The NOO was responsible for coordinating the overall implementation and finalize the detailed implementation schedule of actions and further development of the Oceans Policy(AOP2, 1998). NOO also was responsible for coordination and distribution of information on oceans policy implementation and regional marine planning matters to all stakeholders(Addison and Chenko, et al. 2005). Other new institutions included the National Oceans Ministerial Board, Regional Marine Plan Steering Committees and the National Oceans Advisory Group (NOAG). In 2005 NOO lost its executive agency status and is now located within th e Marine Division of the Department of Environment and Heritage (DEH, 2005). The Minister of Environment and Heritage has the responsibility for NOO through the department and reports to Cabinet on its progress (Haward and Vince, 2006).Ocean Research Priorities PlanWhilst AOP development process was progressing, the Marine Science and Technology Working Group, comprising representatives of Australian Government marine science and related agencies, as well as State research institutions and non-government marine science interests were working to develop Australias Marine Science and Technology Plan (Alder, 2001). The government aimed to develop and release the Plan as a companion to Australias Oceans Policy(Vince, 2004). The Marine scientific advisory committee was tasked with promoting coordination and information sharing between Government marine science agencies and across the broader Australian marine science community(AMSTP, 1999). The MSTC prepared a Marine Science and Technolo gy Plan to provide a strategy, consistent with the Oceans Policy, for integrated and innovative science, technology and engineering. The Plan encompasses three major programs under each program multiple objectives(AMSTP, 1999) .Understanding the Marine Environment ( 7 objectives)Using and Caring for the Marine Environment ( 15 objectives)Infrastructure for Understanding and Utilising the Marine Environment ( 6 objectives).LegislationAustralia Oceans Policy has established new institutions to oversee the implementation of the Regional Marine Planning process. The institutions have emphasised a departure from traditional sectoral arrangements whilst incorporating over 100 laws and policy instruments addressing aspects of the management of the marine environment and the legal jurisdictional framework established through offshore federalism(Haward and Vince, 2006). The Offshore Constitutional Settlement (OCS) returned the jurisdiction over 3nm from the low water mark to the states(Stark , 2004). OCS remains the primary intergovernmental arrangement governing ocean and marine resources in Australia and makes up the jurisdictional framework for the development and implementation of the Ocean Policy(Vince, 2004). Since Australia Ocean Policy has been developed as being an environmental protection policy the principal Australian legislation is the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999(cth) (EPBC Act)(Akwilapo, 2007). The EPBC Act and the associated Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Regulation 2000 (EPBC Regulation) provide a national framework for Environment protection through focusing on protecting areas of national environmental significance and on the conservation of Australias biodiversity (Akwilapo, 2007). On the other hand, a commitment to ecologically sustainable development and multiple use management is embedded within the Oceans Policy framework emphasising a commitment to, inter alia, the United Nations Conferenc e on Environment and Developments (UNCED) Agenda 21 principles and UNCLOS (Akwilapo, 2007).Integrated Marine Spatial PlanningThe AOP emphasised that Australia Regional Marine Plans is based on large marine ecosystems. This system helps to maintain ecosystem health and integrity while promoting multiple use of oceans by integrating sectoral commercial interests and conservation requirements. Australia approach to Integrated Ocean Planning and Management encompass the following(AOP2, 1998)Development of a new institutional arrangement comprising the National Oceans Ministerial Board, the National Oceans Advisory Group and the National Oceans Office and Regional Marine Plan Steering Committees.Providing policy guidance for oceans planning and management.Regional Marine Plan, based on large marine ecosystems. The first plan was developed for the south-eastern region of Australias EEZ.Funds for National marine resource surveys development of sustainability indicators and monitoring and r apid assessments of the biological resources of Australias oceans. The resulting information based was used to underpin effective regional integration for planning and management. These assessments also benefit industry by providing information on potential new resources such as deep-water fisheries and pharmaceuticals.Development of National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas.Development of Marine Parks and World Heritage Areas.Maritime Safety and Environment Protection PlanThe Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) has developed a strategy to protect the marine environment from shipping operations through improved environmental management of shipping and related activities(Stark, 2004). The strategy encompass designation of marine sensitive areas, promote improvement of waste reception facilities at ports, marinas and boat harbours, improve anti-fouling practices, management and piloting a national monitoring programme for marine debr is, community and industry awareness, and support for the enhanced National Plan to Combat Pollution of the Sea by Oil and Other Noxious and Hazardous Substances (the National Plan) (AOP1, 1998). Under the AOP the Government committed to enhance maritime safety and highlighted the importance of enhancing regional cooperative arrangement for search and rescue, development and implementation of search and rescue arrangements implementation of the Global Maritime Distress Safety System(GMDSS), pursue consistent requirements for the use of Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBs) and maritime communications for small vessels(AOP2, 1998). To further ensure the Safety of Navigation, the Government committed to maintain efficient coast-effective maritime safety navigation services and infrastructure, expansion of the local area Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS) services technological development in marine navigation, and involvement in the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities and other international forums to ensure global navigational safety policies, standards and new technologies(AOP2, 1998).Maritime Surveillance and Security PlanTo ensure that there is an effective and efficient surveillance capacity for Australias marine jurisdictions and effective enforcement of national legislation throughout Australias marine jurisdictions. Under the Oceans Policy the Australian government continued to pursue through the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) and other to increase action addressing illegal fishing in CCAMLR and adjacent waters increased surveillance and enforcement measures in the Great Barrier Reef continued to cooperate to review and rationalise effort involved in and capacity for surveillance and enforcement including reviewing legislation relating to enforcement in Australias marine jurisdictions(AOP2, 1998). The Oceans Policy highlighted that the Australian Defence Forces (ADF) tasks encompass safeguarding these areas, controlling of maritime approaches to exercise and protect Australias sovereignty and sovereign rights. This involve preparedness and contingency planning maritime surveillance and response fisheries law enforcement search and rescue hydrographic services and the Australian Oceanographic Data Centre (AODC)(AOP2, 1998).Maritime Sector Development PlanDuring AOP development process the Marine Industry Development Strategy was also announced. The Strategy highlighted what the Marine Industry is worth what should incur for further resourceful developments(AOP2,1998). It illustrated that 90 per cent of Australias oil and gas is sourced offshore that the shipbuilding industry supplies one third of the worlds high speed ferry market wild capture fisheries represent a major primary industry and that marine tourism is a booming industry(Vince, 2004). The Specific Measures Volume of Australia Oceans Policy underpinned several challenges facing the ma ritime sector and the various activities such as fisheries aquaculture offshore petroleum and minerals shipping marine tourism marine construction, engineering and other industries pharmaceutical, biotechnology and genetic resources and alternative energy resources. For meeting these challenges the policy proposed numerous activities under each one of them. For example to meet the shipping sector challenge to increase trade and regional development by delivering safe, efficient, competitive and environmentally responsible maritime infrastructure and shipping services(AOP2, 1998). The policy identified measures including regulatory reform of the maritime sector with a view to removing barriers to competition, rationalise jurisdictional arrangements, harmonise standards and promote mutual recognition and encourage continuous improvements in shipping and waterfront sectors to enhance the competitiveness of Australian trade and industry to continue Australia leading role in internation al trade and maritime forums to ensure access to competitive and efficient international shipping services is maintained(AOP2, 1998).Marine Education and Training PlanUnder Australias Marine Science and Technology Plan, NOO is responsible for providing advice to the Ministerial Board on marine research priorities relevant to the Oceans Policy to ensure that the marine research agencies are kept informed of the Governments emerging priorities(TFG, 2002). The NOMB is responsible to consider Government priorities for publicly funded marine research related to the implementation of the Oceans Policy including community capacity building, networking opportunities, and community participation in marine management, research and monitoring and data collection and provide opportunities for community representation on consultative committees in regard to marine resource management, the establishment of a new marine science research and teaching centre at Coffs Harbour support for the Australi an, Pacific and Global Oceans Observing Systems establishment and operation of a Regional Office of the International Oceanographic Commission in Perth, Western Australia provision of quality maritime education and research and training and employment in jointly managed parks development of a long term marine education policy and programme for kindergarten to year 12 to be incorporated in curricula in all States and Territories development of relevant resource materials for use in schools and Technical and Further Education colleges in cooperation with professional bodies and support for the provision of quality practical educational material for teachers and students(AMSTP, 1999).National Maritime Information CenterTo improve monitoring and understanding of marine ecosystems and the impacts of resource use Australia government has developed the Australian Coastal Atlas, within the Environmental Resource Information Network (ERIN), to allow general access to adequate information for community involvement in oceans management as a fundamental element of the Australian Spatial Data Infrastructure(AOP2, 1998). Thus, the Australian government provided support for the Marine and Coastal Community Network to develop a comprehensive communication strategy to assist the public, industry and governments learn about and understand the role of Australias Oceans Policy. Also the government supported the Australian Surveying and Land Information Group (AUSLIGs) continuing development of the Australian Maritime Boundaries Information System as a national database of Australias maritime jurisdictional boundary data to provides Australias with an independent and scientifically credible information on Australias environment for decision-makers and the wider community(AOP2, 1998). AUSLIG is the Commonwealth focal point for coordination of geodetic information and works closely with State and Territory agencies, the Inter-governmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM) an d industry groups towards the provision of the highest quality geodetic infrastructure(AUSLIG, 2009). Moreover, AUSLIGs under the ocean policy is responsible for the development of a coordinated observations and methods to analyse and interpret the data that will make optimum use of information from remote and in situ measurements at the space and time scales required for effective monitoring, use, management and conservation(AOP2, 1998). It is clear that the lack of a comprehensive system of monitoring sites, and lack of long-term commitment to monitoring inshore and offshore, particularly on the scale of large marine ecosystems has affected Australia ability to assess changes in the condition of the marine environment. Thus, AOP recognized that Integration of coastal, inshore and offshore monitoring activities is vital to National capacity for future assessments and maintenance of marine and coastal environments(AOP1, 1998).National Oceans ForumTo provide for Community representat ion and participation, the AOP established a National Oceans Advisory Group as a non-government consultative and advisory body to the National Oceans Ministerial Board(AOP1, 1998). The NOAG is responsible for promoting strategic management of the ocean environment and its resources to provide opportunities for community representation on consultative committees in regard to marine resource management and facilitate consultation with peak indigenous groups on the requirements for establishing a national consultative mechanism, such as an annual forum(AOP1, 1998). Thus, to promote implementation of Australia Oceans Policy, the policy called for holding a National Oceans Forum to coordinate across the agencies responsible for the development of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and a broad national cross-section of those with a stake in the management of Australia oceans(IOC, 2007).International CooperationGiven the dynamic nature of the marine environment, AOP recognized that the effective implementation of the Oceans Policy requires cooperation with immediate neighbours and other countries to address the transboundary impacts and improve regional cooperation on ocean issues(AOP1, 1998). Thus, AOP called for peaceful use of the oceans and cooperation in access for national and international scientific research and monitoring programmes cooperation with neighbouring countries and with industries to maximise resources improved cooperation and coordination between existing coastal mo

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