Thursday, 28 February 2019

George Washington Presidential Outline

George capital of the unite States I. Background- Birth-February 22, 1723 Death- December 14, 1799 II. Quote- The time is now cuddle at hand which must probably de bournine whether Americans atomic number 18 to be freemen or slaves. . . . The fate of unborn millions will now depend, chthonian God, on the courage and conduct of this army. Our cruel and unrelenting enemy leaves us no choice exactly a brave resistance or the to the highest degree abject submission. We have thitherfore to resolve to conquer or die. ( common orders, July 2, 1776) III. prior occupations- Captain and Colonel in Virginia militia thinktation owner/Farmer dish up in the Virginia House of Burgesses Delegate to the First Continental Congress General of the American Army IV. Dates in Office- 1789-1792 1793-1797 V. Prominent issues of elections- Washington was elected nem con and did not host a campaign VI. Opponents of terms- N/A VII. immorality President- John Adams VIII. Political Parties- President- N/A Congress- IX. Foreign Policy- * Washingtons proclamation of Neutrality (1793) says that the unite States will remain neutral in the series of wars in the midst of the French and English as a conduct of the French Revolution.This proclamation was not look oned favorably by the American concourse who despised the British and thought that the unite States should help the French in hopes of prolonging the Franco-American Alliance. Washington issued this proclamation in spite of these arguments because he saw that be neutral in European conflicts as the only way to train the continuance of the United States. * The genet Affair (1793) was a series of problems that the French emissary Edmund Charles genet ca apply while in the United States. Genet straightaway detonateed to drum up support for the French from among the American tidy sum, especi everyy here the Republican-Democrats were influential. Genet even went as far as to outfit privateers to contend Spanish Florida . When Washington tried to deport the emissary, he realized that Genets goernmental party had fallen from power and would be killed on his return. Washington provideed Genet to remain in the United States. * Jays agreement with England (1794) was an attempt by the United States and Britain to settle the problems remaining between them after the War of license by representatives of both countries with Chief Justice John Jay acting for the United States.It was almost not supported by the United States because Jay was a Federalist and the Jeffersonians believed that he had forfeited American rights during the conformity in order to appease Britain. The agreement was successful in solving many of Americas grievances but too heightened tensions between the two semipolitical parties. * The Pinckney pact (1795) was a treaty with Spain carried out by Thomas Pinckney to determine a definite environ between Spanish Florida and the southern boundary of the United States, free pilotag e of the Mississippi by American traders and accomplished trading relations between the United States and Spain. Washingtons parting Address (1796) was an urge from him to the American batch and the next President to keep the fledgling acres from involving itself in foreign affairs so that the United States could develop to a greater extent economically and militarily. This leads to the American isolationist mentality for most of its existence. X. Domestic Policy * Washington elected unanimously to be the offset printing death chair of the United States (1789) * The terrace Act (1789) created a three tiered national court musical arrangement that upheld the principle of the Federal governments supremacy while also compromising with the States rights. Bill of Rights (1791) added to the constitution to appease anti-federalists who believed that the Federal Government would twitch the cites and the people. These amendments helped to help people see the honourable in a subst itution government. * First Bank of the United States charted (1791) by Congress as a response to Hamiltons financial plan. This sexual intercourseional decision lead to universe of discourse of the Hamilton-lead Federalists and the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans along with controversy over the central governments jurisdiction for years. * Vermont is first admitted to the union after the original 13 colonies (1791) Washington begins sanction term as president (1793) * The Fugitive buckle down Act (1793) was passed by congress to prohibit the freeing of persons held to Ser unrighteousness and Labour. It do freeing slaves illegal and coerce States to return and/or help locate any fugitive slaves in the boundaries, regardless of whether they were a slave-free state or not. To do so, the act know the roles of agents in recovering these fugitives, authorized judges and magistrates to oversee transfers of slaves, and imposed a fine on any person luck runaway slaves. This wa s the start of the real slavery issue in the United States. The Battle of locomote Timbers (1794) was battle between the Miami Indian tribes lead by Little turtleneck and the American Army lead by General Anthony Wayne. Wayne was more nimble than his predecessors and success aboundingy crushed the Miami tribes in Ohio. * Treaty of Greenville (1795) was signed between the Miami alliance and the United States to hold aggressions between the two groups. The United States benefitted from this treaty more because the Confederacy seceded approximately 25,000 square miles of territory in the Ohio are, more than fractional of present day Ohio. naturalization Act (1795) was passed by congress to allow any alien, cosmos a free white person, may be admitted to become a citizen of the United States. This was the first law to define restrictions on who may or may not become a citizen of the United States. XI. Economic Policy- * Samuel Slater sets up first American factory (1790) * blac k lovage Hamiltons financial plan (1790) helps to unite the United States through a common problem of debt XII. compulsive Court- None XIII. Social Events- * Whiskey riot (1794) was a revolt by Western Pennsylvanian farmers protesting the mod taxes on whiskey.Disbanded by Washington-lead militia without blood-shed. XIV. New Technologies- * cotton wool plant Gin invented (1793) which leads to an increase in cotton plant growth and the Southern economy XV. presidential Evaluation- George Washington was a president of the highest measures. He set up the office of the president almost single-handed and had to settle disgruntled farmers in western Pennsylvania that were specters of the original Revolutionaries. He also had to juggle both the British and French harassments and also distinguish to not support the new French government in their war against Britain.That choice was unpopular among many of the American people but he kept to his decision because he wanted to make sure th at his new nation would bear on to exist and hold its own against any foreign power in the future. To rate George Washington is an extremely difficult subject to do. The man set the guidelines of the presidency and was always looking out for the frank of the government and the people. I will rate him 10/10 because he is the guideline for all the other presidents to compare to. XVI. Themes- War and Diplomacy- *George Washington presidential OutlineI. George Washington (1732-1799) II. I have no other view than to promote the public good, and am unambitious of honors not founded in the laudation of my Country. III. He was a surveyor, planter, and general of the Army of the United Colonies. IV. His term was from 1789-1797. V. there were no prominent issues in his first or scone term and ran unopposed. VI. He didnt have any opponents, it was only a matter of who would become vice president. VII. John Adams was his vice president for both of his terms. VIII. Washington had no politi cal party, and there was no congressional majority yet.IX. Foreign policy decisions Proclamation of Neutrality prevented Americans from supplying either side with weapons or help, stated that the U. S would not offer protection to Americans who violated neutrality laws, and that the United States would lock anyone in its jurisdiction that violated international neutrality. Genet Affair Citizen Edmond-Charles Genet violated the neutrality laws by planning to use American ports to stop British commerce and support France, which disgraced French supporters in the U. S. Jay Treaty with England withdrawal of British interchangeiers in the west of U.S. , commission to settle band issues with U. S. and Canada, commission to resolve American losses in British carry seizures and loyalist losses from Revolutionary War Battle of Fallen Timbers famed for the decisive victory of the United States over a confederacy of Indian tribes, took place between the two at Fallen Timbers, which was an area full of trees toppled by a tornado, Americans wanted to settle the west but were xenophobic of the natives Treaty of Greenville between Indians and Americans, natives give up land in southwesterly part of northwestern territory and other defined areas, U.S. passs tribe $20,000 and $9,500 a year to split among tribes, tribes can still hunt there Naturalization Act raised the period of residence from two years to flipper years before a person could be a citizen Pinckney Treaty with Spain Spain recognized U. S. borders at Mississippi River and 31st parallel, granted Americans the right to accommodate goods for transshipment at New Orleans X. Political Affairs George Washington is select Only president unanimously elected Judiciary Act established a court of one chief justice and five relate justices, court met for the first time in 1790Alexander Hamiltons Financial Plan proposed that the federal government take on debts contracted by the states during the revolution, at th e national government borrow money to be repaid over a long period, national bank runs it and have taxes to help pay for it, pay off all debts and high tariffs kept out foreign controversy Bill of Rights added to the Constitution added to make all states ratify the Constitution and manipulate rights of the people First Bank of US chartered created by Hamilton to contract war debt and make one currencyVermont admitted to the Union Second bound unanimously elected again Whiskey Rebellion protest on tax of 25% of liquors value, showed government not afraid to enforce its laws with its militia, farmers who sold corn as whiskey hit the hardest and western frontiersmen were main prostestors Farewell Address country scared that it would tear apart without Washington as president, but he said that whatever changes happened were because of their efforts and success, and he wasnt qualified for cosmos president anyways XI. Economic DecisionsAlexander Hamiltons Financial Plan (see above) X II. Major Supreme Court Cases N/A XIII. Major Social Events Fugitive Slave Law Slave hunters were allowed to capture an escapee in any territory or state and only had to say in front of a state or federal judge that the person was a runaway, captive was not entitled to a trial by jury and the judges decision was terminal, people hiding an escaped slave could be fined $500 XIV. Major Inventions Cotton Gin Invented took seeds out of cotton quickly, created widespread cash crop of cotton and revived slaverySamuel Slater builds first American factory used stolen ideas from Britain to create first American textile factory, hired entire families, including children, to invent in his mills wagerers lived in company-owned housing, shopped at company-owned stores, and studied in company-run schools XV. Presidential Evaluation President Washington was kind of overrated in my opinion. We glorify him instantly as if he was perfect and god- exchangeable, but most of his achievements are genu inely a result of his colleagues ideas.Alexander Hamilton had many of the attainments during Washingtons presidency, and really ensured that the country would continue to prosper and pay off all debts. George Washingtons best decision was actually surrounding himself with intelligent people to rely on in generation of crisis that the new country would go through. His major foreign successes would have to be the Proclamation of Neutrality and his treaties with Europe. The proclamation helped keep the country out of wars and bickering in general at a time of weakness.Any scrap could have destroyed the nation if they lost and it would be back under the command of a European power. His treaties wit Europe gained the U. S. land and respect, helping in the long run. His major domestic successes would be the Bill of Rights and Hamiltons Financial Program. The Bill of Rights made sure that the rights that we still have today would be granted to citizens of the nation, though there were qualifications based on gender and race. Without the financial plan, the U. S. ight never have fully payed off its debts to Europe and caused further conflict, and it made it easier to pay off with its extended period that wouldnt require high taxes all at once. He and his cabinet handled the issues of building a nation and having rights for the people while avoiding the tyranny like they had in Britain very well, though he played an almost minimal role in the handling of it. Overall, I rate him 7 out of 10. XVI. Major Themes Slavery Negative preserve -Passing of the Fugitive Slave Law -Slaves and black men and women had no rights in the Bill of Rights Invention of the cotton gin revived slavery because of forte labor and massive production of cotton -Slaves treated like second class citizens with no trial by jury, freedom, or credibility in matters of importance -Status Slavery is running rampant in the South with bouffant plantations of cotton and cheap easy labor. Though the N orth opposes it, there are no movements as of yet to abolish it. During the presidency, nothing is being through to free slaves, give black people more freedoms and rights,or find an option work force.The status of slavery right now is bleak with no signs of improvement. Social and Political Movements and Reforms Positive impact for close to, negative for others Bill of Rights gives freedoms to some Americans and gives an overall better theatrical role of life than under Britain Slavery was an substantial social issue that wasnt only ignored, but perpetuated by the cotton pains More jobs in factories, leading to better education with in-company schools and better quality of life Complete political change from the tyranny of Britain o a representative democracy in its very early stages Status The country is doing well for being brand new and handling tough situations with good long term solutions. There are some massive improvements over the original government of England, such as education and the rights of the people of the United States, or at least a select few. Major issues like slavery are not being addressed, and are actually being furthered by the lack of help in finding alternative work forces and advances in the rights of every citizen, not just the landowning white males.

Google Strategic Analysis

Strategic Audit of Google Google Abstract Google was founded by deuce Stanford PhD students, Larry P sequence and Sergey Brin, in 1998. The twain recognized a destiny inside the meshing gamblingction labor for a lookup locomotive railway locomotive that would get bug come on close results. The twain opened Google, Inc. as an online come with that impartd a superior pursuit railway locomotive, a platform for origin all(prenominal)y targeted announcements, and intra b slumpen solutions to meshwork givers a bobble the valet. The company contained the major(ip)(ip)ity of its taxations by selling ad space inside the re attempt results.Google utilize an innovative remains for selling this space to companies companies would l unrivaledsome(prenominal) concur to pay Google for the advertizing space if a customer clacked on their ad. As Google became the roughly- employ inquisition locomotive locomotive railway locomotive in the world due to its greater ac curacy of producing relevant results, de n atomic number 53 revenues sum upd at a phenomenal rate. Google faced ambition from early(a)s in the net win see bene get indus submit specifically AOL, MSN, and bumpkin.Each competitor recognized the importance of a select chase railway locomotive to customers as strong as the opportunity to deduct advertize revenues and was attempting to develop an innovative take care locomotive that would outmatch Googles. contestation from Microsoft was excessively a casualty. Microsoft indicated that they might attempt to add a search engine to their in the altogether operational(a) system that was set for release in 2006. While Microsoft was non an found player in the profit search run low pains, they had the technical expertise and massive resources to present a major competitive threat.The importance of the search engine to Googles competitors as a stand-alone proceeds was great moreover the phylogeny of a search en gine rivaling or bettering Googles would also attract customers to their b argon-ass(prenominal) services. Googles competitors tornadoed many former(a) services, in addition to their search services, such as e-mail, online go out, and fantasy sports vanes and were in(predicate) in doing so. Googles triumph as a company hinged al well-nigh perpetrately on the winner of their search engine. Google, Inc. egan to radiate into new(prenominal) fragments of the internet services operation in order to deviate magnitude the take a chance of having only one truly undefeated crossway and to cast up twain their customer base and customer loyalty. Google began to offer internet substance ab theatrical rolers the specialism to search within a directory of 425,000 still images. Their collection of images fasten with bumpkins as internet determinationrs first choice for image-searches. Google also began oblation a directory of 500 jillion discussion teetotumics that da ted binding to 1981 called Google Groups.Customers, in addition to existence equal to(p) to examine discussion topics within Google Groups, could add postings to a saucy group. Also, in 2004, Google began offering its users access to a compilation of 4,500 news sources located all all over the world. Google then certain a service that would pull up stakes cell phone and give-up the ghostheld invention customers to use Googles search and early(a) services on their radio receiver devices. In addition to these services and others, Google developed Google Catalog, a service that would allow users to search print mail order catalogs, and offered email accounts to select clients.In order to remain ahead of the disceptation and an assiduity drawing card in providing internet services, Google had to now affect some strategic decisions. To assure the future day of the company, Googles management team knew that they would give way to divergentiate Googles products from those o ffered by competing companies, such as yahoo, MSN, and AOL. Google could either continue to expand the amounts of services it offered (i. e. ac acquaintance text mess age services, magnanimousr email accounts, and others), it could work to im demo the services it offered across the room, or it could focus on improving its approximately successful creation the Google search engine.Each choice had its merits and the company had plenty of resources to use in pursuing any of these three (or other) strategies. The difficult issue was choosing the most appropriate schema for the company. I. Current Situation A. Performance ? Most-use website in the world ? Possesses global brand one- half(a) of internet users outside the get together States ? highschool ground level of user loyalty and brand identity operator ? Employs interface for over 88 languages ? Generally considered to cause the most accurate internet search engine ?Google ne devilrk is utilized by 80% of internet users used by 165 million flock in the United States and United Kingdom per month ? Googles 2008 revenues were $21,795,550,000, a 31. 34% gain since utmost category1 ? Googles 2007 revenues were $16,592,986,000, a 56. 47% increase over 2006s revenues2 ? Googles hard cash increased 42. 34% from $6,081,593,000 in 2007 to $8,656,672,0003 ? Googles debt to fair-mindedness proportionality was 10. 44% in 2007 and 11. 1% in 2008. Yahoos debt to equity equilibrate was 22. 05% in 2007 and 17. 81% in 2008. Microsofts debt to equity ratio 50. 15% in 2007 and was 50. 7% in 20084 ? Googles period ratio was 8. 49 in 2007 and 8. 77 in 2008. Yahoos ongoing ratio was 2. 41 in 2007 and 2. 78 in 2008. Microsofts current ratio was 1. 44 in 2007 and 1. 69 in 20085 ? Googles income from operations was 30. 64% of sales revenues in 2007 and was 30. 43% of sales revenues in 2008. Yahoos run income was 9. 98% of sales revenues in 2007 and 0. 18% of revenues in 2008. Microsofts operating income was 36 . 23% of revenues in 2007 and 37. 19% of sales revenues in 20086 ? happen on Assets (ROA) = 16. 6% in 2007 and 13. 3% in 2008.Yahoos ROA = 5. 4% for 2007 and 3. 1% in 2008. Microsofts ROA = 19. 3% in 2007 and 19. 9% in 2008. 7 ? Return On Equity ( roe) = 18. 5% in 2007 and 15. 0% in 2008. Yahoos ROE was 7. 2% in 2007 and 4. 5% in 2008. Microsofts ROE was 38. 8% in 2007 and 57. 4% in 20088. B. Strategic Posture ? Mission Statement To organize the worlds tuition and crystallize it universally accessible and useful. 9 ? Objectives ? Remain the industry-leading website in stop over points of internet traffic trade conduct ? Remain the industry leader in providing the most accurate search engines ?Capture mart sh atomic number 18 in the online advertize grocery store and become the industry leader in providing directed, online publicizing services ? Reduce risk by increase merchandise parcel out in non-search internet services Google catalog, Google transmission line Solut ions, Google sassys, etc ? Begin licensing patented radio set applied science and noetic property to other companies ? Further diversify company from competitors C. Corporate-level strategies ? Pursue a strategy of concentric diversification by launching into other beas of the internet services marketD. Business-level strategies ? Differentiate Googles products from those offered by competitors ? Competitive rather than cooperative E. Functional-level strategies ? Googles R strategy is to be a technological leader ? Googles marketing strategy is to at the same time pursue a market increment strategy to gain market look at for its search engine and pursue a product development strategy to increase the diversity of its product portfolio. In some(prenominal) moorages, Google mainly uses a pull strategy to entice consumers to utilize its products.For illustration, Google uses Google Business Solutions to advertise the ways Google toilette help sundry(a) channeles by m eans of the use of their products. This publicizing results in traffices pulling Googles products through with(predicate) the channels. ? Googles pecuniary strategy includes maintaining a low debt to equity ratio. Their debt to equity ratio was only 11% in 2008, which is some(prenominal) lower than that of the rivalry ? Googles operations strategy includes increasing and maintaining global operations. They keep back offices and thousands of services in many divers(prenominal) countries on several continents.This is to a greater extent fully discussed in a subsequently section. ? Human resources Googles HR strategy entails maintaining and further developing an passing diverse work force. Its strategy is also focused on attracting employees with move on technical skills and paying them well some(prenominal) monetarily and with many fringe benefits. This is to a greater extent fully discussed in a later section. II. Corporate Governance A. plank of Directors10 ? Eric Sc hmidt has served as our principal(prenominal) administrator Officer since July 2001 and as a piece of our board of directors since blemish 2001, where he served as prexy of the senesce from March 2001 to April 2004.In April 2004, Eric was named chairwomanman of the administrator Committee of our board of directors. preliminary to join us, from April 1997 to November 2001, Eric served as Chairman of the board of directors of Novell, Inc. , a computing machine ne twainrking company, and, from April 1997 to July 2001, as the read/write head decision maker Officer of Novell. Eric was a director of Siebel Systems until January 2006. Eric holds a live of accomplishment decimal point in galvanic engineering from Princeton University and a Masters peak and Ph. D. in computer science from the University of California at Berkeley. Sergey Brin, one of our founders, has served as a fellow extremity of our board of directors since our inception in family line 1998 and as our galvanising chair of Technology since July 2001. From September 1998 to July 2001, Sergey served as our President and Chairman of the Board. Sergey holds a Masters degree in computer science from Stanford University and a Bachelor of Science degree with high honors in mathematics and computer science from the University of Maryland at College Park and is before long on leave from the Ph. D. weapons platform in computer science at Stanford University. Larry Page, one of our founders, has served as a member of our board of directors since our inception in September 1998 and as our President of harvest-tides since July 2001. From September 1998 to July 2001, Larry served as our principal exe turn outive Officer and from September 1998 to July 2002 as our Chief monetary Officer. Larry holds a Masters degree in computer science from Stanford University and a Bachelor of Science degree with high honors in engineering, with a concentration in computer engineering, from the Universi ty of Michigan and is currently on leave from the Ph. D. program in computer science at Stanford University. ? L. rump Doerr has served as a member of our board of directors since may 1999. John has been a General Partner of Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, a venture not bad(p) firm, since August 1980. John is also a director of Amazon. com, Inc. , an mesh retail company, Homestore, Inc. , a supplyr of real estate media and technology solutions, Intuit, Inc. , a furnishr of business and fiscal management computer bundle, and Sun Microsystems, Inc. , a supplier of networking computing solutions. John holds a Masters of Business government activity degree from Harvard Business School and a Masters of Science degree in electrical engineering and computer science nd a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering from rice University. ? John L. Hennessy has served as a member of our board of directors since April 2004. Since September 2000, John has served as the Presid ent of Stanford University. From 1994 to August 2000, John held various positions at Stanford, including doyen of the Stanford University School of Engineering and Chair of the Stanford University Department of Computer Science. John has been a member of the board of directors of Cisco Systems, Inc. , a networking equipment company, since January 2002 and chairman of the board of directors of Atheros Communications, Inc. a radio semiconductor company, since May 1998. John holds a Masters degree and doctoral degree in computer science from the State University of New York, flint Brook and a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering from Villanova University. ? rusehur D. Levinson has served as a member of our board of directors since April 2004. Since July 1995, Art has served as a member of the board of directors of Genentech, Inc. , a biotechnology company, and has served as its Chairman and Chief executive director Officer since September 1999. Prior to 1999, Art he ld various executive positions at Genentech, including fourth- stratum Vice President of R.Art has been a member of the board of directors of Apple Computer, Inc. , a computer ironw atomic number 18 and software company, since 2000. Art was a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Microbiology at the University of California, San Francisco. Art holds a Ph. D. in biochemistry from Princeton University and a Bachelor of Science degree in molecular biology from the University of Washington. ? Ann Mather has served as a member of our board of directors since November 2005. Since April 2004, Ann has been a director of Central European Media Enterprises Group and serves on its Audit and honorarium Committees.She served as a director of Shopping. com from May 2004 until it was acquired by eBay in 2005 and was Chair of the Audit Committee and a member of the Corporate Governance and Nominating Committee. From 1999 to 2004, Ann was Executive Vice President and Chief financial Officer o f Pixar. Prior to Pixar she was Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer at colonisation Roadshow Pictures. From 1993 to 1999 she held various executive positions at The Walt Disney Company, including of age(p) Vice President of finance and Administration for its Buena Vista International Theatrical Division.Ann holds a Masters degree from Cambridge University. ? capital of Minnesota S. Otellini has served as a member of our board of directors since April 2004. capital of Minnesota became the Chief Executive Officer and President of Intel Corporation, a semiconductor manufacturing company, in May 2005. capital of Minnesota has been a member of the board of directors of Intel since 2002. He also served as Intels Chief Operating Officer from 2002 to May 2005. From 1974 to 2002, Paul held various positions at Intel, including Executive Vice President and General Manager of the Intel Architecture Group and Executive Vice President and General Manager of the gross sales an d Marketing Group.Paul holds a Masters degree from the University of California at Berkeley and a Bachelors degree in economics from the University of San Francisco. ? K. crash Shriram has served as a member of our board of directors since September 1998. Since January 2000, pressure has served as managing partner of Sherpalo, an angel venture investment company. Prior to that, from August 1998 to September 1999, Ram served as Vice President of Business Development at Amazon. com, Inc. , an lucre retail company. Prior to that, Ram served as President at Junglee Corporation, a yieldr of database technology, acquired by Amazon. om in 1998. Ram was an early member of the executive team at Netscape Communications Corporation. Ram holds a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Madras, India. ? Shirley M. Tilghman has served as a member of our board of directors since October 2005. Since June 2001, Shirley has served as the President of Princeton University. From August 198 6 to June 2001, she served as a professor at Princeton University and from August 1988 to June 2001 as an Investigator at Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Shirley holds a Ph. D. n biochemistry from Temple University and an Honorary Bachelor of Science degree in chemistry from Queens University. ? Three members are inside board members and seven are outside board members two are female ? Committees include scrutinise, leadership development and compensation, nominating and corporate governance, executive, acquisition, and real estate11 B. Top Management ? Eric Schmidt , Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer ? Larry Page , Co-Founder & President, Products ? Sergey Brin , Co-Founder & President, Technology Nikesh Arora , President, spherical Sales operations and Business Development ? Laszlo Bock , Vice President, People Operations ? Shona Brown , fourth- family Vice President, Business Operations ? W. M. Coughran, Jr. , Senior Vice President, Engineering ? David C. Dr ummond , Senior Vice President, Corporate Development and Chief Legal Officer ? Alan Eustace , Senior Vice President, Engineering & Research ? Urs Holzle , Senior Vice President, Operations & Google Fellow ? Jeff Huber , Senior Vice President, Engineering Omid Kordestani , Senior Advisor, Office of the CEO and Founders ? Patrick Pichette , Senior Vice President & Chief Financial Officer ? Jonathan Rosenberg , Senior Vice President, Product Management ? Rachel Whetstone , Vice President, common Policy and Communications ? Susan Wojcicki , Vice President, Product Management III. External purlieu Analysis (EFAS, see salute 1) A. General Environment12 1. Natural Environment ? solar or geomagnetic storms in space could destroy or damage Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites as well as constitute electric force play outages on earth.In 1989, a geomagnetic storm caused a nine-hour major power outage in Eastern Canada that prompted millions of masses13. The GPS satellites are u sed by Google to provide their Google Earth service. The power outages could affect internet traffic which would reduce Googles advertising revenues. The power outages whitethorn also prevent Google from offering services due to a lack of power to run their equipment. Another possibility is that Google whitethorn have to use back-up power such as generators or purchase it temporarily at a higher rate from another(prenominal)(prenominal) source thereby increasing their operating costs (T) ?Climate change is expected to result in an increase in the intensity and the relative oftentimesness of severe storms. Weather issues that are expected to increase in twain intensity and frequency are windstorms such as tornados and hurri passeles, heat waves and droughts, storms with extreme rains or snow, and dust storms. Floods and landslides are expected to increase as well14. This could affect Google by ca exploitation damage to the communications infrabody structure i. e. cable cuts w hich would cause the internet connections to become intermittent or nonexistent until the cable cut or link up to issue is repaired.In the case of wireless connections, wireless nodes like cell phone towers may be knocked over. Other communications items such as switching networks may be damaged by extreme weather as well15. The extreme weather could prevent Google from delivering services to customers and could damage other businesses and industries as well resulting in reduced revenues for Google and a slump in the overall economy (T) ? As mentioned above, storms with extreme winds are expected to increase which go away plausibly increase the tumultuousness of the ocean. 5% of cable cuts in undersea cables are caused by ships fishing nets and 18% are caused by ships anchors. Extreme weather may increase the frequency of undersea cable cuts from ships resulting in internet fragmentiseions16 (T) 2. Sociocultural Forces ? An estimated 577 million battalion worldwide access the i nternet using wandering(a) devices. The number of people accessing the internet via vigorous phones is expected to increase to 1. 7 billion by 2013. By 2014, planetary internet users are expected to make up around 50% of all internet users (O)17 ?The pace of life is increasing for the median(a) consumer. Due to advances in technology like the cell phone, wireless laptop computer and email each person with access to these technologies is pressured to slay to a greater extent tasks. This increases reliance on the newest technologies to meet the demands of increasing expectations put upon consumers18 (O) ? Consumers are worried about identity theft and privacy especially how their coating depose be accessed and used by other companies and exclusives online. 19 (O) ?The average American respondent spent 19 hours per week surfing the internet20 (O) ? Email remains the most popular online activity. This is even more(prenominal) true with users 64 age and older. 73% of teena ge users give notice (of) using email more than anything else on the internet and 74% of internet users aged 64 and older reported using email more than anything else on the internet21 (O) ? The trem break offousst increase in internet usage can be found within the 70-75 course-old age group. Previously, 26% reported using the internet this number has increased to 45%22 (O) ?Internet users aged 18-34 are the whoppingst group of internet users who use the internet for entertainment purposes. For this group, entertainment includes watching videos, playing online games, engaging in virtual worlds, and downloading medicine23 (O) ? Internet users aged 12-34 are the largest group of users to read and write blogs and are also the largest group of users to engage in companionable networking via the computer24(O) 3. Technological ? Internet revive is increasing25 (O) ? Storage capacity on the internet is increasing (O) ? Internet software capabilities are increasing (O) ?Consumers are expecting a greater level of personalization in their web searches, frequently-visited websites, and internet services than in prior age26 (O) ? Emergence of a new technology called The Internet of Things. This technology is designed to run ironware appliances such as a refrigerator as optimally as possible. Also, it runs sensors within appliances that can report back to the user via the internet. For example, in the case of a refrigerator, this technology would report what foods you are running low on and which foods may no longer be safe to eat27. e. g. , Google may involve to examine providing an internet service designed to connect users with the hardware and software in use especially via mobile device. )(O) ? 66% of internet users report using search engines when making complex decisions. (O) ? Respondents in the survey listed in the bullet above report only 25% of searches produce postulate results the first time. Of these same respondents, 30% report giving up on the search aft(prenominal) failing to receive the desired result28 (T) 4. Economic ? ar nap of American and global economic recession29 (T) ?Fed. Chairman has declared that Americas recession is likely over and expects moderate produceth for the next two social classs. 30 Around half of Googles users are in the United States (see above). (O) ? An quit to the recession in the European Union is expected during the third arse of this course of study31. Around half of Googles users are outside the United States (O) ? federal official concern rates are between 0-0. 25%, making capital more affordable for advertising customers and for Google32 (O) ? Real GDP is expected to be -2. 6 this year entirely is expected to increase to 2. in the curio of next year33 (O) ? Consumer sp land uping is expected to increase from -0. 9 this year to 1. 1 next year34 (O) 5. Political Legal ? Internet crimes (a component of these is right of first publication infringement), in one year, are estimate d to have resulted in losses of $240 million dollars as opposed to an estimated loss of $198 million dollars as a result of these crimes in the previous year. The increased amount of these crimes is likely to result in more and more stringent regulations regarding crimes including intellectual property- link up crimes perpetrated over the internet.The impact to Google is this Google stores images and written works in their directory exposing them to potential future well-grounded liability for intellectual property related violations. Google has al order been sued for this Google was forced to remove 100,000 clips of copyrighted material from YouTube and paid out $90 million dollars to one party for a related issue35 (T) ? lawsuit defamation by anonymous bloggers has resulted in courts forcing companies like Google to reveal the identity of the anonymous blogger to the courts36 (T). India is issuing subpoenas (or their equivalent) to platform companies like Google, Yahoo, and Microsoft for content displayed on their platforms. The companies have court cases p completioning against them for content displayed on their sites including copyright infringement, character defamation, shun messages, and g blockadeer selection advertisements37 (T) B. Task Environment 1. affright of New Entrants ? Threat of new entrants is mean(a) ? Switching costs are virtually non-existent customers can use search engines for unornamented and can use them apart from other services offered by the company furnishing the search engine.Customers leave alone likely try another search engine if the results they require cannot be obtained quickly and substantially from the engine they are using. Googles advertising customers are not required to sign a long-term contract nor do they have to make a sizable investment up-front in order to place an ad with Google. Advertisers pay Google for space on their search engine results pages only when customers tear on their ads and can t hen switch to another company without large sunk costs. ? Barriers to entry do exist, however, due to the amount of computer equipment requisite to be competitive with the likes of Google and Yahoo.Also, the large competitors within this arena have servers strategically placed all over the world. This may be difficult for a new company to this industry to replicate in a formulate that would make them competitive. Also, the large companies in this industry have vast amounts of cultivation about their customers and online advertisers that would be difficult for a new entrant to amass. 38 2. tilt Among Competitors ? Rivalry among competitors is high ? Googles competitors (at this time) are all larger companies with large amounts of resources ?Googles competitors offer other internet services as well as search services. The search engine attracts customers to their other services (for example, dating services, email, and fantasy sports league platforms) which raises the importance o f possessing a superior search engine past its importance of a stand-alone service for Googles competition ? Competition with Microsoft is expected to increase. Microsoft is attempting to integrate a search engine into its operating system and other products 39 ? Google considers Microsoft and Yahoo their greatest competition.These companies have greater cash resources and ability to make acquisitions, a longer operating history, and more established customer and intercept user relationships. They also operate internet portals and offer more products and services than Google does. In the case of Microsoft, they also have more employees 40 ? Googles market destiny in the U. S. internet search market is 31% Yahoos market share is 26% and MSNs is 20%. This is very(prenominal) c retreat. ? The industry is personable and strands are high. Googles success has increased the intensity of competition since these other companies want to share in the financial success ?Microsoft is workin g to develop a search engine to rival Googles. This may be in lieu of the MSN search engine mentioned above41. This impart de boundedly increase competition dramatically (in the laconic run at least(prenominal)) as Microsoft throws its resources in promoting their new product and attempting to steal market share from Google. Microsoft has a longer history of marketing than Google does, which may increase rivalry. 3. talk terms Power of Suppliers ? Bargaining power among suppliers is low ? Google, as an internet-based service firm, requires few raw materials from outside sources.The supplies required, with the exception of electricity, are available from denary sources ? Potential employees have some power over Google due to the pitiable supply of qualified applicants. According to Googles CEO, Google was having problems seting applicants that were either not technically proficient enough to complete the task at hand or of insufficient quality. 4. Bargaining Power of Buyers ? Bargaining power among buyers is medium ? Google has 31% of the internet search traffic market share, compared to 26% for Yahoo and 20% for MSN.This intensivenessens Googles position with buyers since Google is the industry leader and is therefore more attractive than competitors to advertisers who would like to place ads on search engine results pages ? No buyer of Googles services is responsible for larger than 3% of Googles revenues. Because Googles buyers are fragmented and none are responsible for a large amount of revenues, Googles buyers do not have overmuch power over Google42 5. Threat of Substitutes ? Threat of substitutes is high ? Although there arent any true substitutes for a search engine, there are diametrical ways to organize instruction.In this case, a divergent method of peeping might produce a substitute to the current method that may produce better results ? Yahoo, MSN, AOL, and Microsoft are working to develop search engines that result either equal or exceed the sourality of Googles search engine and have the resources to allocate to a massive research and development effort. epoch allow tell whether they are, in fact, viewed as a substitute by search users. ? Googles search-engine customers value accuracy of search results. Googles competitors already offer search engines. Googles competitors may be able to wee a comparable search engine over time . Bargaining Power of Other Stakeholders ? Bargaining power of other stakeholders is medium ? particular(prenominal) interest groups, like the American Association of Publishers and the Authors Guild, have sued Google and won for copyright infringement for content used by Google on their Google Print and Google Books applications. These groups and other groups are constantly monitoring Googles actions for incidents of actual or comprehend copyright infringement on their applications. 43 ? Google has been forced, as a result of a lawsuit, to reveal the identity of a blogger who w rote offensive comments about a Canadian model.Google may be required to release the identity of other users upon asking in the future because of this precedent which may reduce their customer base. 44This example is meant to illustrate that individuals, as well as organized groups, may have the power to influence Googles business operations ? Googles employees have little power to exert when negotiating with Google. Labor within Google is not organized45 IV. inhering Environment Analysis (IFAS, see Exhibit 2) A. Corporate Structure (See Exhibit 3 for organization chart) ? Googles corporate structure is primarily functional. 46 ? Google is low-down down into quintette functions Engineering, Sales, Products, Marketing, Legal, and Finance ? Underneath the overarching functional structure, Google is further upturned down into product markets or geographical areas, which technically makes Googles structure a hybrid of functional, geographic, and product structures. ? Each product m arket or geographical area piece under the functional areas is treated as a small business unit. The small business unit element of Googles structure provides flexibility. B. Corporate Culture ? Corporate culture determine innovation and ambidextrousness.Employees (including corporate level managers) are encouraged to devote 70% of their time on core business activities, 20% of their time to core-business related projects, and 10% of their time to unrelated new business activities. According to Marissa Mayer (see top management section for job title), around half of Googles new products are a direct result of actions taken by employees during their free time (S)47 ? Culture seems to have high degree of intensity and desegregation ? Culture values include an obsessive commitment to creating search apotheosis and having a great time doing it (S)48 ?Other priorities for Google members are innovation and charge costs low ? Google values ability over experience and encourages every one to share ideas. Also, Google created an certifyal atmosphere where anyone can ask the CEO or top management a suspense and be answered. 49 (S) ? Googles corporate culture puts tenseness on not exploiting the user of their products. 50 ? Being quirky and having fun are also empha size of itd. Googles work area has foosball tables, ping niff tables, volleyball nets, and several other games present (S)51 C.Corporate Resources 1. Marketing ? Google promotes advertising packages through Google Business Solutions. Information is available to prospective clients on how Google can improve clients profitability through their advertising packages (S) ? Services Googles advertising customers often see Googles service team as overbearing and find it time consuming and difficult to do business with Google because Google often switches the team assigned to handling the clients business before the clients advertising obligingness is complete (W) ?Google is second to Yahoo in being able t o peg down agreements with advertisers (W) ? Television advertising is currently not being utilized by Google. In comparison, Microsoft is showing Television advertisements for their products. TV advertisements may reach a good portion of the older audience and inform non-tech-savvy about their products and services52 (W) ? Google doesnt advertise on their home page which is attractive to search customers (S) ? highly strong brand. Google has been added to the Oxford dictionary as a verb (S) ?Average sales per click per month were a little under 54. 5. However, Yahoos average sales per click were only 53 during the same month. Yahoo is currently Googles biggest competitor53 (S) ? Adwords system employed by Google to deliver advertisements is user-friendly for advertisers. Googles system is also easy for advertising customers to use for changing the advertisement shown on Googles results pages. (S) ? Product Googles search engine is most accurate in the world (O) 2. Finance ? Googl es revenues in 2004 were $3,189,223,000.This is 117. 56% greater than their revenues in 2003, which are $1,465,934,000 (S) ? Googles cash balance in 2004 was $426,873,000 186. 5% greater than their cash balance of $148,995,000 in 2003 (S) ? Googles profit margin was 12. 52% in 2004. Yahoos, in 2004 was 23. 49. 54Microsofts profit margin was 22. 1755(W) ? Googles quick ratio (acid test) was 7. 1856 in 2004. Yahoos quick ratio in 2004 was 3. 38. Microsofts quick ratio in 2004 was 4. 44(S) ? Googles Return on Assets (ROA)57 was 21. 05% in 2004.Yahoos ROA in 2004 was 11. 83% and Microsofts ROA in 2004 was 9. 38%(S) ? Googles Return on Equity (ROE)58 was 25. 97% in 2004, as compared to Yahoos ROE in 2004 of 14. 65% and Microsofts ROE in 2004 of 11. 69%(S) ? Googles debt to equity ratio was 13. 12% in 2004. Yahoos was 29. 24% in 2004 and Microsofts was 23. 47% in 200459(S) ? Net income was positive in 2002-2004. Net income was $399,119,000 in 2004 an increase of 277. 79% over 2003s net in come of $105,648 (S) 3. Research and Development ? In 2004, Google spent 7. 7% of sales revenues on R&D. This is very low for a tech firm (W) ? R&D is one of Googles strengths. They have more market share in the search engine market because of the creation of their innovative search engine (S) ? Research and Development efforts have led to the creation of the most-used search engine in the world. Another notable innovation that relates to this is their creation of a learning search engine. The more a customer uses their search engine, the more it learns and responds to the users individual preferences.Due to Google having the largest market share, their engine can learn faster than those offered by the competition which reduces its imitability60. (S) ? Google owns 13 registered trademarks and 7 unregistered trademarks as a result of R and D efforts61(S) 4. Operations and Logistics ? unmatched of Googles biggest strengths is getting a large volume of users to their websites which ma kes them very attractive to advertisers (S)62 ? Google has servers and locations all over the world to improve distri entirelyion of services63 (S) ?Google has the ability to supply their randomness into over 88 different languages. This improves operations and logistics control when activities are taking place in a non-English- speaking country (S) ? Googles Adwords system is self-managing meaning that an advertising customer can change their weightlift as their compute changes. This results in quick, efficient adjustments (S) 5. Human Resources Management ? Google employed 2,700 employees in 2005 900 were techies ? Employees receive many fringe benefits in an effort to make them feel they are a priority.This chants corporate culture to a degree. Google has been listed as the top company to work for for two years in a row by Fortune Magazine. Employees have access to free high-end on-the-spot(prenominal) dining facilities, snack stations, gyms, laundry rooms, barbers, massage rooms, dry cleaning, and several other employee fringe benefits64 (S) ? Googles CEO, Eric Schmidt, stated that the company was having problems recruiting employees who were twain of acceptable timber and technically proficient (W) ? Google maintains a diverse workforce and hires locals to work in its geographically dispersed locations (S) ?Google has a long hiring process that takes several months to complete. This would be a strength, except the company reported having problems finding people that were both quality employees and technically proficient (W) ? Employees are skilled at multitasking. For example, the individual who created Googles holiday logo display case also was responsible for translating Googles website into Hangul (Korean language) (S) ? Googles technical employees work 70% of the time on regular business, 20% of the time on new but related business, and 10% of their time on completely new and unrelated projects.This makes Google more adaptable and builds ambi dexterity into the organization (S) 6. Information System (IS) ? Google utilizes a system called Live proscribed Loud to promote communication between employees, to create a searchable database of related projects employees are working on to promote economies of scope and transfer of knowledge, and as a control system. How it works Google employees weekly send an email to a central source concerning the specifics of the project they are working on and their make.Google has used the same search engine it employs on its website Google. com to search through the emails to find the relevant ones. Managers simply have to search, using the Google search engine, for the employees progress they wish to evaluate. The system is user-friendly for both the employees and managers and it is simple. An employee working on a project can search the system for other relevant projects and obtain useful selective information they can incorporate when completing their specific task65. S) ? Google use s a triple redundancy system to ensure errors dont disrupt the flow of timely information. If one computer doesnt respond to an employees request for information within a few milliseconds, two others provide the information to the employee. All information is stored in three places. This makes their system very reliable and efficient in delivering timely information (S)66 ? Google uses a database system called BigTable as part of their management information system.Due to the volume of information Google essential manage, Google has developed this software to break apart large files that are too big for any one server into smaller pieces so they can be stored on multiple servers. This ensures that capacity is available for their information67 (S) ? numerous of Googles basic activities are automated (S) V. Strategic Alternatives and Selected Strategy A. suppuration Strategies 1. Enter market providing legal medication and video downloading services (S&O) a. Pros ? Google has the intellectual capital to successfully develop the software to provide this service.Google has already be that they can provide the search capabilities to link users with their desired vociferations or videos their search engine is the most accurate in the world and the popularity of their product YouTube suggests they possess the capabilities to develop a desirable music/video downloading service ? With a large cash balance and the capabilities to obtain financing due to an extremely low debt to equity ratio, Google definitely possesses the financial resources to develop these services and choose them to market ?By providing different but related services, Google go out be reducing their diversifiable risk, if you will, by increasing their product portfolio from one successful revenue generating product to several ? There is a large market for these services already in place this market is likely to grow as digital media becomes more prevalent in society and ancient technologies such as tapes, CDs, and records further decline ? Googles brand strength would be beneficial in this market since the music and movie downloading industry is related to Googles area of expertise (i. . it is equivalent to an industry leader in the manufacture of small power tools diversifying into producing concrete mixers and pumps, rather than the power tool company diversifying into diapers and other baby products. A DeWalt brand logo on a pair of diapers likely wont sway the same message of quality and expertise that it would on another type of tool) b. Cons ? Apple iTunes owns 82% of legal music downloading market. 68 Competing with a company that owns this much of the market share and has more experience in this industry will be very difficult ?Increases the probability of copyright infringement lawsuits ? Shifts emphasis away from Googles core product the search engine. If the search engine is imitated or surpassed by a better product before Google establishes a dominant po sition and greater profits and revenues from its new endeavor, Google may lose a large part of its more or less sole source of revenues ? standard and trends concerning royalties paid to artists and music production companies may reduce the profitability of this industry ?Illegal downloading may increase thereby reducing the size of the legal downloading market ? Requires maintaining be advertising business model and creating and maintaining a new switchboard model (connecting multiple buying downloaders with multiple selling digital music and video suppliers 2. Develop new search engine designed for seniors markets Google favourable Life. New search engine has an option for adjusting the size of the font used on the search pages based on the capabilities of the users vision and allows seniors to type in a question rather of just key words.In addition, it will contain a function that completes words for the typist if he or she so chooses (like an internet browser share box d oes) concentric diversification (S&O) a. Pros ? First mover advantage could be gained by focusing on this market segment. Seniors have been ignored for the most part in the development of online products and services. No company currently caters to the postulate of older internet users ? Seniors range the largest growing demographic of internet users and represent a large segment of all societies ?The baby boomers are aging and will want/demand products focused on their needs presently ? Google possesses the financial resources to make this happen ? Google also possesses the brand strength and cognizance to appeal to older users older individuals tend to like larger, stable, established, well-known companies as opposed to small, new, relatively unknown startups ? Creating products geared toward older users may increase their interest in Googles subsisting products ?Utilizes existing advertising business model to obtain revenues from pay-as-you-click advertisements b. Cons ? Todays older internet users wants and needs are poorly understood by the online industry this makes developing products/services focused at them a risky set about in the short-term. Younger baby boomers are familiar with current computer software but current seniors are less familiar and use computers more infrequently and for less activities (i. e. they may email but not shop extensively online) ?Once Google enters this market and proves the market is attractive, competition will increase and profits will likely go down as the market matures ? The idea of marketing online products and services geared toward older users is a newer one but an imitable one other companies may have a greater understanding of the older consumer than Google since it has focused on products/services for a primarily younger audience with different needs. This means that other companies may prove to be more successful with this market segment than Google because of a greater knowledge of the older consumer ?Older users may only be interested in emailing and may have little interest in clicking on advertisements thereby lowering the desirability of placing advertisements on Googles new products ? May be hard to reach market segment to inform them of new product 3. Develop Social Networking System Google Linkage coaxal diversification (S&O) a. Pros ? Facebook and MySpace are both very popular. Today, internet users 12-34 are largest demographic to engage in affable networking.As this age group ages, they will likely continue to use social networking sites and younger individuals accounting entry this age group will likely also engage in social networking via the computer growth in the social networking industry is virtually assured. wherefore the growth in this industry is important for Google advertising revenues will likely increase as ads are placed on social networking pages ? Creates the potential for another paying advertising platform reduces the reliance on advertising re venues created from one product the search engine ?May increase interest in Googles other products (i. e. a social networker uses Google Images to send a picture of a desert rose to another gardener via Googles networking service) ? Could compliment Googles existing mission of organizing the worlds information with a new addition to the mission Organizing the worlds information and people to make it and them universally accessible. ? Googles strong brand and character will likely spark interest from social networkers in Googles new networking platform ?Google has the financial resources to create and advertise a social networking site either alone or through a reciprocal venture ? Utilizes existing advertising business model to obtain revenues from advertisers through Googles AdWords and AdSense ? Likely inexpensive to maintain once it is rolled out b. Cons ? Social networking market may be saturated. Customers may have all their needs met through Facebook and Myspace. These c ompanies already dominate the industry and have more knowledge and experience in this market ? Google may not be able to provide any new innovations in social networking ?Doesnt utilize their typical search efficacy ? May not prove profitable after a cost/benefit analysis is conducted since advertisements will be less focused on self-identified market segments. For example, if one conducts an internet search for Echeveria Subrigida seeds a succulent plant advertisements related to plants may be of interest to the searcher. However, an ad related to purchasing succulent plants online may not be of much interest to the random individual attempting to contact another individual whose interests and needs are also unknown ?Requires a different set of competencies than Google already possesses. Email is the most basic social networking method and Google did not perform well in creating a popular email system 4. Create open source network for the development of applications for mobile devices Google Architects concentric diversification (S & O) a. Pros ? Market is supposed to almost triple in size in the next five years ? Google already has knowledge of how to make internet applications compatible with mobile devices i. e. connecting Google search engine to mobile devices ?It is forecasted that half of internet users will be mobile internet users ? Google has the financial resources to undertake both the product development and advertising ? Google has experience and ability when it comes to developing internet apps. ? Could be set up to accommodate Googles existing business model obtain advertising revenues through offering free products ? Takes advantage of innovative technical rung b. Cons ? Stiff competition Apple already has a large market share for mobile applications that are used on the iPhone and others.Microsoft, as operating systems become more commoditized, will likely enter the mobile internet applications market ? May not generate much revenue if customers have a finite number of minutes on their mobile plan. Customers in this situation are not likely to engage in gratuitous searching for admirations sake. ? While Google has proven adept at creating applications, their distinctive competency resides in search engine excellence. Developing apps for mobile users requires a different skill set and core competency.Google may not be able to gain competitive advantage in this market since generating applications may not be one their distinctive competencies 5. Create a search service designed to locate music in a superior vogue Google music. The search system would allow a user to enter in any part of a telephone call, a band name, a song name, or a CD name and the search will provide results that include not only what the searcher is specifically looking for, but also links to the bands website, links to listening to or downloading a particular song or multiple songs from the artist, and links to other related sites (i. . sites that offer guitar tablature for the artist or song mentioned in the search) a. Pros ? allow attract more users to the Google search engine, which increases the desirability of advertising on Googles web pages ? Google music will increase brand loyalty and strength as it meets more of Googles customers needs ? Will strengthen the desirability of the search engine for existing customers ? Will capitalize on Googles distinctive competency of creating a search engine that produces more accurate results than other search engines offered by competitors ?Will citation the needs of the large segment of internet users that use the internet for obtaining and enjoying music ? May provide an additional source of revenues from bands that would like to advertise their products on Google Musics results pages b. Cons ? Users can already find all of these items using the traditional Google search engine ? Will likely add little to Googles revenue stream ? Doesnt address the problem of Goo gle only possessing one profitable product ? Doesnt truly meet the needs of internet music users since it doesnt allow users to download music directly from Google ?Most of the results will likely be advertisements. Users may not want to search through advertisements B. Stability Strategies 1. Pause/Proceed with Caution Use resources to improve existing search engine until threat from Microsofts new search engine can be determined and countered. Then grow (S & T) a. Pros ? 99% of revenues are generated from ads placed on search engine pages Google already dominates market for search services this essential be protected in the short term to protect the sustainability of Google as a company ?Google is currently doing well and doesnt need to grow to stay in business in the short term ? Financial resources may be needed to counter Microsofts efforts to gain position in the search market ? Reinforces Googles distinctive competencies ? Also allows for the economy to improve before exp anding advertisers may need to rest as well before further investing in ads in non-search related areas b. Cons ? Market dominance in the mobile applications market is being determined now. The opportunity to be the first to focus products toward seniors is open right now.The other opportunities presented above also are available now but may not be in the future ? Doesnt address the problem and risk of having only one major income-producing product ? Google has the financial resources and ability to obtain further resources if necessary there are no critical reasons not to grow ? Is only a short-term arrive and may cause growth to be put off too long C. Retrenchment Strategies Google, at this time, has no reason to retrench and should therefore stay away from adopting a retrenchment strategy.It is in good financial condition, its products are still desirable, and it has little to no chance of failing in the short term. D. Adopted strategy Concentric diversification into mobile ap plications (Google Architect), music search services (Google Music), and products focused on older internet users (Google prospering Life), combined with investment in maintaining the superiority of the search engine. ? Rationale both diversifying into mobile applications and products focused on older users deals with seizing opportunities by using organizational strengths (R&D, financial resources ,etc).Both areas represent growing markets and several opportunities to guide emerging or existing needs. Older users are the largest growing segment of internet users and mobile users are expected almost triple in the next five years to last-placely make up almost half of all internet users. Both allow focused advertising based on known customer needs and interests (the type of application utilized points out the interest i. e. a customer uses an app to learn a new guitar chord obviously the user has an interest in the guitar. Also, advertising can be focused on the users of the ope n forum.Both hardware and software tech companies can advertise on the forum. Elderly people have several universal needs and likely popular interests) and the use of the existing business model. By developing Google Music, Google will further strengthen their best product the search engine as well as utilize their distinctive competencies in search engine creation. This strategy diversifies the risk of having one profitable product, which eliminates a major organizational weakness, and is financially possible precondition existing resources.The strategy doesnt face a major threat of being derailed due to organizational weaknesses and outside threats dont directly threaten the diversification efforts. Google would face virtually no competition by entering the market to deliver online products and services to older users and has the idealistic opportunity to obtain first mover advantage on a large scale (there are numerous elderly people in the world). Diversifying into these ar eas has a higher probability of success and is less risky than entering the social networking and downloading markets.Neither of these two areas of diversification would require major shifts in technological knowledge and would utilize the intellectual capital present in Googles existing staff. This strategy does require an allocation of financial resources toward maintaining the superiority of the search engine because Google must rely on it for success in the short term and will aid in Googles success over the long term. It represents their distinctive competencies and must be protected at all costs.Adding capital and effort to improving the search engine would not be mutually exclusive with the diversification strategy since Google possesses a large cash balance and a low debt ratio. Given Googles situation, both parts the concentric diversification and the concentration on the search engine should be focused on simultaneously. ? This corporate strategy requires a business level strategy of differentiation and functional level strategies of technology initiate/leader in R&D and a product development strategy within Marketing E.Implementation 1. Product One (Google well-heeled Life -search engine designed for seniors markets. New search engine has an option for adjusting the size of the font used on the search pages based on the capabilities of the users vision and allows seniors to type in a question instead of just key words. In addition, it will contain a function that completes words for the typist if he or she so chooses (like an internet browser address box does) ? Product R&D should be allocated 2% of 2004 sales revenues for two years ($63,784,460/year) ?Organizational members must be elect to head the new program and participate on R&D teams ? Required new activities must be evaluated for conflict with existing operating activities. ? At least two deadlines must be wedded to the teams the first, a working beta rendering of the product must be cr eated by the end of the projects first year of existence. Second, a final product that is ready for use on the internet must be in place at the end of a year and a half. After the beta version is released, a team should be given a $1 million budget to obtain and forward on suggestions provided by older users on how to fit the program to their needs. Duration of team 1 year. ? ROI after year two must be 6% or more and must be at least 10% by the end of year 5 ? Market share (of the existing older internet users) must be 5% at the end of year two and 20% or over after year 5 ? An updated version must be made available by the end of year two ? A flexible budget must be created for year one and year two.Pro forma income statements and balance sheets should be created for at least year two and five ? New product must make up at least 2% of pith revenues by year two and at least 5% by the end of year five. ? access to intranet databases must be given to staff working on both diversifica tion products so that a. The wheel isnt reinvented and, b. Learning can be transferred throughout the organization if relevant pieces of information are discovered during the creation of the new products ?Product must be available in at least three languages by the end of year 2 and 15 languages by the end of year 5 ? Economic value added should be positive at the end of year three 2. Product 2 (Google Architect open source network for the development of applications for mobile devices) ? Product R&D should be allocated 1% of 2004 sales revenues for 2 years ($31,892,230/yr) ? Organizational members must be chosen to head the new program and participate on R&D teams ? Required new activities must be evaluated for conflict with existing operating activities. At least two deadlines must be given to the teams the first, a working beta version of the product must be created by the end of the projects first year of existence. Second, a complete product must be in place at the end of a y ear and a half ? ROI after year two must be 7% or more and must be at least 10% by the end of year 5 ? A flexible budget must be created for year one and year two. Pro forma income statements and balance sheets should be created for at least year two and five ? New product must make up at least 3% of total revenues by year two and at least 6% by the end of year five. Access to intranet databases must be given to staff working on both diversification products so that cross pollination of ideas between projects can reach ? Product must be available in at least five languages by the end of year 2 and 20 languages by the end of year 5 ? After the beta version is released, a team should be given a $1 million budget to obtain and forward on suggestions provided by older users on how to fit the program to their needs. Duration of team 1 year. ? Economic value added should be positive after year three 3.Product 3 (Google Music The search system would allow a user to enter in any part of a song, a band name, a song name, or a CD name and the search will provide results that include not only what the searcher is specifically looking for, but also links to the bands website, links to listening to or downloading a particular song or multiple songs from the artist, and links to other related sites (i. e. sites that offer guitar tablature for the artist or song mentioned in the search) ? Product R&D should be allocated 1% of 2004 sales revenues for 2 years ($31,892,230/yr) ?Organizational members must be chosen to head the new program and participate on R&D teams ? Required new activities must be evaluated for conflict with existing operating activities. ? At least two deadlines must be given to the teams the first, a working beta version of the product must be created by the end of the projects first year of existence. Second, a complete product must be in place at the end of a year and a half ? ROI after year two must be 7% or more and must be at least 10% by the end of year 5 ?A flexible budget must be created for year one and year two. Pro forma income statements and balance sheets should be created for at least year two and five ? New product must make up at least 1% of total revenues by year two and at least 2% by the end of year five. ? Access to intranet databases must be given to staff working on both diversification products so that cross pollination of ideas between projects can occur ? Product must be available in at least five languages by the end of year two and ten languages by the end of year five ?Economic value added should be positive after the year undermentioned the release date VI. Evaluation and Control A. Product 1 (Google Golden Life) ? Management should ensure a beta version is complete by the end of year one and a complete version is ready to be released on the internet by one and a half years ? Dupont Return on Investment (ROI) calculation (net profit margin x total asset turnover) should be used to substantiate whether or not ROI in year two meets or exceeds 6% in year two and 10% in year five. Management should audit the expenditures of the customer satisfaction team quarterly to determine if the team in charge of obtaining feedback by customers is staying within the budget and whether the budgeted amount of $1 million is adequate ? Management should determine whether or not market share (of the existing older internet users) is 5% at the end of year two and 20% or over after year 5 ? Management should ensure that a new version is available at the end of year two ?Management should evaluate product to verify whether or not it is earning 2% of revenues at the end of year two and 5% of revenues after year five. ? Product should be evaluated at the end of year two to ensure it has been translated into at least three languages and 15 or more languages after year five is complete ? succeeder of site should also be determined by whether or not it gets at least 10 million hits per month (eyeballs) aft er year two and 40 million hits per month by the end of year five ?Economic Value Added (EVA) should be positive at the end of year three B. Product 2 Google architect ? Management should score to make sure that deadlines have been reached concerning the beta version of the product after year one and the first, complete version is completed by one and a half years after the start of the project ? Dupont Return on Investment (ROI) calculation (net profit

Film Music: Gabriel Oboe (From the movie “Mission”) Essay

Theme Student will insure a video clip from the motion-picture show MissionHow do melodic media impact on the stage setting of the movie?What is the message the composer tries to give in the scene of Gabriel hautbois?Objective InformationWhat are the four tralatitious promoter families ( brass instrument, Woodwinds, Strings, and Percussions)?Please name the instruments in to severally one traditional family.How does each instrument family phonate? hearing to Peter and the wolf- How does this particular instrument represent each character in the story?SkillsIdentify by sound and classify the instrument families used in the scene of the movie?Write a all of a sudden poem or a soon story and choose an instrument then improvise a short melodious piece that connects the poem or short story.Essay head word (40-points)1.) Please answer the following question after watching the scene of Gabriel Oboe in the movie. How does the music have the power to communicate with peck and ch anging peoples minds? And what are the messages the composer try to give from his musical media in the scene? (Minimum 150 words)Short Answer Question/Listening Section ( 8 points- each)2.) What are the four traditional instrument families? (2 points x 4 )-, , -, .2.) What instrument family did the composer use in the beginning of the Gabriel Oboes scene (Before the solo oboe)?__________________.Multiple Choice (4-points)4.) Which instrument is not include in the woodwinds family?____.OboeClarinetViolinFluteMatching (20-points each)5.) Match position instrument into the each traditional instrument familyString __ A. CymbalsWoodwinds __ B. TrumpetBrass __ C. OboePercussion __ D. Cello6.) Match the correct instrument to each character in Peter and the wolf.Grandfather__ A. FluteDuck __ B. ClarinetBird__ C. OboeCat __ D. Bassoon

Wednesday, 27 February 2019

Dante’s Inferno Notes

A huge and powerful warrior-king who virtu onlyy embodies insubordination against his highest god, Capaneus is an exemplary blasphemerwith blasphemy understood as direct violence against God. Still, it is physical contact that Dante selects a pagan character to agree unitary of the few specifically religious sins punished in hell. Dantes passage of Capaneus in Inferno 14.43-72his large size and scornful account of Jove striking him trim back with boltsis based on the Thebaid, a late Roman epic poem (by Statius) treating a war waged by s plane kings against the city of Thebes.Capaneus arrogant defiance of the gods is a running theme in the Thebaid, though Statius description of the warriors resolution in the scenes leading up to his death reveals ele manpowerts of Capaneus nobility as swell up as his despite for the gods. For instance, Capaneus refuses to follow his comrades in a deceitful s elderiers operation against the Theban forces under the polish off of downcastne ss, insisting instead on fighting fair and squ ar out in the open. Nevertheless, Capaneus boundless contempt ultimately leads to his demise when he climbs atop the walls protecting the city and directly challenges the gods come now, Jupiter, and strive with all your flames against me Or are you braver at affright timid maidens with your thunder, and razing the towers of your father-in-law Cadmus? (Thebaid 10.904-6).Recalling the similar arrogance displayed by the Giants at Phlegra (and their ulterior defeat), the deity gathers his terrifying weapons and strikes Capaneus with a thunderbolt. His hair and helmet aflame, Capaneus feels the fatal prove burning at the stake within and wasteweirs from the walls to the install below. He finally lies outstretched, his lifeless trunk as immense as that of a giant. This is the image inspiring Dantes motion picture of Capaneus as a large figure look in the defeat pose of the blasphemers, flat on their backs Ser Brunnetto Latino = ro ach Three- Violence Against NatureOne of the to the highest degree important figures in Dantes life and in the Divine Comedy, Brunetto Latini is featured among the sodomites in one of the central cantos of the Inferno. Although the poet imagines Brunetto in hell, Dante-character and Brunetto show great affection and nonice for one another during their encounter in Inferno 15.Brunetto (c. 1220 1294) was a grownup guelph who spent many years living in exile in Spain and Francewhere he composed his encyclopedic work, Trsor (Treasure Inf. 15.119-20)before returning to Florence in 1266 and assuming positions of great responsibility in the commune and region (notary, scribe, consul, prior). much(prenominal) was Brunettos reputation that chroniclers of the era praised him as the initiator and master in amend the Florentines. While Brunettos own writingsin terms of quality and importeeare far inferior to Dantes, he was perhaps the most influential promoter in the Middle Ages of the es directial idea (derived from the Roman author Cicero) that eloquencein both oral and written formsis beneficial to partnership only when combined with wisdom.We understand from this event that Brunetto played a major(ip)if informalpart in Dantes education, most likely as a mentor finished his example of using erudition and intelligence in the military service of the city. Apart from the reputed frequency of intimate relations among males in this time and place, there is no independent documentation to explain Brunettos appearance in Dantes poem among the sodomites. Brunetto was married with threeperhaps fourchildren. Many raw scholarly discussions of Dantes Brunetto either posit a substitute vice for the sexual onelinguistic perversion, unnatural political affiliations, a quasi-Manichean heresyor emphasize a attri aloneeic form of sodomy over the oral act (e.g., rhetorical perversion, a failed theory of knowledge, a proto-humanist pursuit of immortality).Geryon = Round T hree- Violence Against Art(fraud) giant with three heads and bodies Geryon, merely depict in Virgils Aeneid as a three-bodied shade (he was a cruel king hit by Hercules), is one of Dantes most complex creatures. With an honest cheek, a colorful and elaborately patterned reptilian hide, hairy paws, and a scorpions tail, Geryon is an image of fraud (Inf. 17.7-27)the bole politic to which he transports Dante and Virgil ( round of golfs 8 and 9). Strange as he is, Geryon offers some of the outperform yard of Dantes attention to realism. The poet compares Geryons upward flight to the precise movements of a addlehead swimming to the surface of the ocean (Inf. 16.130-6), and he helps us imagine Geryons line of work by noting the sensation of wind rising from below and striking the face of a traveler in flight (Inf. 17.115-17).By comparing Geryon to a sullen, stubborn falcon (Inf.17.127-36), Dante also adds a touch of psychological realism to the episode Geryon may in fact be bitt er because he was trickedwhen Virgil employ Dantes knotted brawl to lure the monster (Inf. 16.106-23)into helping the travelers. Dante had used this belthe informs us long after the fact (Inf. 16.106-8)to try to puzzle the color amplyy patterned leopard who impeded his ascent of the mountain in Inferno 1.31-3. Suggestively associated with the disunite of factual truth so wondrous that it appears to be false (Inf. 16.124), Geryon is people by some readers to represent the poem itself or perhaps a negative double of the poem. sorrel della Vigna = Round deuce- Violence Against ThemselvesLike Dante, Pier della Vigna (c. 1190 1249) was an accomplished poetpart of the Sicilian School of poetry, he wrote sonnetsand a victim of his own faithful service to the state. With a first-rate wakeless education and ample rhetorical talent, Pier rose quickly through the ranks of public service in the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily, from scribe and notary to assay and official spokesman for th e imperial court of Frederick II. But his powers appear to have exceeded even these titles, as Pier claims to have had final say over Fredericks decisions (Inf. 13.58-63).While evidence of corruption casts some doubt on Piers account of faithful service to the emperor butterfly, it is generally believed that he was indeed falsely accused of betraying Fredericks trust by envious colleagues and political enemies (Inf. 13.64-9). In this way, Piers story recalls that of Boethius, author of the Consolation of Philosophy, a well known book in the Middle Ages (and a positron emission tomography of Dantes) recounting the fall from power of another talented individual falsely accused of betraying his emperor. Medieval commentators relate that Frederick, believing the charges against Pier (perhaps for plotting with the pope against the emperor), had him jug and blinded. Unable to accept this wretched fate, Pier brutally took his life by smashing his head against the wall (perhaps of a chu rch) or possibly by leaping from a high window just as the emperor was passing below in the street.Piers shitVigna means vineryundoubtedly made him an even more(prenominal) attractive candidate for Dantes suicide-trees. As an added part of the contrapasso for the suicides, the souls forget not be reunited with their bodies at the Last shrewdness but will instead hang their retrieved corpses on the trees (Inf.13.103-8).MinotaurThe path down to the three rings of circle 7 is covered with a mickle of boulders that fellas Virgil explains (Inf. 12.31-45)during the earthquake triggered by Christs harrowing of hell. The Minotaur, a slob-man who appears on this broken slope (Inf. 12.11-15), is most likely a guardian and symbol of the entire circle of violence. Dante does not specify whether the Minotaur has a mans head and bulls physical structure or the other way around (sources support both possibilities), but he clearly underscores the bestial rage of the hybrid creature. At the sight of Dante and Virgil, the Minotaur bites himself, and his frenzied buckingset off by Virgils mention of the monsters executionerallows the travelers to deal unharmed.Almost everything about the Minotaurs storyfrom his creation to his demisecontains some form of violence. Pasipha, married woman of King Minos of Crete, lusted after a beautiful white bull and asked Daedalus to build a fake cow (Inf. 12.13) in which she could enter to induce the bull to mate with her Daedalus obliged and the Minotaur was conceived. Minos sassyly had Daedalus build an elaborate labyrinth to check and contain this monstrosity.To punish the Athenians, who had killed his son, Minos supplied the Minotaur with an annual sacrificial offering of seven Athenian boys and seven Athenian girls. When Ariadne (the Minotaurs half-sister Inf. 12.20) fell in rage with one of these boys (Theseus, Duke of capital of Greece Inf. 12.16-18), the two of them devised a plan to slay the Minotaur Theseus entered the la byrinth with a trade name and a ball of force, which he unwound as he proceeded toward the center having slain the Minotaur, Theseus was thus able to retrace his steps and escape the labyrinth CentaursThe Centaursmen from the waist up with lower bodies of horsesguard the first ring of circle 7, a river of blood in which the shades of murderers and bandits are immersed to varying sagacitys. arm with bows and arrows, thousands of Centaurs patrol the bank of the river, using their weapons to keep the souls at their allotted depth (Inf. 12.73-5). In classical mythology, the Centaurs are perhaps best known for their uncouth, uncivilised behavior guests at a wedding, they attemptedtheir lust incited by boozeto withdraw off the bride and other women a fierce battle ensued, described by Ovid in all its gory detail (Met. 12.210-535), in which the horse-men suffered the heaviest losses. Two of the three Centaurs who approach Dante and Virgil fully earned this negative reputation.Pholus , whom Virgil describes as full of rage (Inf. 12.72), was one of the combatants at the wedding. Nessus, selected to carry Dante across the river in hell, was killed by Herculeswith a poisoned arrowfor his attempted rape of the heros beautiful wife, Deianira, after Hercules had entrusted the Centaur to carry her across a river (Nessus avenged his own death he gave his blood-soaked shirt to Deianira as a love-charm, which shenot knowing the shirt was poisonedlater gave to Hercules when she doubted his love Inf. 12.67-9.) Chiron, the leader of the Centaurs, enjoyed a more favorable reputation as the wise tutor of both Hercules and Achilles (Inf. 12.71).Punishments of Each Ring -First Ring- For violence against neighbors. Made to furuncle in blood, and shot by arrows if they et out higher than they are deemed worthy. accommodate because those torturedmust boil in the blood they creted in life by violence.Chief evildoer alexander the great, who was violent against many of his countryme n as a tyrant. -Second Ring- For those violent against themselvesthey are turned into trees and are immobile. They are tortured and pecked at by Harpies. They will never be returned to their bodies because they didnt properly appreciate them in the first place.Chief sinner Pier della Vigna, who felt so ashamed by the lies of shcemers, took his own life. -Third Ring-For those violent against God. Three circles Blasphamers Just on hot sand Sodomites Also rained upon my fire Violent against art also with purses around thier necksChief Sinner Capaneus, Besieged Thebes. He is very defiant, still, and says hell shall never break him.Allusions Phlegethon-Literally a river of fire (Aen. 6.550-1), Phlegethon is the name Dante gives to the river of hot blood that serves as the first ring ofcircle 7 spillers of blood themselves, violent offenders against others are submerged in the river to a take aim corresponding to their guilt. Dante does not identify the riverdescribed in detail i n Inferno 12.46-54 and 12.100-39until the travelers have crossed it (Dante on the back of Nessus) and passed through the woods of the suicides. Now they approach a red stream flowing out from the inner circumference of the forest across the plain of sand (Inf. 14.76-84).After Virgil explains the putting green source of all the rivers in hell, Dante still fails to realizewithout further accountingthat the red stream in fact connects to the broader river of blood that he previously crossed, now identified as the Phlegethon (Inf. 14.121-35). Polydorus-If Dante had believed what he read in the Aeneid, Virgil would not have had to make him snap one of the branches to know that the suicide-shades and the trees are one and the samethis, at least, is what Virgil says to the wounded suicide-tree (Inf. 13.46-51). Virgil here alludes to the episode of the bleeding shrub from Aeneid 3.22-68. The bush in this case is Polydorus, a young Trojan prince who was sent by his father (Priam, King of Troy) to the neighboring kingdom of Thrace when Troy was beleaguer by the Greeks.Polydorus arrived bearing a large amount of gold, and the King of Thraceto whose make do the welfare of the young Trojan was entrustedmurdered Polydorus and took possession of his riches. Aeneas unwittingly discovers Polydorus unburied corpse when he uproots three leafy branches to serve as cover for a sacrificial altar the first two times, Aeneas freezes with terror when dark blood drips from the uprooted branch the third time, a voicerising from the groundbegs Aeneas to stop causing harm and identifies itself as Polydorus. The plant-man explains that the flurry of spears that pierced his body eventually took the form of the branches that Aeneas now plucks. The Trojans innocence Polydorus with a proper burial before leaving the accursed land.Old Man of Crete-Dante invents the story of the large statue of an old manlocated in Mount Ida on the Island of Cretefor both possible and symbolic purpose s ( Inf. 14.94-120). Constructed of a descending hierarchy of materialsgold head, silver gird and chest, brass midsection, iron for the rest (except one clay foot)the statue recalls the various ages of domain (from the golden age to the iron age Ovid, Met. 1.89-150) in a demoralised view of history and civilization devolving from best to worst. Dantes statue also closelyrecalls the statue appearing in King Nebuchadnezzars dream in the Bible this dream is revealed in a vision to Daniel, who informs the king that the composition of the statue signifies a declining succession of kingdoms all inferior to the eternal kingdom of God (Daniel 231-45).That the statue is off-balanceleaning more heavily on the clay footand facing Rome (as if in a mirror) probably reflects Dantes conviction that society suffers from the riotous political power of the pope and the absence of a strong sacrilegious ruler. Although the statue is not itself found in hell, the tears that flow down the go bad in its body (only the golden head is whole) represent all the torment of humanity and thus become the river in hell that goes by disparate names according to region Acheron, Styx, Phlegethon, Cocytus (Inf. 14.112-20).Phaethon and Icarus-As he descends aboard Geryon through the unsaved atmosphere, Dante recalls the classical stories of previous aviators (Inf. 17.106-14). Phaethon, attempting to confirm his genealogy as the son of Apollo, carrier wave of the sun, took the reins of the sun-chariot against his fathers advice. Unable to control the horses, Phaethon scorched a large whack of the heavens with the earths fate hanging in the balance, Jove killed the boy with a thunderbolt (Ovid, Met. 1.745-79 2.1-332).Daedalus (see Minotaur above), to escape from the island of Crete, made wings for himself and his son by binding feathers with thread and wax. Icarus, ignoring his fathers warnings, flew too close to the sun the wax melted and the boy crashed to the sea below (Met. 8.203-35) . So heartbroken was Daedalus that he was unable to depict Icarus fall in his carvings upon the gates of a temple he built to honor Apollo (Aen. 6.14-33). Experiencing flight for the first, and presumable only, time in his lifeaboard a filthy image of fraud, no lessDante understandably identifies with these two figures whose judicious flying led to their tragic deaths.

Identity and Belonging – Change Can Be Easy or Hard – Reference to Summer of the Seventeenth Doll

Through let on your life the do of ripening is constantly influencing your identity. As William Shakespe atomic number 18 wrote All the orbs a st board, And any the work force and women merely players They have their exits and their entrances, And one man in his clock plays galore(postnominal) parts,. Our identity is forever changing and this is because we ar forever ripening. throughout out the three main stages of ageing youth, middle age, elderly- we dont bonnie age physically, we age physiologicly as well. Hence as we age we mature, become wiser and more aw atomic number 18 of the world around us.As of this our views transfer from each stage of life, thus inflicting our identity to change. Although some nation realize this transition from one stage of life to the next to be uncontroll competent and understanding upon its occurrences whereas others enjoy ageing and just take it as it comes. As a baby we have our identity created for us, they say give me the boy at seven and I will give you the man implying that until the age of seven a child is dependent on their very offset printing social unit, that is family.It is the multiplicity and complexity of family that gives children real life experiences into human relationships and what teaches them morals and values which will al routes be a part of their identity, although as you age, and mature you become less dependent on your family and are able to venture out into the world. This usually happens around the age of adolescence. This is a fourth dimension when adolescences have the world at their feet and they are servants to their own dreams. umteen people enjoy this part of growing up as their bodies are at the peak, meaning they are able to push them to do whatever they want. They are less susceptible to illnesses and less likely to damage themselves when they do the soundboxs ability to repair at that age is remarkable. Not hardly are they at the physically peak of their lives, they are usually at the social peak.Their social networks at this age are usually extremely complex and turning 18 opens the doors to a once prohibited world full of new adventures and experiences, such as going clubbing, driving and creation classed as an adult. However many another(prenominal) adolescence find it hard to transition to adulthood as they no longer have the burdens of high school pressures and friends. This in any case creates problems for people who only have social networks that they have from school meaning when school is over they need to adapt to a new milieu and become independent.This can be emotional and daunt for many youth. affection age is a crisis for many people both men and women. It is a time when they have left the excitement and potential of their youth, instead they smoothen back on where they have come from and often experience with dread towards their cured years, in Ray Lawyers Summer Of The Seventeenth Doll this issue of time effects many char executeers opposely as they cannot accept they are aging and thus see change as a daunting factor.Roo, the ganger of a team of cane cutters, realises he is ageing when his back gives way and he is forced to step down as top dog. Since he was young he had been a cane cutter, that was his identity just because of his ageing body, his identity will change as he can no longer be a cane cutter, this not only affects Roo but also chromatic. Olive has been in the group since it started seventeen summers ago and is reflecting on her life so far, remembering the times when Roo and Barney would come down sulfur to see her and Nancy during the layoff.However since Nancy has left the group to go get married, Olive realises that she is turning 40 soon and is still clinging to her glory days. In mold to keep her youth she has decorated the lounge room with the keepsake dolls to show her persistence on keeping the group together and displaying her symbols of youth. With Olives obsessi on of keeping the group together revels a woman who cannot accept that she is acquire older and who can adjust to the new era in her identity.For olive, the change of getting older is not physically but more physiological as she sees this change as losing her youth. Although middle age is not unendingly negative for everyone. Although Nancy is the catalyst for the groups breakdown, she realises that she can no longer act like a youth, as she did with Olive and the group and as such has accepted the fact that she is getting older, hence why she abandoned her friends to watch down and get married to start the next chapter in her life.Although many people accept its the best years of life as it is the only time you really live as the young are slaves to dreams the old are servants of regrets. Only the middle aged have all their 5 senses in the keeping of their wits. The last period of life that has been categorised as old age and is now considered to be after 65. around people choose to accept old age as a positive as they have lived their lives and are now in retirement.Many elderly people see being able to retire as being able to act like they are young once more as they have completed the majority of lives responsibilities, such as upbringing children and working for a living, this gives many the opportunity to travel and do what they desire but at a cost. Having lived for such a long time has taken a physical toll on the body, it is weaker and more debile then that of a youthful person, hence why some older people see old age as a negative.They sense as though they are stuck inside an old carcass and believe that nature is cruel tis jest to make old age look like a fool (because) the body crumbles, grace and vigour spark No matter what age you are there will always be a positive and a negative but careless(predicate) of this, age will always influence your identity as it changes your thoughts as you become wiser and more knowledgeable about the world around you. Throughout each age group you will have new realisations about the environment you live in and this will cause a physiological or physiological a change which influences your identity.