Monday, 30 September 2019

History of communications Essay

In the essay ‘History of communications’, author has tried to make us travel the whole distance right from the beginning when there was no source of communication to today’s world where we have telephone, internet etc. The artist wants us to understand how important means of communication is for us and how difficult it was to invent and implement them. Today’s age can be called as ‘Informative age’ where we can communicate in seconds through latest technology and to any part of the world. The uthor wants us to think about how the life could have been when no such facility was available for our ancestors. Also take pain to think about how they got here and who all were involved in making as well as implementing them to reach the place they are today. The innovative means of communication was different in different countries like Phoenician alphabet in China, use of pigeons in Ancient Greece and many more. Here the author wants to concentrate on the infrastructure for communication that was based on lectronic technologies in 19th and 20th century United States. Importance is given to the people who invented these technologies and developed them further for easy use. There is a relationship between social and technological aspects of society that binds people together. Many other developments like social, political, economic and cultural depend upon the development in communication system. One cannot think of development in any field unless one is able to communicate with other. Society is developed only when communication is perfect and people are able to help each other, as effort of one person cannot make any difference. According to my view the author here has concentrated much on inventions and their developments along with problems faced during implementations. The main central point of making people think about the facts is lacking behind and is dealt in the end of the essay.

Sunday, 29 September 2019

MegaCities Essay Essay

Mega Cities are cities that have a population of more than 8 million and are characterised by the challenges they face, including issues involving the informal economy, unemployment, poor sanitation and shelter. These issues are largely prominent in these cities due to rapid urban growth and a lack of resources. In many cases action has been taken by national governments and non-governmental organisations (NGO’s) to combat and reduce the impact of these issues, however In order for these strategies to be effective they need to fit 3 primary criteria, the solution must be community based, cost effective and sustainable economically and environmentally. Strategies such as micro financing.. Etc. have been adopted to resolve these challenged. A primary challenge facing many mega cities is the population’s heavy reliance on the informal economy as a means of income. The informal economy is a sector of unregulated work and with this comes high unemployment rates and a lack of jobs to support the ever-increasing population. Jobs in the informal economy are particularly prominent in Dhaka, Bangladesh, where 65% of all jobs are found in this sector. Jobs in the informal economy pose a threat to mega cities and their population as workers are not protected and are open to exploitation (e.g. Child labour) and people employed informally pay no tax (e.g. Street vendors, rickshaw drivers) leading to a reduction in the governments revenue. A number of strategies have been undertaken in order to transform informal work into the formal economy, including Micro financing. Micro financing involves NGO’s giving out small loans (approximately $US200), which provide people with money to formalise their business. There are a number of NGO’s that undertake this strategy, including Opportunity International, which is an Australian charity, operating in manila, targeting particularly impoverished communities. Access to these loans is based on a persons standing in the community and once the business begins to sustain itself loans must be repaid. The outcome of this process is a formalised business, which then contributes to government  beneficially by providing it with revenue. This strategy to combat the prominence of the informal economy has been particularly successful, adheres to the three evaluation criteria and provides users with lifetime skills and an income, which could potentially improve their living standards/quality of life. Another challenge faced by a large majority of mega cities is access to shelter, due to population growth in mega cities being too extreme for sufficient supply of housing. This in turn leads to the creation of informal housing, such as squatter settlements, which are generally formed on unoccupied unwanted land, such as next to rail lines or sewerage systems. Informal housing is extremely prominent in developing countries such as India, where 500,000 people live on the pavement in Kolkata with at least 4 million more living in squatter settlements; as well as 1 million people living in cemeteries in Cairo, and  ¼ of the Philippines population residing in slums. This informal housing creates a number of problems for its residents and government; it lacks basic services (sewerage, electricity, water), leading to unsanitary living conditions. There is a lack of tenure, which is the legal right to occupy land, which stops residents from wanting to improve property, insecurity for people and also extremely high crime rates particularly in the Favelas of Rio de Janiero where the police are unable to patrol, due to extreme gang violence. NGO’s and governments have undertaken strategies to improve the issue of lack of access to shelter, including the Kolkata Bustee Improvement Project, a joint initiative between government and non-government organisations. This is a site and service program meaning that the project takes an existing site and provides it with necessary services, such as sanitation, electricity etc. This program in turn reduces the cost burden on local government and creates jobs by incorporating the local community into the work. This movement has tried to stop India’s slum clearance policy, which frees up NGO’s to be able to assist the extreme urban poor. This movement has proved to be extremely successful in improving the shelter situation in Kolkata as it improves the living standard of squatter settlement dwellers, provides jobs and skills to the local community (therefore adding to the formal not informal economy) and also allows NGO’s to be able to assist the poor as they were previously  restricted by government policies. Another benefit is that it is cost effective because it aims to improve existing settlements and creates tenure. Access to sanitation is another key challenge faced by many Mega Cities that is, providing safe food and drinking water and sewerage management. Due to increasing populations, inadequate and ancient sewerage systems and also lack of access to fresh water many Mega Cities face sanitation issues. This issue is particularly prominent in cities such as Manila, where only 11% of people have access to a sewerage system, Karachi at 20% and Dhaka at 18% of the population. Water Borne diseases are particularly prominent in megacities, such as Cholera, Dysentery and Typhoid. Furthermore the disposal of solid waste in Mega cities has lead to issues involving contamination of groundwater and creating Vernon, this is common of Jakarta where only  ¼ of all rubbish gets collected. To combat the issue of sanitation, local governments and NGO’s have established very effective, low-tech strategies, such as the Pour Flush Toilet. This initiative is a relatively cheap response to the needs of unplanned urban settlements in mega cities. A pour flush toilet has a water seal that avoids the problems associated with odour and insects. However its effectiveness is limited by the fact that the system is not suitable in cities where the groundwater table is close to the surface, which is the case in many mega cities, including Mumbai and Kolkata in India and Dhaka in Bangladesh. Also, pour flush toilets can produce substantial quantities of heavily contaminated wastewater which can require substantial downstream infrastructure to avoid severe environmental and public health problems. Despite the disadvantages of this strategy it has proved to be a very successful short term solution to the issue of sanitation and is widely used in Mega Cities around the world, due to the fact that they are simple to use and can be kept clean fairly easily. Mega Cities face many challenges; largely due to their high population increase rate. They therefore need to develop a number of solutions and strategies to combat these prominent issues, such as the informal economy, access to shelter and access to sanitation. If action is not taken to confront these issues they will only become more consequential, leading to more deaths and further environmental and land degradation. Governments and  NGO’s continually need to create strategies to solve these issues and their efforts so far have proved to be extremely beneficial in improving the quality of life of residents of Mega cities, as they fit the three primary criteria needed for solutions to be effective.

Saturday, 28 September 2019

A Strange Role Model

When a person has a role model, they look up to that special someone, adoring them, wanting and trying to be everything that person stands for. Little boys look up to Michael Jordan, the sports hero of our time. Little girls look up to models and Barbie, wanting to be beautiful, poised and sophisticated women. Me, I always thought that I had no role model, no one I wanted to be. Then one day my dad and I had a huge argument. Nickay! he always screamed, not yet having mastered the art of talking. Why didnt you wash the dishes last night? He barged into my room. I looked up from my homework and calmly explained that I had so much homework to do that I had fallen asleep. He screamed some more and, angered, I screamed back. He said Id better not let it happen again or I would see what would happen. My father has always been a believer in ruling the household with a firm hand. When he left my room, I thought, boy do I dislike that man and click, it came to me. My influence is my father. This brazen, rough man is my role model for everything I dont want to be. When I grow up, I dont want to be anything like my father. Growing up was hard. When I was smaller, I tried desperately to be Daddys little girl. I wanted him to protect me. I wanted him to buy me a necklace with a charm that said Daddys Little Girl, and one day in return Id give him one that said Number One Father. I wanted to go out for ice cream and talk about different things. Sadly, it never happened. My father was nothing like I dreamed. He made many promises and broke them all. Growing up, I always studied hard and strived to be the best. My father would be proud some days but others, when he was mad, would tell me with a mean face, I dont care how many books you read or study, youll never be smarter than me. This from a security officer with a high school diploma. My father brought me up with a stern hand; I feel children should be allowed to be children, and should be loved, not beaten. Now that Im seventeen my dad doesnt hit me anymore, but he may slap me once in a blue moon. He feels I have no respect and wants to put me in my place. He is the parent and I am the child. Nothing more, nothing less. But in reality, I dont hold any respect for my father. In his house, my dad feels that his way is always right, and tries to enforce his brazen ideas. But somehow I have been able to develop an independent mind and believe in myself. The only thing we have in common is our love of sports. Still, its different. He wants me to run track in the Olympics and, while I love track, I value an education more. Today, I am a strong, independent, black-Hispanic woman. Unlike my father, I love different cultures, new ideas and concepts. I have grown to love classical and some alternative music music that he ridicules. However, I just lock my door and pop in Beethovens Symphony No. 9, or my favorite, Tchaikovskys 1812 Overture. I love Broadway shows and dream of the day my father will take me to see Miss Saigon, which some of my girlfriends have done with their dads. But I am forced to save money to see this play on my own. I love to read and discuss books, something my father would never do with me. So I discuss books with my teachers and my uncle, who is a bookworm. My father feels there is no life beyond the city, but I want to travel and see the world. I have always been fascinated by other cultures, which is why I want to study International Relations. This probably comes from my diverse background. I am Hispanic, but I look African-American and realize how different these two cultures are. My Hispanic friends are open to friendship and are more sentimental than my black friends. Ive lived in Panama (my birthplace), Costa Rica, Hawaii, Texas and now on the East Coast. But my main goal has always been to try to lend a helping hand. It hurts me to see all the troubles in countries like Serbia. I feel a nagging pain to want to help. Graduating from high school and college are my top priorities. I dont ever want to stop being who I have become, because I have grown to like myself. My father and I have come to an understanding leave him alone and he leaves me alone. Lately, he has been proud of my accomplishments. I was in an article in the city newspaper, and he showed it to his friends. It may seem a little late for my father to begin understanding me, but I will give him a chance because someday I would like to be someones role model. fl

Friday, 27 September 2019

Analyze policy that guides community services for older adults Research Paper

Analyze policy that guides community services for older adults - Research Paper Example Demographics define people with different social relationships and design needs. According to the 2002 U.S. Census, the older adults constitute 35.6 million that is 12.3% of the country’s population. By 2020, it is foreseen that 17% of the population will be 65 years old and over. The census revealed that 20.8 million women were 65 years old and above, while men were 14.8 million (Anderson, 2011). According to Anderson (2011), the U.S. Census Bureau in 2008, predicted that by 2030, individuals aged 85 years, and above will rise from 4.6 million to 9.6 million (p.6). Medicare is a federal insurance scheme for persons aged 65 years and above. The insurance cover considers those persons with disability. Individuals aged 65 years and above qualify for Medicare benefits and are allowed to apply in part of fully. The other group of individuals who qualify for Medicare are those eligible for social security. One becomes eligible through FICA contributions that occurred during the time he/she was working, or one was married to a person who did. Medicare gives two kinds of insurance that is the traditional fee-for-service option and Medicare advantage. In traditional option, the client is insured by the government while the Medicare advantage is given to individuals who depend on private plan for their benefits. In the traditional option, the Medicare plan is divided into two parts, that is, part A and B. It reflects the division on the funding of the schedule. The part A gets funding from a part of the taxation of social security benefits and payroll taxes. The areas covered by part A include hospice services, some home health care, inpatient hospital care and skilled nursing benefits. On the other hand, part B covers outpatient hospital care, some health care, ambulatory services, physician and associated services. For individuals who qualify for type A receives the

Thursday, 26 September 2019

Greek and Roman art Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Greek and Roman art - Essay Example The Greek Architecture is roughly divided into the Archaic Age, Classical age and the Hellenistic age. The period starting from 800-500 BC is known as the Archaic age (Pedly, 2007).. Structured temples with a rectangular shape centre and portico in the front started to appear in the Archaic Age. Excavations dating earlier to this age were found in Heroon at Lefkandi a village in Euboea Island (Catling et al., 1991). This structure was referred to as â€Å"Heroon† meaning the â€Å"Heroes Grave†. The mound is nearly 13.8 meters wide. The excavation here dated back to 950 BC. A cemetery like structure with the remains of a man’s ash and a women’s body were found here in 1960 (Lemos, 2009). The Lefkandi excavations are considered quite significant in the history of Greek Architecture because they provide ample insight into the late bronze and early ion age civilizations like Xeropolis (Lemos, 2009). Excavations carried out in Lefkandi in 2003 bought up severa l cemeteries in the area similar to the Heroon of Lefkandi. The structures of these cemeteries are the base of later Greek temples built in the Archaic age. There is a wooden veranda similar to the later days Greek temples Portico. The ashes of the man were stored in a bronze amphora with carvings depicting hunting scenes (Catling et al., 1991). ... The area surrounding Lefkandi is widely known as Old Eretria. These people who settled here should have live here from the early Bronze Age till the beginning of the Archaic period (Catling et al., 1991). They might have moved away from the area because of the Lelantine War. Another notable cemetery found close to the Heroon of Lefkandi is the cemetery for Toumba1. The building should have been erected around tenth century BC. The burial mound has a main entrance on the eastern side, three rooms and a wide corridor. Rows of wooden columns supported the roof and the building ends with an apsidal on the west (Catling et al, 1991). There is a row of post-holes on the walls facing north and south. There is a huge wooden veranda known as peristrasis. This veranda and the post-holes are found in early Greek temples constructed during the Archaic age too (Lemos, 2009). The people buried here are considered to be quite rich as several costly offerings starting from pots to jewellery were exc avated along with the bodies. They should have been offered to the dead as a token of love and gratitude (Lemos, 2009). The Heroon at Lefkandi is considered as a prominent archaeological discovery due to various reasons. The Archaic period is often considered as the beginning of Greek architecture and civilization. But, the Lefkandi excavations proved civilizations and occupations dating back to two hundred years or before prevailed in the area. These excavations were the substantial proof for the culture of Late Helladic IIIC2 period which prevailed around 1075 BCE (Evley, 2006). Many more cemeteries constructed exactly in the style of later day Greek temples like Skoubris and Palia Perivolia was found in the area (Catling et al., 1991). The

Critically assess how interprofessional collaboration is the key to Essay

Critically assess how interprofessional collaboration is the key to delivering modern health and social care services - Essay Example The complexity of human health which professionals face suggests the need for a reconstruction of how they conceptualize and create knowledge. Further, such knowledge can be deepened through a dialectical process of people reflecting and acting with others to both change and understand it (Gaventa & Cornwall, 2001). In this sense, interdisciplinary structure may allow health professionals to conduct studies and collaboration between them in a research process that would increase the quality of research outcomes. It has been argued that the strength of the inter-professional collaborative research group lies in the framework where contributions from a wide range of professional perspectives are incorporated into the research process (Bond & Thompson, 1996; Ryan & Hassel, 2001). Larson (2003) identified that successful collaborations would comprise a number of multi-professional teams. Similarly, Ryan and Hassell (2001) identified collaboration as the main characteristic of inter-profe ssional research and explained that collaboration across disciplines leads to the identification of health problems through the contribution of respective knowledge and experience from different professionals in a research process with open channels of communication and the absence of professional hierarchies. Drinka and Clark (2000) argued that professional differences between group members have been identified as the basic problem in regards to communication which is one of the most important elements of a successful inter-professional collaboration in research (Gelling & Chatfield, 2001). Poor inter-professional communication, including the system where information is misheard, misread and misunderstood, would break down the working relationship between professionals in groups and affect how professionals work collaboratively in the decision-making and knowledge-producing process. On the other hand, due to professional differences and distincts values and knowledge that each prof essional holds, every member knows less about each other and so it is easy to see the problem of unequal effort in their working relationship and the difficulties in building up a relationship of trust without mutual respect. The lack of trust would limit the sharing of responsibility or workload between professionals which seems inevitable and closely related to the entire research process. Group dynamics can also be a challenge and would distort collective discourse that may generate invalid understanding. As Bray et al. (2000) argued, defensive routines and groupthink would challenge the critical reflection process within the group and the ability to assess the situation from various experience and knowledge bases and build more wide-ranging and objective

Wednesday, 25 September 2019

5th and 6th Amendment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

5th and 6th Amendment - Essay Example This is why a police officer does not need a warrant when, in the course of a traffic stop, s/he frisks a subject prior to engaging in a discussion with them. The balance of the officer’s personal safety versus the infringement on the privacy of the individual tips in favor of the officer because a reasonable person would perceive the need for safety. Searching the subject or his car for drugs, however, requires a higher standard. Probable cause goes beyond the suspicion that criminal activity has or will take place and moves more into the investigative realm. The probable cause standard is basically the amount of information the police are required to have prior to a search or seizure of property. An office who stops a vehicle for speeding has reasonable suspicion to do so, but does not have authority to search the car. If, however, during the course of the traffic stop the officer sees drug paraphernalia on the back seat, s/he has probable cause to search the cabin of the ve hicle—but not the trunk; that requires consent from the individual or a warrant. If a K-9 unit is brought in based on the paraphernalia and the dog â€Å"hits† on the trunk, a warrant is easily obtained because the police have probable cause to demonstrate a crime is being committed. The Fifth Amendment, in relevant part, states that no person shall â€Å"be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law;†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Cornell, 2008, n.p.). The purpose of the clause is to prevent unreasonable searches and seizures similar to that experienced under the British Colonial rule of the American Colonies. The basic premise is that government actors (police officers, prosecutors, other officials) cannot deprive a defendant of life, liberty, or property at a whim or based on nameless suspicion; there is a responsibility held by the officers to ensure that all of a citizen’s rights are protected. The action is

Tuesday, 24 September 2019

1. What is the purpose of the poem2. What does the poem mean and how Essay

1. What is the purpose of the poem2. What does the poem mean and how does it reveal that meaning3. Which is more important for the poem, form or content Why is this question a concern at all for the reader - Essay Example was simply based on making a description of a wreath being given to someone, who the author indicated as most familiar of his ways, as a token of appreciation and praise. Upon closer evaluation, one could establish that the one being referred to by the author, who is acknowledged as â€Å"Of praise deservà ¨d, unto Thee I give† (Herbert 2nd line) could possibly be God, the all omniscient and all knowing. Accordingly, one concludes that the purpose of the poem was to give honor and praise, possibly to God, who is all knowing and worthy of being glorified through the garland of flowers. The author seems to be expressing a problem in living his life. Through the verses: â€Å"My crooked winding ways, wherein I live,— Wherein I die, not live† (Herbert 4th and 5th lines) indicate a predicament faced by the author in disclosing that he exhibited living in crooked and winding ways; contrary to the general expectations of people to live in straight or supposedly righteous ways. This fact was again evaluated using the following lines: â€Å"for life is straight, Straight as a line, and ever tends to Thee† (Herbert 5th and 6th lines). Finally, one arrived at the conclusion that the author could be sending the message to God through the following verses: â€Å"Give me simplicity, that I may live, So live and like, that I may know Thy ways† (Herbert 9th and 10th lines) – for who else could have the power to enable one to provide a simpler life than the omnipotent God and who else is most mysterious that God that people who sometimes express the need to know more of His ways to understand Him better. The poem was effectively structured by using words that are repetitive to give emphasis to the message being relayed. As one would observe, the last words in the most of the lines in the poem are used as starting words for the next lines: In rhetorical analysis, this is called anadiplosis, which means â€Å"a rhetorical term for the repetition of the last word of one line or

Monday, 23 September 2019

Gender Sexuality Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Gender Sexuality - Essay Example This is interesting because it reverses the more common poetic tradition of male poets writing about female beauty from a male perspective. The history of Western love poetry goes back to the Middle Ages, and the tales of courtly knights who admired fair ladies. The lady was idealized in poetry, but in society men had a very much stronger position. Love poetry was therefore artificial, with very little reference to actual sex. In modern times there are more women poets, mainly because access to education, and to publishing facilities, are much more available to women. The two poems mentioned here are examples of a challenge to masculine literary tradition. They suggest there might be a different world order where women can take the initiative and use their power of writing to objectify and idealize men, according to a new set of gender rules which are much more equal. Ackerman’s poem shows how a meeting between a man and a woman can take place under water, using breathing apparatus. The first section shows how the underwater world is different from the everyday world on land. The fact that the man â€Å"had to ask twice† before the woman could interpret his gesture of love, suggests that the new environment requires a new type of body language, and a more subtle way of initiating sex. In fact as the poem progresses, the underwater location provides a whole new set of images and connotations. It is very noticeable that the the male partner is described with in terms of an octopus, sand, sea, kelp, shells etc. His hands are described as being â€Å"like tawny starfish†. These are not powerful images. The woman seems to be a part of the whole ocean, while the man is little more than a collection of timid creatures who want to be near her. It is clear that the woman feels at home in the underwater world, and the only disturbing moment in the scene occurs in the lines â€Å"drawing her close as a pirate vessel to let her board: who was this she loved?† (AFPP, lines 47-50). This reference to the pirate ship suggests that the man is an element of danger, but the thought is dismissed and the scene carries on. An important element in the scenery is the way that the underwater world is compared to a very feminine space: â€Å"an opium den† (AFPP, line 6) or â€Å"blue boudoir† (AFPP, line 90), complete with decor that is â€Å"pillow soft† (AFPP, line 91) with â€Å"quilted mosaics† (AFPP, line 100) and â€Å"twitching spangles† (AFPP, line 102). The ocean caresses the woman and the suggestion is that when a woman makes love, she returns to a previous evolutionary state, in which she is at one with the beautiful surroundings. The man is the pirate, who invades this matriarchal world, and she remembers him fondly, but she eats up the memory like a peach, showing that ultimately it was the union with the ocean that inspired her, and the man was just a small part of that whole experience. The poem by Joan Murray also writes about memories, but this time they are the collective memories of women who have been watching young men playing softball. For centuries men have been discussing women’s bodies, and evaluating them, for their own amusement. In this poem the tables are

Sunday, 22 September 2019

Critics Andrea Stuart and Mary O Connor Essay Example for Free

Critics Andrea Stuart and Mary O Connor Essay Many would argue that men hold the power in The Colour Purple. Explore the opinions of critics Andrea Stuart and Mary O Connor and explain your own view of what Alice Walker has to say about the power in The Colour Purple. In the novel The Colour Purple power is represented differently throughout. One way in which this power is shown is through men in the novel. At the beginning men dominate and are depicted as a higher authority figure to women, it seems the men rule the womens lives. However we can also argue that women are equally strong whilst others evolve into more powerful figures. Power through sisterhood is demonstrated through the fact that Shug gives Celie companionship, something Celie may not have felt since she was separated from her sister Nettie. Through Celie and Shugs relationship Celie has gained strength in herself and has been shown to stick up for herself. We see this when Shug announces she is taking Celie and Mary Agnes with her as Celie stands up to Albert. This shows us Celie is learning to become independent. This represents one aspect of female power in the novel and it also shows that by having friends to support them these women are able to leave their lowdown dogs behind and with the belief in themselves they can build their own future. Female solidarity is shown where we see Celies protection for her mother and sister Nettie. Although she has no real proof on whether Nettie is alive and well, she never stops believing she will one day be reunited with her sister. From this we can see that if men had the will power and strength the women do in the novel, they would be able to make their hard and miserable life easier and more bearable. Celie after everything she has been through and all the misery she has been put through by various characters mainly males, she still has hope and can see a brighter future for herself and to be reunited with her sister and become a family. The love shared between Shug and Celie was getting closer and more passionate. Shugs feelings for Celie to us seemed true even though she had male sexual partners Celie still seemed more important to Shug than any other of her male partners. Andrea Stuart expresses that Celie doesnt mind that her lover Shug comes home with a husband. She only cares that Shug is back with her, the existence of a husband is irrelevant to what is important, the relationship between the two women. Albert did not have a clue to what was going on between the two of them. He could understand they had become good friends in the time they had spent together and therefore wanted to sleep in the same bed but not once did he suspect them to have a sexual relationship. He put too much trust into Celie and Shug letting them be together alone for such a long time that Shug turned Celie into a more confident character, someone that has her own voice and can speak up for herself. Celie shows her strength again in the novel when she sacrifices herself to a traumatizing experience in order to protect and prevent her sister being raped. Alphonso abused Celie and she didnt want the same to happen to Nettie, I ast him to take me instead of Nettie. Thinking Alphonso may not want her instead of Nettie she trys to seduce him, I tell him I can fix myself up for him. I duck into my room and come out wearing horsehair, feathers, and a pair of our new mammy high heel shoes. He beat me for dressing trampy but he do it to me anyway. Celie here shows her willingness to protect her little sister from the pain and suffering she had previously encountered, in order to save Nettie being sexually abused she puts herself through it again. Walker highlights the lack of power experienced by many poor black females living in the southern states through the character of Celie. She comes from a black background which therefore disadvantages her because in the time the novel was set being a black female was quite low down, they were still being treated like slaves due to her being black but also female as in those times the male role dominated. Celie was therefore used to accepting some racism from the whites. This is shown when she goes into town and bumps into her baby and her step mother in a store where the clerk was rude and showed no good manners to them. He speaks in an imperative tone, girl you want that cloth or not? We got other customers sides you. Celie also wrote about black on black racial insults. One example is when Alberts sisters came round to visit and they described Alberts first wife as too black. Lighter skin was seen as more beautiful then darker skin. Squeak after being raped by her uncle Bubber Hodges, asked Harpo do you really love me, or just my colour Squeak thought it was because of her light coloured skin due to the fact she is mixed race that Harpo was attracted to her and not because he truly loved her. Here power was shown through skin colour and Walker highlights how deeply racism is embedded for example when the critics say she is writing against black people showing their racism. Andrea Stuart and Mary OConner both think Celie is only a victim of men in the physical world. Stuart states that men are relegated to the periphery of female consciousness Celie being a black women she was not only a slave to slavery but she was also a slave to the male authority, when slavery was abolished Celie saw the opportunity to free herself from the traditions that men come first.

Friday, 20 September 2019

Study of In-vivo Analgesic Activity in Animals

Study of In-vivo Analgesic Activity in Animals A) ANIMALS Swiss albino mice (20-25 g) and wistar rats (150-200 g) of either sex were used for study of in-vivo analgesic activity. Animals were kept under standard laboratory conditions i.e. temprature is 24  ± 2 °C and relative humidity is 60-70%. The study protocol was approved by the institutional animal ethics committee (IAEC) before experiment (Approval No. 1452/PO/a/11/CPCSEA). Albino-Swiss mice were taken from Laboratory Animal House, Devsthali Vidyapeeth College of Pharmacy, Lalpur, Rudrapur (U. S. Nagar) and used for the study. The animals were procured from IVRI, Bareilly (U.P.) The animals were kept in polypropylene cages and maintained on balanced ration with free access to clean drinking water. All experimental procedures were conducted in accordance with the guide for Care and use of laboratory animals and in accordance with the Local animal care and use committee. Paddy husk was provided as bedding material, which was cleaned every day. The cages were maintained clean. All o f the animals were left for 2 days in the laboratory for getting used to before the day of experiment and on the last day they were given water only. Minimum of 6 animals were used in each group. B) ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES The acute oral toxicity studies were carried out to study the acute toxic effects and to determine minimum toxic dose of the synthesized compounds. For the study swiss albino mice of either sex weighing 20-25 g were used. The aqueous solution of compounds were administered orally to different groups of over night fasted mice at the doses of 30, 100, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg body weight. After administration of the compounds, animals were observed continuously for any toxic manifestation for the first three hours. There after, observations were made at regular intervals for 24 hrs. Further the animals were under investigation up to a period of one week. I) ANALGESIC ACTIVITY For the study of analgesisc activity two methods were used. (A) Hot Plate method (B) Acetic caid induced writhing method A) Method 1: Hot plate method186,187,188,189 By applying heat pain is inced to animals. All the animals one by one are kept in the hot plate maintain at constant temperature (55 °C) and there reactions was noted i.e. paw licking or jumping response. Work plan Albino rats of either sex (150-200 g) were selected and divided into four groups of six animals each. All the animals were fasted for 24 hrs. before the start of the experiment and water was given adlibitum. The animals were treated as follows : Group 1 : Control group received 0.5% sodium CMC (1mg/kg) orally. Group 2 : Diclofenac sodium 50mg/kg were administered orally. Group 3 : Novel benzimidazole substituted pyrazolidine 3,5 dione derivative in dose level of 50mg/kg was administered orally. Group 4 : Novel 2-quinolone substituted pyrazolidine 3,5 dione derivative in dose level of 50mg/kg was administered orally. Here Group 1 is the control, group 2 is active standard and group 3 and group 4 are test. Experimental Details The hot plate method is based on the fact that analgesic compounds increases the response time. This method was first described by Eddy Leimbach, where a cut off period of 15 sec is observed to avoid damage to the paw. All the synthesized compounds were dissolved in the CMC (0.5% suspension). After administration of control, standard and test compounds the animals were kept at the hot plate and their reaction time were note at 15, 30, 60 120 min interval. All the doses were given orally to animals. Diclofenac Sodium at dose of 50 mg/kg was used standard drug for comparison. The results so obtained were tabulated in Table 10, 12, 14 and 16 and figure 07, 09, 11 and 13. Results were expressed as means  ± S.E.M. Statistical significance was analyzed using the two-way anova analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s Multiple Comparison Test where p B) Method 2: Acetic Acid Induced Writhing Method186,187,188,189 In this method pain is induced by intraperitoneal (I.P) administration of 0.6% (0.1 ml/10g) acetic acid in mice. Analgesic activity was determined by calculating total number of writhings. Work plan Albino mice of either sex (25-30 g) were used for the study. All the animals were fasted for 24 hrs. before the start of the experiment and water was given adlibitum. The animals were treated as follows : Group 1 : Control group received 0.5% sodium CMC (1mg/kg) orally. Group 2 : Diclofenac sodium 20mg/kg were administered orally. Group 3 : Novel benzimidazole substituted pyrazolidine 3,5 dione derivative in dose level of 20mg/kg was administered orally. Group 4 : Novel 2-quinolone substituted pyrazolidine 3,5 dione derivative in dose level of 20mg/kg was administered orally. Here Group 1 is the control, group 2 is active standard and group 3 and group 4 are test. Experimental Details All the synthesized compounds were administered intraperitonealy (0.5 ml) as a suspension in sterile 0.9% DMSO solution as vehicle. Diclofenac Sodium at dose of 20 mg/kg was used standard drug for comparison. Acetic acid solution was intraperitonealy administered 30 min after administration of the compounds. 10 min after intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid solution, the number of writhings per animal was recorded for 20 min. Control animals received an equal volume of vehicle. Results were expressed as means  ± S.E.M. Statistical significance was analyzed using the two-way anova analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s Multiple Comparison Test where p II) ANTI-PYRETIC ACTIVITY STUDIES:190 For antipyretic activity yeast induced pyrexia model was used for the study. Work plan Albino rats of either sex (150-200 g) were selected and divided into four groups of six animals each. All the animals were fasted for 24 hrs. before the start of the experiment and water was given adlibitum. The animals were treated as follows : Group 1 : Control group received 0.5% sodium CMC (1mg/kg) orally. Group 2 : Peracetamol 100mg/kg were administered orally. Group 3 : Novel benzimidazole substituted pyrazolidine 3,5 dione derivative in dose level of 100mg/kg was administered orally. Group 4 : Novel 2-quinolone substituted pyrazolidine 3,5 dione derivative in dose level of 100mg/kg was administered orally. Here Group 1 is the control, group 2 is active standard and group 3 and group 4 are test. Experimental Details For induction of fever in rats, 20% w/v of brewer’s yeast in distilled water was administered by subcutaneous injection. All animals which were used for study, were induced pyrexia by injection of 10 ml/kg of brewer’s yeast solution under the skin in between the shoulder blades. The place of the injection was massaged in order to spread the suspension beneath the skin. Basal rectal temperature was measured before the injection of yeast, by inserting digital clinical thermometer to a depth of 2 cm into the rectum. The rise in rectal temperature was recorded after 19 hours of yeast injection. The rectal temperature was taken after 30, 60, 120, 180 and 300 minutes post treatment. If a drug is having antipyretic effect then there is a fall in the rectal temprature. Results were expressed as means  ± S.E.M. Statistical significance was analyzed using the two-way anova analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s Multiple Comparison Test where p III) ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY: 186,187,188,189 For anti-inflammatory activity carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema method was used. Work plan Albino rats of either sex (150-200 g) were selected and divided into four groups of six animals each. All the animals were fasted for 24 hrs. before the start of the experiment and water was given adlibitum. The animals were treated as follows : Group 1 : Control group received sterile normal saline (0.85% NaCl) orally. Group 2 : Ibuprofen 20mg/kg were administered orally. Group 3 : Novel benzimidazole substituted pyrazolidine 3,5 dione derivative in dose level of 50mg/kg was administered orally. Group 4 : Novel 2-quinolone substituted pyrazolidine 3,5 dione derivative in dose level of 50mg/kg was administered orally. Here Group 1 is the control, group 2 is active standard and group 3 and group 4 are test. Experimental Details This method was described by Winter et al. in 1962. The experimental animals were divided into ten groups, each containing five animals. After 30 min of administration of test compounds, 0.1 ml of 1% (w/v) carrageenin was injected subcutaneously in the subplantar region of the left hind paw. The right paw served as a reference to non inflammed paw for comparison. The initial paw volume was measured within 30 sec of the carrageenin injection by plethysmometer. The relative increase in paw volume was measured in control, standard and test compounds at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 h after the carrageenin injection. The difference between initial and final readings was taken as the volume of oedema and the percentage inhibition by the compounds was calculated using the formula- where dt is the difference in paw volume in the test compound-treated group and dc the difference in paw volume in the control group. Results were expressed as means  ± S.E.M. Statistical significance was analyzed using the two-way anova analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s Multiple Comparison Test where p Uttarakhand Technical University, Dehradun 1

Thursday, 19 September 2019

Cultural Chameleon :: Essays Papers

Cultural Chameleon For me, being late to school meant chasing down taxis at 7:15 am and hurriedly telling the driver, in broken Cantonese, to please hurry. A day of shopping meant searching the Hong Kong market streets for a pair of shoes larger than a size 7 and bargaining for thirty minutes with the shopkeeper to bring the price down to fewer than ten dollars. Lunch with a friend was being the only white girl in a small noodle house tainted by the smell of the ducks and chickens hanging in the window, my voice drowned out by music blaring through Cantonese speakers. Sometime in the five years I had lived in Hong Kong, between speaking a little Cantonese and knowing the downtown streets like the back of my hand, I was promoted from my status as a typical American blonde to a true Hong Kong kid. When I moved away the summer after my sophomore year in high school, I was leaving home and going somewhere completely foreign. Texas. I will always remember the first day of public school. My mom dropped me off at the front of the school, as kids sped by us in their huge SUV’s to viciously snag a parking space. Inside, I was met with a swarm of Abercrombie-clad blondes and brunettes in every hall and at every corner. My thoughts were drowned out by singing of the latest songs on the radio, gossip, and laughter. Seeing as these were people who spoke the same native language as me, who looked the same and sounded the same, you would think that I would finally feel at home and relieved. But I had never felt so foreign in my life. This American culture that my parents called their own, did not at all feel like something that was mine. I was confused by the fact that I felt more at home and at ease in a culture where I stuck out as blatantly different, than in one where I blended in completely. It was this challenge and these feelings that established me as what is commonly referred to as one of the world’s â€Å"Third Culture Kids.† In their book so titled, David C. Pollock and Ruth E. Van Reken describe in detail the concept of what it means to grow up in a culture other than that of your own native culture, and the challenges and emotions that are often met.

Essay example --

In the novel One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest by Ken Kesey we are introduced to the theme of the machine controlling the patients in the ward. The combine, as it is referred to several times throughout the novel, is a machine that is used in farming that is used for cutting crops. In Cuckoo’s Nest, the combine is used as a metaphor for society and how it controls, destroys and manipulates the patients. The character Nurse Ratched is a â€Å"high ranking official† (p. 165) of the combine with nearly every character in the novel under her control. With extreme intelligence, she uses her power to influence how the population of the ward acts and what they do. Fear is a major component of the nurse’s tactics as she uses it to get what she wants and gets things done exactly how she wants it. The two types of patients in the novel, the Acutes who are â€Å"still sick enough to be fixed† (p. 13) and the Chronics who â€Å"can’t be repaired† (p. 14) are treated much differently by the nurse and her staff as she must be more strict with the chronics and is allowed to be more lenient with the acutes. The ...

Wednesday, 18 September 2019

Pepsi and Heineken Commercials: Promoting American Devotion and Compas

Pepsi and Heineken Commercials: Promoting American Devotion and Compassion Today’s commercials cloud the viewers’ brains with meaningless ritzy camera angles and beautiful models to divert viewers from the true meaning of the commercials. The advertisers just want consumers to spend all of their hard-earned money on their brand of products. The â€Å"Pepsi† and â€Å"Heineken† commercials are perfect examples of what Dave Barry is trying to point out in his essay, â€Å"Red, White and Beer.† He emphasizes that commercial advertisements need to make viewers think that by choosing their brands of products, viewers are helping out American society. As Rita Dove’s essay â€Å"Loose Ends† argues, people prefer this fantasy of television to the reality of their own lives. Because viewers prefer fantasy to reality, they become fixated on the fantasy, and according to Marie Winn in â€Å"Television Addiction,† this can ultimately lead to a serious addiction to television. But, one must admit that the cle ver tactics of the commercial advertisers are beyond compare. Who would have thought the half naked-blondes holding soda cans and American men refusing commitment would have caught viewers’ attention? Try to visualize a slim blonde at the ripe age of nineteen coming in closer and closer on the television screen. She’s wearing a tube top and hip hugger jeans with a belly ring that reads â€Å"Pepsi.† She slowly spins around, grabs a can of Pepsi and drinks it in slow motion while her diamond bracelet glistens in the lights. The music stops. She turns to the camera, smiles, winks at you, and tells you to go out and try a nice cool refreshing can of Pepsi Cola. The next commercial to come on shows a man sitting down on the couch with his girlfriend s... ...ics television advertisements. When such a significant line is blurred when do we draw it back on? Do we wait until we see the serious effects of this problem? When do we deem television addiction as serious? Advertisers want viewers to spend their hard-earned money on their brands. Therefore, they have devised elaborate commercials to lure consumers into their trap and once they have gotten their patronage, it is hard to say if they will ever let them go. So, watch out. Works Cited Barry, David. â€Å"Red, White and Beer† The McGraw-Hill Reader. 8th ed. Ed. Gilbert Muller, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003. 519-521 Dove, Rita. â€Å"Loose Ends† The McGraw-Hill Reader. 8th ed. Ed. Gilbert Muller, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003. 503-504 Winn, Marie. â€Å"Television Addiction† The McGraw-Hill Reader. 8th ed. Ed. Gilbert Muller, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003. 505-507

Tuesday, 17 September 2019

How Childhood Has Changed over the Centuries

In relation to the changing ideas about childhood over the centuries, there are several points of discussion that arise. Many ideas surrounding the change and evolved over the centuries, ideas such as the views towards education and the impact of the industrial revolution on westerns societies views towards childhood, due to the limited space, this essay will focus on two underlying issues which have contributed greatly to the changing ideas about childhood over the centuries, which are; the recognition of childhood and innocence in western society and the extent to which childhood throughout history has been socially constructed.This essay will argue how the concept of childhood has changed over the centuries. Furthermore, this essay will outline that the concept of childhood throughout the centuries has been constructed from a state of adulthood. This essay will begin by exploring the innocence of children and outlining the change in the recognition of childhood by western society. Following this, it will explore the great extent as to which childhood has been socially constructed and how it has shaped the concept of childhood in different eras.The idea of recognising and separating childhood from the adult world has had a complex history over the centuries. Depending on where you look for evidence and whichever approach to the history of childhood you adopt, the same conclusion is reached: children today occupy a different status from that of the young in earlier centuries and different cultures. Modern childhood as we know it is historically specific. According to Aries (1960), the major difference between contemporary childhood and childhood in earlier periods is the lack of recognition of the concept of childhood.He goes on to say that as far back as the medieval period, ‘the idea of childhood was non-existent’. This concept is prevalent throughout the artworks Aries uses as evidence for his findings. From these artworks, Aries (1960) argued that there was no concept of childhood; rather, children were regarded as small adults. Based on this evidence, this conclusion about childhood cannot be fully drawn as artwork was often composed from a conceptual perspective and it cannot be used as fact.It can however be argued that childhood was recognised as being non-existent due to the attitudes towards children of this era. In direct contrast, the innocence of a child was not socially recognised during medieval times, childhood was thought to be a stage of life which we as humans pass through. Austin (2003) states that during the 18th and 19th century, the concept of childhood innocence was not so much recognised, but something that was looked back upon and was something that was lost.It was apparent that it was preserved, but due to corruption from the adult world, childhood nostalgia was now more prominent. This is evident in two literary works, Rousseau (1762) took a view, as did Wordsworth (1802) that from a Neo-Platonist interpretation, it was possible to look back to childhood as a period of innocence during which children are born pure but corrupted through the guidance of the adult world. They further emphasised the need for freedom of children and for their protection by adults.As a result, this concept of childhood innocence and the preservation of it led to the development of the recognition of childhood and the role it plays within society. It is further led to development of compulsory schooling and the move away from child labour as a result of the industrial revolution. A second key and underlying issue is the question of the extent to which childhood has been socially constructed throughout history or whether it is simply a stage of development that we as humans pass through.Aries (1960) central argument is that ‘post 17th century that childhood has been shaped by social construction’. It is argued that the understanding of childhood is that it is not the same throughout the world and throughout history and how children differ from adults and how the social environment alters the way in which they are constructed. In western society, childhood is considered a time period of innocence and purity and it is something to be protected. It is characterised as a time of protection from the adult world and the concepts associated with adulthood, such as sexualisation, work and injury.With reference to (Anti Essay 2012) as a result of these ideologies, children are expected to be educated and to be provided with care, nurturing and protection by their parents. However, in developing societies the idea of childhood is wholly opposed to that of the childhood of developed societies. The economic state within these developing societies controls the type of childhood these children experience. Children in developing societies are required to work to help maintain their household’s economic tatus. This is also evident during the time of the industrial revoluti on, where children were seen to have to contribute to the economy of the household and to contribute to the income of society. Furthermore, the time frame in which a child lived altered the way in which they experienced childhood. As pointed out earlier, Aries (1960) stated that there was no concept of childhood until the 17th century, and as western society developed so did the way childhood was socially constructed.This can be seen throughout modern society, where now the protection of children and their innocence is taking over the place of child labour. Children and their innocence are now shielded from the adult world with laws and rules set in to place to help maintain their innocence and purity. For example, laws are now set in place to restrict what children watch and observe this was non-existent during earlier times. It can then be argued that childhood is a social construction.In conclusion, this essay has argued that the ideas about childhood have changed over the centur ies due to development of the understanding of it. Childhood was previously not regarded as something to be recognised and that the innocence in which children possess was not socially realised as to be something to be nurtured. Rather, it not seen as something separate from the adult world. As western society developed, so too did the ideas surrounding childhood. The way in which the concept of childhood has been recognised and accepted has been heavily influenced by the society in which the child lived.The social construction of that particular view towards childhood has led to the largest amount of change in relation to the ideas of childhood over the centuries. Therefore, it can be said that the ideas about childhood have changed significantly over the centuries and that with the change in the understanding in the importance of childhood, the concept will continually grow. References – Aries, P 1960, Centuries of Childhood, trans. R Baldick, Jonathon Cape, LondonAustin, L M 2003, Children of Childhood: Nostalgia and the Romantic Legacy’, Studies in Romanticism, vol. 42, no. 1 (spring, 2003) CambridgeA November 26, 2008, Anti Essays, Childhood is a Social Construct, accessed 17 October 2012 Google Books, 2012, Emile, or on education – John Jacques Rousseau, lucy141, January 26, 2011, Anti Essays, To What Extend Is Childhood A Social Construction, accessed 17 October 2012, Poets. org – Poetry, Poems, Bios & More 2012, Ode on Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood 1804, accessed 15 October 2012

Monday, 16 September 2019

Marriage and Percent Cohabitation Increase Essay

Cohabitation is living together and having a sexual relationship between unmarried couples. Cohabitation is legal in some country and illegal in the others, it is illegal in our country Lebanon. The number of couples who are in cohabiting relationships has steadily risen throughout the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st as the social, religious and political attitudes to cohabitation outside of marriage have changed. Couples live together without marriage for several reasons. According to statistics the percentage of cohabitated couples in Lebanon is increasing â€Å"Recent figures have shown a 12 percent cohabitation increase from 1970 until early 2003,† (The Daily Star :: Lebanon News :: http://www. dailystar. com. lb). Cohabitation should be legalized in our country. First of all, cohabitation can be a preparation for marriage or a good experience for the couples. After cohabitating a period with your partner you will be able to decide to break up or to marry him/her. Living together with your partner will let you know all the good and the bad habits of him/her, cohabitation will give you a good idea about your life when you will marry your partner, and it will show you the difference between dating your partner and getting married. The percentage of divorce in Lebanon is increasing in the last years, some couples are married in 3 or 4 months after they met first, cohabitation could be the solution of this problem, these couples can cohabit 3 or 4 months and then they will decide to get married or to end the relationship. Without cohabitating, it is extremely hard for a couple to have an assumption about each others.

Sunday, 15 September 2019

Animals Don’t Have Enough Rights

Animal rights Good morning my friends! how are you today? i’m going to start this discussion with a simple question â€Å" will you go to jail if you kill a human? †. Ofcourse you will, this is because humans have a right to live and to take ones life is a sin right? now let me ask you another question â€Å"will you go to jail if you kill an animal? †. The answer is no, why is this? because humans are more inferior then others? a life is a life whether its a human or an animal.Do you know that in one day an average human kills up to 3 animals? why? just so you can eat a good lunch or dinner at KFC or Mcdonalds. In my opinion animals dont have enough rights this is my topic for today. Did it ever occur to you that maybe animals have rights too? just because they cant speak doesnt mean they cant feel. Every year millions of animals are disected,infected,injected,gassed burned and blinded in hidden labs all over the world and most of the time without painkillers. A nd what for? ust so you can get the latest perfume or shampoo. Would it kill to use organic items? if they arent killed the animals get traumatised and are shaken up which is worse. The truth is, is that animal testing has endangered the life of humans because the results from animal testing cant be applied to humans. This is because animals and humans are completely different from each other! less than 2% of the diseases in humans appear on animals. In Australia last year, 6. 5 million animals were used in experiments.In these research labs just imagine how these animals would feel they are shoved in cages that are so small they get grazes and cuts on their skin from trying to get comfy, also when an animal dies it is kept in a wheelbarrow near the cages. The animals get scared and even sometimes attack each other. Despite the death of these animals before they even get tested, lab workers continue to stuff them in tiny cages, each animal branded with a barcode number instead of a name.In conclusion, animal testing is unreliable and sick, and now that there are alternatives to this (synthetic human skin, vitro testing) I suggest the government fully ban animal testing, we can help too! next time you go shopping buy animal friendly products only and then animal testing labs will be forced to shut down and try not to eat too much of meat so that the killing of animals can be reduced. lets make the world a better, safer, happier place for humans and animals Remember animals have rights too!

Saturday, 14 September 2019

Scarlet Letter

Amy Sheehan Mr. Frye English 11 Honors 3 February 2012 Clever Title The physical and emotional strain resulting from sex out of wedlock seems to be an almost unbearable burden. In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter, Hester Prynne, and her daughter Pearl deal with the emotional abuse from her townspeople because of an affair with Dimmesdale. All of the harassment takes place in a small town in Boston, Massachusetts. In Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter, the reoccurring image of a circle/sphere probes the thought that humanity is following a cycle of cruelty that has never been broken.The use of actual objects to distinguish the pattern of isolation reoccurs often. Isolation plays a key factor in The Scarlet Letter, usually being hinted at with assistance from the image of a circle or sphere. In some instances, the cycle of isolation appears in nature: â€Å"Did the sun, which shone so brightly everywhere else, really fall upon him? Or, was there, as it rather seemed, a circle of ominous shadow moving along with his deformity, whichever way he turned himself. † (172). The sunlight refuses to fall directly on Chillingworth because of his impure body structure.The shadow casting off of him foreshadows the death he will later face. Nature isolates Chillingworth because he seems to be dark creature. Hawthorne does not just use circles and spheres in nature, he also uses them through Hester’s other possessions. Pear also plays a part in the reoccurring isolation symbol. â€Å"But she names the infant ‘Pearl† (85). In the beginning, Hester was isolated because of her sin. As the book goes on, she realizes that society continues to exclude not only her, but her daughter as well. A pearl represents a small spherical object grown in the comfort of an oyster’s mouth.In essence that is exactly what Pearl is. The only life she has known is one of complete distance from the rest of society. If someone shows her kindness, or a cceptance, she would not know how to react. She’s been raised to think isolation is normal. Her mother on the other hand will never quite get used to the harsh reality of what she’s done; â€Å"While Hester stood in that magic circle of ignominy where the cunning cruelty of her sentence seem to have fixed her forever† (242). The amazing ability of the townspeople to shun a completely innocent woman is the pattern of humanity.Mankind has always been unbelievably cruel to the people who least deserve it. Hester’s humility and strength is show constantly throughout the book. The invariable essence of cruelty is, and always has been, a big part of society. Not only are objects used to portray isolation, people are also used. With every mention of a circle/sphere, the patterns of isolation continue to show up. â€Å"They now felt themselves, at least, inhabitants of the same sphere† (186). Hawthorne uses the relationship between Hester and Dimmesdale to prove the point of the cruel unfair ways of humanity.The well liked man gets away with absolutely no judgment, while the lower class woman gets all the hatred and punishment. While these two people are so diversely seen in society, they formed a completely flawless creation that gets torn apart by the isolation of the town; â€Å"Pearl looked as beautiful as the day, but was in one of those moods of perverse merriment which, whenever they occurred, seemed to remove her entirely out of the sphere of sympathy or human contact† (130). Pearl has entered her own circle of dependency. She depends on her mom and herself.Society has shut her out completely, just because she’s associated with Hester. Which makes one think; how would this child be looked at if she were to be associated with her father, Dimmesdale. With Pearl having a father as a saint, and a mother as a sinner, gave Pearl a very narrow chance of ridding this pattern of isolation. Although society didn’t bear down on Dimmesdale, his guilty conscience is what got to him. â€Å"The very contiguity of his enemy, beneath whatever mask the latter might conceal himself, was enough to disturb the magnetic sphere of a being so sensitive as Arthur Dimmesdale† (189).The cruel patterns of humanity don’t always come from other people. Ones worst enemy is one’s self. His cruel ways of emotionally and physically tormenting himself were just another isolation tactic. He isolated himself from everyone emotionally because he felt as if the secret was bearing down on his soul. No matter whom you are, or how ‘godly’ you are, you will always fall a victim to the cruel ways of humanity. The main person being singled out by the people is Hester Prynne. Her ability to bounce back and still have a love for the people who have been ridiculing her for 7 years is unbelievable.Although her humility is great, the cycle of isolation will not be broken; â€Å"As was usually the case wherever Hester stood, a small vacant area- a sort of magic circle- had formed itself about her† (230) Her reputation alone gives her this kind of innate ability to after awhile isolate herself. In some parts of the book Hester even tries to isolate herself, from herself; â€Å"She had flirted fancifully with her own image in a pool of water, beckoning the phantom forth, and –as it declined to venture- seeking a passage for herself into its sphere of impalpable earth and unattainable sky† (173).The only thing keeping her back from complete and total freedom is her mindset. Her mind is so isolated from most other people that it would just be hard for her to even think about being part of a crowd again. The only thing keeping her somewhat part of a society greater than herself is her daughter. â€Å"The light lingered about the lonely child, as if glad of such a playmate, until her mother had drawn almost high enough to step into the magic circle too† ( 180). These two are isolated together. They depend on each other yet lead completely different lives.Society bonded them together in isolation, yet in their own little circles, they isolate themselves from each other. The cycle of isolation with humanity has never before been broken. Although it may appear to be an easy pattern to break, there is always someone or some kind of possession that will be thrown to the side and isolated from the rest of society. The patterns occur in this book through objects, people, and Hester. Don’t underestimate the power of isolation, it can make you do things you would never dream of doing. Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. New York, NY: Tom Doherty Associates, 1989. Print Scarlet Letter In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter the story takes place in Puritanical America where the young Hester Prynne, after committing adultery is punished on the basis of what the town thinks is right. She is simultaneously a part of the town and is also pushed away from it. Hawthorne explores the theme of liminality between society and nature through the motif of setting to convey the isolation that comes with sin. The scaffold (where Hester stands to face her consequences), Hester and Pearl’s cottage, and the brook are all examples of setting that all contain elements of liminality in â€Å"The Scarlet Letter†.Hester stands on the scaffold during the day to fulfill the consequences of her sin. She brings Pearl with her as she is the product of the sin. While the town has knowledge of what she has done they are still unaware of who took part in this crime with her. â€Å"They stood in the noon of that strange and solemn splendor, as if it were the light that is to reveal all secrets and the daybreak that shall unite all who belong to one another. † (135). â€Å"They† is referring to Hester, Pearl, and Dimmesdale; the town’s minister who, the reader now knows, fathered young Pearl.The light and dark imagery indicates the liminal state between the three of them and the rest of the town, â€Å"The light that is to reveal all secrets. † The scaffold also shows a liminal state between Hester and Dimmesdale, â€Å"†¦ and little Pearl, herself a symbol, and the connecting link between those two. † (135) When the three of them are on the scaffold together it shows the unity between them, but also a side that shows they are not fully united with one another. â€Å"All the dread of public exposure, that had so long been the anguish of his life, had returned upon him. (134). The passage â€Å"dread of public exposure† represents the guilt and fear Dimmesdale has about revealing the secret in his sin. This is what shows the liminal state between Hester and Dimmesdale; they sinned together, however only one of them will publically take responsibility for this action. This indicates that while there is a clear connection between the two of them (Pearl) the â€Å"dread of public exposure† creates a distance between them. Hester and Pearl are also, as another consequence, forced to live in a ottage on the edge of the town, isolated from the rest of society. This plays as a symbolic representation of liminality because the two of them are stuck in the area between lawful society and lawless nature. â€Å"It straggled onward into the mystery of the primeval forest. This hemmed it in so narrowly, and stood so black and dense on either side, and disclosed such imperfect glimpses of the sky above, that, to Hester's mind, it imaged not amiss the moral wilderness in which she had so long been wandering. It is said that Hester is recognizing her â€Å"moral wilderness† which further explains how she is not a real part of the Puritanical town but she is â€Å"wandering† within the in-between area of lawful society and lawless nature. Near the end of the story; Hester, Dimmesdale, and Pearl all stand together at the brook. Dimmesdale and Hester have just decided to move to Europe and finally be together where no will know of their previous sinful actions. Pearl stands on one side on the brook by herself, solemnly watching Hester and Dimmesdale who are on the opposite side. This brook is the boundary between two worlds, and that thou canst never meet thy Pearl again† (182). As Hester and Dimmesdale are together there is a clear liminal state between the two of them and Pearl, the words â€Å"boundary between two worlds† indicates the increasing distance created. Hester and Dimmesdale talk about being absolved and rid of the sin â€Å"Be the foregone evil what it might, how could they doubt that their earthly lives and future destinies were conjoined† (180). If Hester and Dimmesdale are rid of their sin, then they will be pushing Pearl away with it, because she is the physical symbol of the sin.In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter the story takes place in Puritanical America where the young Hester Prynne, after committing adultery is punished on the basis of what the town thinks is right. Hawthorne explores the theme of liminality between society and nature through the motif of setting to convey the isolation that comes with sin. Liminality is shown through settings such as the scaffold, the cottage, and the brook. All places that created a drawing distance between Hester, Pearl, and Dimmesdale. In the end, all of the three are lost in the â€Å"middle area† between lawful society and the lawless world of nature. Scarlet Letter In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter the story takes place in Puritanical America where the young Hester Prynne, after committing adultery is punished on the basis of what the town thinks is right. She is simultaneously a part of the town and is also pushed away from it. Hawthorne explores the theme of liminality between society and nature through the motif of setting to convey the isolation that comes with sin. The scaffold (where Hester stands to face her consequences), Hester and Pearl’s cottage, and the brook are all examples of setting that all contain elements of liminality in â€Å"The Scarlet Letter†.Hester stands on the scaffold during the day to fulfill the consequences of her sin. She brings Pearl with her as she is the product of the sin. While the town has knowledge of what she has done they are still unaware of who took part in this crime with her. â€Å"They stood in the noon of that strange and solemn splendor, as if it were the light that is to reveal all secrets and the daybreak that shall unite all who belong to one another. † (135). â€Å"They† is referring to Hester, Pearl, and Dimmesdale; the town’s minister who, the reader now knows, fathered young Pearl.The light and dark imagery indicates the liminal state between the three of them and the rest of the town, â€Å"The light that is to reveal all secrets. † The scaffold also shows a liminal state between Hester and Dimmesdale, â€Å"†¦ and little Pearl, herself a symbol, and the connecting link between those two. † (135) When the three of them are on the scaffold together it shows the unity between them, but also a side that shows they are not fully united with one another. â€Å"All the dread of public exposure, that had so long been the anguish of his life, had returned upon him. (134). The passage â€Å"dread of public exposure† represents the guilt and fear Dimmesdale has about revealing the secret in his sin. This is what shows the liminal state between Hester and Dimmesdale; they sinned together, however only one of them will publically take responsibility for this action. This indicates that while there is a clear connection between the two of them (Pearl) the â€Å"dread of public exposure† creates a distance between them. Hester and Pearl are also, as another consequence, forced to live in a ottage on the edge of the town, isolated from the rest of society. This plays as a symbolic representation of liminality because the two of them are stuck in the area between lawful society and lawless nature. â€Å"It straggled onward into the mystery of the primeval forest. This hemmed it in so narrowly, and stood so black and dense on either side, and disclosed such imperfect glimpses of the sky above, that, to Hester's mind, it imaged not amiss the moral wilderness in which she had so long been wandering. It is said that Hester is recognizing her â€Å"moral wilderness† which further explains how she is not a real part of the Puritanical town but she is â€Å"wandering† within the in-between area of lawful society and lawless nature. Near the end of the story; Hester, Dimmesdale, and Pearl all stand together at the brook. Dimmesdale and Hester have just decided to move to Europe and finally be together where no will know of their previous sinful actions. Pearl stands on one side on the brook by herself, solemnly watching Hester and Dimmesdale who are on the opposite side. This brook is the boundary between two worlds, and that thou canst never meet thy Pearl again† (182). As Hester and Dimmesdale are together there is a clear liminal state between the two of them and Pearl, the words â€Å"boundary between two worlds† indicates the increasing distance created. Hester and Dimmesdale talk about being absolved and rid of the sin â€Å"Be the foregone evil what it might, how could they doubt that their earthly lives and future destinies were conjoined† (180). If Hester and Dimmesdale are rid of their sin, then they will be pushing Pearl away with it, because she is the physical symbol of the sin.In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter the story takes place in Puritanical America where the young Hester Prynne, after committing adultery is punished on the basis of what the town thinks is right. Hawthorne explores the theme of liminality between society and nature through the motif of setting to convey the isolation that comes with sin. Liminality is shown through settings such as the scaffold, the cottage, and the brook. All places that created a drawing distance between Hester, Pearl, and Dimmesdale. In the end, all of the three are lost in the â€Å"middle area† between lawful society and the lawless world of nature.

Friday, 13 September 2019

The GeoScot Ltd Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

The GeoScot Ltd - Case Study Example To motivate the new and old members of the organization, it is proposed that several strategies be used. By sharing company information with all employees, mentoring the new workforce, integrating the work environment to work in teams and giving personal rewards on good performance are some of the strategies that will definitely increase the motivation. However with the expansion, there is a need to divide the office into two segments. Although an ideal option would be to integrate all employees in the old building, but due to lack of space and due to the disadvantages of shifting the office to another location, having two separate offices is the best option. This way the new employees are in the new building and the old employees in the old office, however both offices will be synced and interaction will be kept strong to integrate their functions. By doing this the experienced and the young graduates will be able to communicate and learn from each other which is essential for any o rganization. This recruitment will be done using the 'Realistic Job Preview' strategy in which the prospective geologists will be given exciting offers and shown the brilliance of GeoScot as well as a chance of earning a bright future for themselves. The drug tested, drug-free workforce will be shown to the world hence improving the reputation of the company and increasing the chances of earning better employees and contracts with partners in the future. Contents Contents 3 Hiring a New HR Manager 4 Factors to Keep in Mind 4 Cost 4 Personal Characteristics/Skills 5 Need for Evaluation 5 Company Dynamics 6 Company Policy 6 Total Employees 6 Decision 7 Motivation 7 Hygiene Factor 7 Mentoring helps in Motivation 8 Share Company Information 9 Integrated Work Environment 9 Encourage Groups and Teams 10 New Blood versus Old Blood 10 New Information 11 Different Perspective of the Market 11 Globalization 11 Location Decision 12 Recruitment Strategy 13 Job Description 14 Selection Devices 14 Application Form 14 Interview 15 Paper n Pencil Test 15 Assessment Centre 15 Drug Testing 15 Advantages 16 Disadvantages 16 Need Creation 17 Creating Awareness 17 Education about Drug Testing 17 Explaining the Need 17 References 18 Hiring a New HR Manager Employing a HR manager is a big decision for a company like GeoScot Ltd. since it is a small sized company and in its introductory phase. Usually when hiring any employee, there needs to be a complete evaluation of the candidates before any decision can be made. For the situation the company is in, the current requirements and the future needs all have to be kept in mind before the decision of part time or permanent HR manager is taken. Factors to Keep in Mind There are various factors that can influence the decision one way or the other. Cost The cost plays a major part in the decision making. A part time employee hired on a contract instead of on a permanent basis can give many economic benefits as well (Zhu, 2005). For example, GeoScot may need to invest in various funds related to each permanent employee, some of which is even paid to the employee when he/she leaves the organization. All these expenses are nil in case of contractual employees. So, hiring an employee on a contractual basis would be economically suitable as well. But since the organization is in the running for 3 years now, it would have some available funding to hire a full time HR manager.

Thursday, 12 September 2019

LIbrary Research Assignment Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

LIbrary Assignment - Research Paper Example This post aims to analyze the informative article by Spencer in detail and analyze its contribution towards providing a better understanding of global warming issues. The author claims that global warming is a fact which cannot be ignored and which needs to be addressed properly. Author has strongly emphasized on the need of human beings to control the global warming by new technologies and prevention strategies. However, author challenges the claims of politicians and media that this issue has been settled. The basic idea of the author is not to describe global warming as just another consequence of men’s activities but rather taking the natural processes that are causing an increase in global warming (Wood, 2005). The author also aims to draw the attention of authorities and governments to the fact that punishing the use of fossil fuels and other expensive policy measures may only be adopted by wealthier countries and will remain ineffective for the poor or developing countr ies. Hence, Spencer calls for policies and interventions which will be helpful to all the countries equally and may save the Earth as a part of Earth cannot be saved by adopting policies against the disastrous effects of global warming. The author describes the concept of global warming as a fact rather than a myth. This supports the opinion that global warming exists and is controllable (to some extent) by managing the technological use, fuels and human activities. The scientific facts discussed are of great importance as the natural greenhouse effect, the natural radiative imbalances, evaporation, and precipitation and so on (Philander, 2000). The article is undoubtedly in line with the thesis statement that â€Å"global warming is a fact not myth.† The evidences provided by the writer on the scientific processes and climate change are the evidence of this statement. Moreover, the discussions on human activities that are leading to global warming

Wednesday, 11 September 2019

Management Theory And Practice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Management Theory And Practice - Essay Example Management is the dynamic, life-giving element in every business. Without it the resources of production remain resources and never become production." (Sharma, 2004 11) This definition emphasizes that the managers achieve organizational objectives getting things done through the employees. Human resource Management is very essential for successful running of an enterprise. It ensures proper use of physical and human resources by deriving the best results. It leads to efficient performance and higher productivity. Human Resource Management is very essential for every organization to make productive use of human physical and financial resources or the achievement of the organizational goals. It helps in determination of objectives. No organization can succeed in tits mission unless its objectives an identified and well denied. Management helps in achieving these objectives by the efficient use of resources. "Planning is the selection and relating of facts and making and using of assumptions regarding the future in the visualization and formalization of proposed activities believed necessary to achieve desired results" (Sharma, 2004 26). Planning is straightforward, and the process of planning can be summarized in five steps, which can be adapted to suit any planning activity at any level in the organization with the support of highly skilled individuals. (Yvonne 28) Assess... Policies, procedures and rules are often referred to as standing plans; they are automatically activated when certain events occur. The Planning Process Planning is straightforward, and the process of planning can be summarized in five steps, which can be adapted to suit any planning activity at any level in the organization with the support of highly skilled individuals. (Yvonne 28) Step 1 Establish a goal, or a number of goals. Planning begins with defining what the organization wants to achieve. Being as specific as possible, and establishing priorities will assist the organization in focusing its efforts. Step 2 Assess the present situation and forecast the future situation. The current situation needs to be assessed and analyzed before future activity can be investigated. Questions such as 'How far is the organization away from its goals 'And 'What resources does it have to reach the goals' need to be addressed. A SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis needs to be undertaken. This involves identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the organization and determining the opportunities available to the organization and the threats it faces Step 3 Develop and evaluate alternatives. After auditing the resources of the organization and making forecasts, it is likely that there will be several courses of action, which could accomplish the organization's goals. These must be carefully evaluated. Step 4 Implement the plan. Once the choice has been made from the various alternatives, the plan can be drawn up and implemented. However, planning alone is not a guarantee of success. Success depends on the effective implementation of the plan, and involves management skills in organizing, staffing, leading and

Tuesday, 10 September 2019

Moda Textile Factory - Kyrgyzstan Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Moda Textile Factory - Kyrgyzstan - Case Study Example They can also seek help from international agencies through their website and through networking sites like facebook and Youtube. Both these platforms can be effective for finding the type of business partners that they are looking for. Sergei and Olga should not abandon their dream of producing fashionable cashmere coats in their factory. Internet has emerged has very effective medium for entrepreneurs, big and small businessmen and people at large who want to expand their business across the globe. As Sergei has realized the potential of computer and internet, creating a webpage of their firm would hugely help their business. They can also develop design catalogue of their trendy ladies garments, including winter collection, showcasing fashionable ladies cashmere coats. It would be cost effective as against the printing of the same. This would help to expose their designs to larger client base, reaching across the continents. The social networking sites are also powerful medium for developing business contacts and customers. (words:

Monday, 9 September 2019

The Role of Duty in Morality in Kants Work Essay

The Role of Duty in Morality in Kants Work - Essay Example In fact, other philosophers such as John Locke and Thomas Hobbes agreed with Kant on this perception of morality, especially his basing of morality on the CI standards of rationality. As mentioned, according to Kant, the fundamental of morality as contained in the CI is the law of an autonomous will and a self-governing reasoning in which people are viewed as possessing equal worth and as deserving equal respect. A rather useful work of Kant’s on morality is â€Å"The Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals†. This work of his covered morality-related issues such as the aims and methods of moral philosophy, good will, moral worth and duty, and duty and respect for moral law among others (Kant, 1998). He would later refine, develop, modify, and enrich some of his views in this piece of work in later writings such as â€Å"The Critique of Practical Reason, The Metaphysics of Morals, Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View and Religion.†Ã‚   In his discussion of good will, moral worth, and duty, Kant insists that describing and defining people as good hearted alone does not make their actions moral, insisting that only ‘good will’ qualifies as moral. Thus, good heartedness in the ordinary sense does not make people or their actions moral. Good will is thus closer to the notion of good person or a rational person. In the opinion of Kant, the possession of a good will is the cornerstone of what makes a person and his/her action moral. In addition, such a good will should make one to base decisions on the moral law.

Induced Therapeutic Hypothermia After Cardiac Arrest Research Paper

Induced Therapeutic Hypothermia After Cardiac Arrest - Research Paper Example TDuring an open heart surgery, there is significant risk of neurological injury on account of the lack of oxygen supply to brain as the circulation comes to a halt. In the absence of oxygen, the brain undergoes anaerobic metabolism as reported by Michelle E. (2011). This leads to damage to ATP dependent cellular functions with a resulting increase in calcium and glutamate excretion. The brain cells thus become more active, consuming more oxygen. With the increasing hypoxemia, further damage occurs leading to cell death. The resultant cerebral edema further enhances the damage. Also, as a result of all these processes, the blood-brain barrier also becomes ineffective further contributing to cerebral edema. As soon as the circulation returns after the heart starts pumping again, reperfusion injury occurs which adds up to the ongoing damage. Meanwhile, there is already an onset of the inflammatory reaction as a result of cell death leading to a release of neutrophils and macrophages in an attempt to remove the cellular debris. The resultant production of free radicals also catalyses the damaging process thus worsening the cerebral edema. This vicious cycle continues leading to brain death. ROLE OF THERAPEUTIC HYPOTHERMIA IN PREVENTING NEUROLOGICAL DAMAGE: Using the technique of therapeutic hypothermia can be useful to avoid all the above described damage. The therapeutically induced hypothermia after cardiac arrest takes following steps to decrease the extent of neurological damage: 1. It stabilizes the release of calcium and glutamate thus decreasing the degree of cellular death, 2. It stabilizes the blood brain barrier, 3. It causes a suppression of the inflammatory response, 4. It reduces cerebral edema by the help of above actions. INDUCED THERAPEUTIC HYPOTHERMIA AFTER CARDIAC ARREST 4 According to the report produced by Michelle E. (2011), there is a reduction in cerebral metabolism from 6% to 10% for every one degree Celcius drop in body temperature. This results in decreased oxygen requirements by the brain cells. Michelle E. (2011) simulates the effects of therapeutic hy

Sunday, 8 September 2019

Conduct an external environment analysis for a company (tesco) of your Essay

Conduct an external environment analysis for a company (tesco) of your choice assessing the impact of the external environment o - Essay Example Current paper focuses on the examination of the potential impact of the external environment on the HR policies of a well-known firm in the British grocery industry: Sainsbury’s. The level at which the recession, and other elements of the firm’s external environment, have affected the organization’s HR policies are critically examined using appropriate literature. It is proved that, despite the market pressures, HR policies in Sainsbury’s have been slightly affected by the firm’s external environment, a fact that has been strongly related with the strategic choices of the organization’s leaders. 2. Sainsbury’s – interaction between the external environment and the firm’s HR policies Like all organizations, Sainsbury’s is also highly affected by its external environment. In fact, it could be stated that the external environment of the organization affects all aspects of the firm’s strategies and operations, i ncluded the HR policies. In order to understand the level at which the external environment can influence Sainsbury’s HR policies, it would be necessary to refer to the organization’s performance, as part of the UK grocery industry. Then, the firm’s HR strategy should be presented and compared with the external environment – which is analyzed using the SWOT analysis – aiming to show the key points of impact of the external environment on the HR policies of the organization. 2.1 Overview of the organization Sainsbury’s is one of the major competitors in the UK grocery industry. The firm’s employees have been estimated to 150,000; the firm was first established in 1869 and has now about 890 stores across Britain (Sainsbury’s, corporate website, 2011). The firm is part of the J Sainsbury plc, which activates in many industries, including the banking sector – through the Sainsbury’s bank (Sainsbury’s, corporate website, 2011). The performance of the firm in 2010 has been increased, achieving a profit of ?21,421m, while in 2009 the firm’s profits were estimated to ?20,383m; the specific fact is quite encouraging, taking into consideration the turbulences in the global market – due to the recession which has not been terminated – but also the strong competition in the British grocery industry. Of course, the level of increase of the firm’s profitability may be reduced compared to the past – see Graph 1, Appendix section where the performance of the firm for the third quarter of the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 is compared; in accordance with the above graph, the growth of sales of the firm in the third quarter of 2009 and 2010 may be reduced – compared to the third quarter of 2008 – but it is standardized at a particular level, at a percentage of 3.6%. 2.2 External environment analysis – SWOT analysis The impact of the external environmen t on the firm’s HR policies requires the presentation of the main elements of this environment; the SWOT analysis can be used for highlighting the key characteristics/ trends of the organization’s external environment and their impact on the firm’s HR policies. In the context of the SWOT analysis, the following elements

Saturday, 7 September 2019

Network Security Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Network Security - Research Paper Example Network Security Introduction: Network security is a fairly confusing and complicated subject that has historically been tackled only by experts and experienced professionals. Nonetheless, increased wiring among people in the networked world has increased the need for people to perceive and master the fundamentals of security. This paper has been written with the basic information systems manager and computer user into focus so that they may acquire sufficient knowledge to hype in the market, identify potential threats and to tackle them appropriately. First, a bit of networking history is discussed. This discussion is followed by the introduction to internetworking as well as TCP/IP. Later, risk management, firewalls, and potential network threats will be discussed in order to elaborate the purpose of secure networking tools and devices. This paper is intended to lend the audience a broad perspective of the network security in general, and a sense to identify, manage and reduce risk s both at home and the workplace in particular. In order to sufficiently comprehend the rules and traits of network security, it is imperative that an individual has some basic knowledge of computer networks. Therefore, it is customary to briefly discuss the foundations of computer networking before moving over to the popular networks and their security. What is a Network? A network may be defined as a set in which lines that resemble a net interlink with one another. It is essentially a system of interconnected lines. Like any network, a network of computer essentially has many computers interlinked with one another. There are numerous ways to interconnect the computers. There are seven layers of communications types with interfaces according to the Reference Model of the International Standards Organization (ISO) / Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) as shown in the figure below: â€Å"The ISO/OSI Reference Model† (Curtin, 1997). Each layer is dependent upon the services of the immediately lower layer. This pattern follows until one gets on the lowest layer of physical network. This can be best understood by drawing a comparison between this model and something of everyday use like a telephone. A telephone is the means of transmittal of message between two people when they are sufficiently away to be out of each other’s earshot. Same happens at the application layer of the ISO/OSI model. The telephones serve the purpose by converting the sound into electronic pulses which may be transmitted back and forth through the wire. Layers underneath the application layer serve the very purpose. Both sets of the telephone need to be connected into a switch which is an essential component of the network of switches of the telephone system. In order to make a call, an individual needs to pick the receiver up and dial the desired extension or number. This number indicates the central office which the request goes to so that a phone from that office rings up. Th e individual at the other end picks up the receiver and the conversation begins. Computer networks have a similar way to function. Some Popular Networks: A lot of networks have been identified and employed over the last 2.5 decades or more. In this paper, two of them will be looked into. Both of the networks are public networks, that essentially means that either of them can be connected by anyone. People can

Friday, 6 September 2019

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Phrenology Essay Example for Free

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Phrenology Essay After fMRI was first introduced, it has been under criticism that it is not hard science. The most common technique, the BOLD (blood oxygen level-dependent) fMRI, measures the increase in regional cerebral blood flow in response to increased metabolism, which is to be caused from heightened activity of neuron firing (Menon Kim, 1999). Some neurologists believe that this is an indirect way of measuring brain activity, and is not sufficient to support any idea. By many scientists fMRI is often compared to phrenology, a study that once gained popularity in the 19th century. Phrenology is based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules (Fodor, 1983). This is similar to fMRI practitioners’ attempts to localize brain structure, matching the divided parts of the brain with certain functions. Judging whether fMRI is a new form of phrenology concerns two points: fMRI’s similarities to phrenology, and fMRI’s significance to be admitted as the ‘new form’. This will also lead to the question of whether fMRI scan is meaningful to be presented as evidence in court. The logic of fMRI is straight-forward. Brain parts that light up to a certain stimulus, is related to the function provoked by the stimulus. The fMRI machine measures increase in blood flow in brain regions. The regions with increased blood flow appear in brighter colors, in red or yellow (Dobbs, 2005). fMRI’s logic of relating higher blood flow and function is similar to that of phrenology, which relates size of lump to function. From this analogy we can say that fMRI can be considered some form of ‘phrenology. ’ Another reason that fMRI is compared to phrenology is for its limitations (Menon Kim, 1999). MRI’s problem rise from the fact that it does not show interactions between parts. It takes a univariate approach to the brain, implying that only one factor is considered as variable. The current fMRI shows voxels’ activity as one sum, meaning that it cannot collect relational or sequential information of brain parts (Dobbs, 2005). Many neurologists believe that brain parts’ interaction is an important aspect, and fMRI’s lack of capacity to do so results in criticism. Compared with the old phrenology, fMRI shares the same view that brains have localized functions. However, fMRI takes a more scientific approach than the old phrenology. Although it has its limitation in presenting spatial information, it does contribute in relating brains structure and the mind’s function. Although the ‘old’ phrenology is labeled ‘pseudoscience’ and no longer acknowledged in the field of science anymore, it has had its contributions. It sparked the idea that mind can be localized, such as language and memory. In the same context fMRI can contribute, only much more than the ‘old’ phrenology. Although fMRI’s blood flow measurement and the actual neural activity do not perfectly correspond with each other (Dobbs, 2005), significant correlation can be drawn from the fMRI scanning. As for the usage as court evidence, I see fMRI scan valuable as evidence, for fMRI does show some level of correlation of parts of brains and certain activity. fMRI should not be criticized and banned from court just because of its possibility of erroneous conclusion (Hughes, 2010). Even witnesses’ testimonies are bound to be wrong, but their testimonies are accepted as evidence. Thus fMRI should be allowed to be presented as evidence in court. However, the juries should be made aware that fMRI scan is an arbitrarily interpreted output, and contain risks of erroneous conclusions. I believe fMRI will gain stronger grounds in the court later in the future though, with the advance of technology as mentioned above. Some compare neurologists with fMRI to molecular biologists with light microscopes (Jaffe, 2004), for the reason that the capacity of fMRI is not sufficient for neurological study. It must be taken into account that later light microscopes evolved to electron microscopes, meaning that also fMRI will offer improved spatial and temporal information in the future. Its potential must be acknowledged, and in the meantime there should be efforts to find complementary analysis methods (Hubbard, 2003).