Tuesday, 26 May 2020
Community based corrections is a program which supervises people who have been convicted or are facing conviction. It is a non-incarcerate system of correction. These offenders have been convicted or are facing conviction. Some offenders have entered these programs before being in jail and some serve a part of their sentence in jail before entering the program. The goals of the community based corrections would be one of providing guidance, program opportunities and support to the offenderÃ¢â¬â¢s who are returning to the communities. (Goals- Re-entry Initiative) They are to help prevent the offender from recidivism. These programs are designed to help with programs such as employment assistance, continued education, drug classes andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(Probation and Parole Programs) We have home detention programs which allow the offender to continue to stay at home and carry on with his daily activities, doctor appointments and court appointments. The first and sec ond level offenders have curfews and home incarceration. All offenders are under close supervision. Electronic Monitoring is the usage of passive or active supervision. These devices allow the officer to speak to the offender at any given time. The home monitoring system is also used in their home. This type of program sets limitations on their location and activities. DWI offenders have a community service program that is designed for offenders to work for the public or non-profit organizations with pay. These programs support offendersÃ¢â¬â¢ rehabilitation. The Safe Ride Home Initiative Program is a program to cut down on DWIÃ¢â¬â¢s by offering residents a ride to where they are going to drink and a ride home. (Interview with Officer Patrick Apodaca) There is a program for youth to protect the community from those youth placed in their custody. This program was created to provide and maintain alternatives to detention through community supervision programs that promo te education, healthy lifestyles and positives choices for youth and their families. (Youth Services Center) In a publication I found a research on Evidence- Bases Adult Corrections Program Ã¢â¬â What Works and What Does Not. In this report, the outcome is to determine theShow MoreRelatedInstitutional and Community Based Corrections798 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Institutional and Community Based Corrections Institutional Based Corrections Among the forces that have affected corrections in recent years, accreditation and privatization have been among the most influential. The future of corrections will be affected by everything from the national economy and current public opinion to drug-related crime and the aging of prison populations. The trends that will continue to impact corrections are intermediate sentencing alternatives, restorative justiceRead MoreCommunity-Based Corrections and Evidence-Based Practices1062 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCommunity based corrections and the evidence based practices The residential community corrections facilities (RCCF) are now a common idea in the USA that directed at helping curb the rise in crime but at the same time decongesting the prisons as well as rehabilitation the deviants within the society. The residents live within the facility and not in their homes, they must also be employed or at least on part time jobs, the residents can also leave the facility at any time to go to verified workRead MoreJails, Prisons and Community Based Corrections1210 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJails, Prisons and Community based Corrections Anthony Canez CJA/204 June 27, 2013 Robin Downey Jails, Prisons and Community based Corrections In this essay I will attempt to explain and discuss probation and how it compares to other forms of sentencing, the types of prison, the origins of rehabilitation in prisons, parole and how it differs from mandatory release and finally options of community corrections. Ending the essay will be a critique on the current rehabilitation options. The historyRead MoreThe Effectiveness of Community-Based Corrections Program2965 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesCHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND A REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Correction is believed by many experts to be the most challenging and frustrating component of criminal justice. There are the challenges of managing the inmates daily as well as the frustrations of inevitable mismanagement at attempting to accomplish multiple goals. New challenges present themselves every day. In a very real sense, employees in a correctional system are doing time the same as the inmates are doing time. Its easyRead More Community Based Corrections: Viable Alternative to Incarceration1679 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCommunity-based corrections alleviate overcrowded correctional facilities, reduce taxpayer burden, and rehabilitate offenders, while providing effective, efficient low cost methods of supporting public safety, community rehabilitation, behavior modification and personnel responsibility, because it uses multiple approaches and involves both legislative and judicial personnel in all steps of the process. Community-based corrections facilities are located in the community and support diverse rehabilitativeRead MoreCorrections Trends Evaluation Paper1552 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCorrections Trend Evaluation Carla Howard CJA 394 University of Phoenix Corrections have existed throughout society for many years and continued to change and evolve in the United States reflecting societyÃ¢â¬â¢s values and ideals throughout the centuries. In the criminal justice system, corrections exist in more than one form. Not only do corrections refer to jails and prison systems but they also pertain to community-based programs, such as probation, parole, halfway houses, and treatmentRead MoreCommunity Corrections1082 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCommunity corrections is a range of alternative punishments for nonviolent offenders. There are two basic community corrections models in the United States. In the first model, integrated community corrections programs combine sentencing guidelines and judicial discretion (front-end) with a variety of alternative sanctions and parole and probation options. In the second model, some states have instituted programs in which correctional officials may direct already sentenced offenders into alternativeRead Mo reThe Medical Model, Community Model And The Crime Control Model869 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCommunity corrections is continually changing and has been for the past one hundred years. From the early to mid-twentieth century onward it has used three major models, the medical model, community model, and the crime control model. The major turning point for the American community corrections system that led to corrections as we know it today was in 1974 when What Works? - Questions and Answers About Prison Reform by Martinson was published. The system changed practically overnight acrossRead MoreJails And Prisons1418 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCounty, Virginia and Federal Corrections Institution Petersburg Medium in Hopewell City, Virginia. The types of prisons will be identified. The major differences between the Rappahannock Regional Jail and FCI Petersburg Medium will be examined. Jail and prison culture and subculture as well as the violent behavior that can stem from it will be discu ssed. An explanation of why jails play an important role in the correctional system will be given. The role of community based programs associated withRead MoreCommunity Corrections Is Vital For The Safety Of The Community1733 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Community corrections are vital in ensuring and assuring the safety of the community by rehabilitating the low-risk offenders allowing cycle of re-offending to be broken and the rate of imprisonment to be lowered. Community corrections involve managing an offenderÃ¢â¬â¢s life in the community through constant supervision and reporting to their corrections officer and, also court ordered unpaid community service and rehabilitation programs to divert their attention to re-offend, rather than throwing
Sunday, 17 May 2020
Comparing The Iliad and The Bible Throughout recorded history, man has sought explanations for the various phenomena that occur in every facet of nature, and when no obvious answer is forthcoming, still a theory is often proposed. These explanatory theories, often taking the form of stories or chronicles, are usually linked to some sort of mysticism or divine intervention. By ascribing that which he does not understand to the godsÃ¢â¬â¢ will at work, man avoids facing up to his own lack of knowledge in a given area, and also draws comfort from assuming that the universe does indeed function under the guidance of divine beings. Thus the explanatory accounts that man crafts enhance his own security, quelling the fear of chaos thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In ancient Greek culture the gods were seen as taking a very active role in the development and course of human history. The entire Olympian pantheon, as well as many other less important divinities, meddles in human affairs to no end. The people of the ma ny city-states that composed Greece firmly believed that every aberration from normalcy was due to an act of the gods. Homer, the author of The Iliad, coined the prevalent religious beliefs of the time in his epic poems, showing the gods as temperamental and willful, meddlesome and dynamic. HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s entire poem is replete with instances of divine intervention in mortal lives, and no single major occurrence comes to pass unless it is the will of one of the many Olympian gods. Few major decisions are made without consulting the gods first, and the handful of instances in which one leader or another takes initiative almost always fails miserably. Life, according to the Greeks, is almost entirely rooted in their religion, as there is a god or goddess governing every aspect of the universe, and also because the gods so actively involve themselves in the everyday lives of mortals. A classic example of this divine involvement occurs within the first page of The Iliad. Achilles, the great hero of the Achaean armies, and Agamemnon the commander-in-chief of the Argives clash bitterly, and the entire epic centers on this conflict. Homer details the cause of thisShow MoreRelatedComparing The Iliad And The Bible, Jesus And Hector Die988 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThroughout the Iliad and in the bible, Jesus and Hector die for different reasons; while on dies for honor and glory, the other dies for the salvation of others. Honor is defined as a high respect given to an individual that brings credit. To receive honor is paralleled to being crowned with jewels and being regarded as a role model to all. The society that the Iliad portrays is Ã¢â¬Å"centered on the battlefield of achievement and its rewardsÃ¢â¬ (Homer, xxi). The figures in HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s epic poem, the Iliad, partakeRead MoreComparing The Epic The Iliad Against The Bible s First Book Genesis Essay1877 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesUpon initial consideration, comparing similarities in the Homeric epic The Iliad against the BibleÃ¢â¬â¢s first book Genesis would seem outlandish. The comparisons between the two tales may not be abundantly clear. The parables of the Bible serve as religious cornerstones for society, while Greek tragedies serve as the moral lessons on which our culture is predicated. Fate in both narratives is understood to be a governing body, with a prominence being placed on remaining on the course with that whichRead More A Co mparison of Homeric Formalism in The Iliad and The Odyssey1339 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHomeric Formalism in The Iliad and The Odyssey Much that is terrible takes place in the Homeric poems, but it seldom takes place wordlessly... no speech is so filled with anger or scorn that the particles which express logical and grammatical connections are lacking or out of place. (from Odysseus Scar by Erich Auerbach) Ã In his immaculately detailed study comparing the narrative styles of Homer to those of the Bible, Erich Auerbach hits upon one of the most notable intriguesRead MoreIntroduction. The Bible Is One Of The Bestselling Books1139 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesINTRODUCTION The Bible is one of the bestselling books in the world, for this reason it is incredibly important for Christians and non-Christians alike to examine the reliability of the text. Because the nature of this paper is rather short, the historical evidence outlined will be brief and not all-inclusive. This paper will examine the writings and thoughts of many great people including Joshua McDowell, J. Walter Wallace and William Craig. For the purpose of clarity when discussing the Bible or ScripturesRead MoreSimilarities Between Paradise Lost And Paradise Lost1239 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescontrast Paradise Lost with the three other epics of antiquity. The epics are Paradise Lost, Aeneid, The Epic Gilgamesh, and The Iliad. The most obvious difference is era. Paradise Lost is an epic poem from the 17th century and is written in blank verse which is the most modern phrasing method. According to an article on Enotes, out of the other three epics, the Iliad and Aeneid came from the same dactylli c family. (Ã¢â¬Å"Compare Miltons Paradise LostÃ¢â¬ ). Meanwhile The Epic Gilgamesh is more old-fashionedRead MoreGreek Mythology Vs Roman Mythology1256 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThis illustrates the point that the Romans werenÃ¢â¬â¢t too interested in you unless you were part god in some way. Granted, many of the Greek stories also featured these demigods, however, they also had many stories that featured normal people. When comparing these two religions, it is clear that the Greeks placed much more emphasis on the appearance of their deities. The faces of gods were shown to be beautiful and their bodies were even more perfect still. The Greeks treated the gods like fashion modelsRead MoreNietzsches critique of Plato and Christianity2437 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesand asks us not to feel negated when encountering suffering and enter the world of nihilistic pity. The denial of power and responsibility that Christianity imposed, according to Nietzsche, may be exemplified with MatthewÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËSermon on the MountÃ¢â¬â¢, (Bible, 5:3), Ã¢â¬Å"Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earthÃ¢â¬ ¦Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.Ã¢â¬ Nietzsche claims that wordsRead MoreThe Reading Of The Hebrew Bible1867 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIn the required reading of The Hebrew Bible, the character referred to as God is represented as a very mysterious character in several different instances. God appears to test the humans He creates periodically without cause. He punishes more than just the guilty offenders with His wrath and yet will reward the unfavorable actions of others. He appears to be a constant contradiction of His own ethical code leaving a sense of confusion towards any definition of morality. In the beginning of GenesisRead MoreExegesis on Exodus 202270 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesBible Exegesis: Exodus 20 Prior to beginning this assignment, I had already found a passionate interest in theology, primarily the logical historical analysis of the Old Testament. I had read several books on the topic, but still had a thirst for more knowledge. With that said, my preceding assumptions predominantly consisted of skepticism towards the religious interpretation of the Old Testament. I believed that Exodus 20 was a prime example of the religious establishment interpreting an ancientRead MoreSecret Intelligence Service and Espionage4647 Words Ã |Ã 19 Pagesare many examples that show it. The importance of espionage in military affairs has been recognized since the beginning of recorded history. The Egyptians had a well-developed secret service, and spying and subversion are mentioned in theÃ IliadÃ and in the Bible. The ancient Chinese treatise (c.500 B.C.) on the art of war devotes much attention to deception and intelligence gathering, arguing that all war is based on deception. In th e Middle Ages, political espionage became important.Ã Joan of ArcÃ was
Friday, 15 May 2020
USS Hornet (CV-8) was a Yorktown-class aircraft carrier that entered service with the U.S. Navy in 1941. The last ship of its class, Hornet earned famed in April 1942 when Lieutenant Colonel Jimmy Doolittle launched his famed raid on Japan from the carriers deck. Less than two months later, it took part in the stunning American victory at the Battle of Midway. Ordered south in the summer of 1942, Hornet commenced operations to aid Allied forces during the Battle of Guadalcanal. In September, the carrier was lost at the Battle of Santa Cruz after sustaining several bomb and torpedo hits. Its name was carried on by a new USS Hornet (CV-12) which joined the fleet in November 1943. Construction Commissioning The third and final Yorktown-class aircraft carrier, USS Hornet was ordered on March 30, 1939. Construction began at the Newport News Shipbuilding Company that September. As work progressed, World War II commenced in Europe though the United States elected to remain neutral. Launched on December 14, 1940, Hornet was sponsored by Annie Reid Knox, wife of Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox. Workers completed the ship later the following year and on October 20, 1941, Hornet was commissioned with Captain Marc A. Mitscher in command. Over the next five weeks, the carrier conducted training exercises off the Chesapeake Bay. USS Hornet (CV-8) underway in Hampton Roads, VA, October 1941. National Archives and Record AdministrationÃ World War II Begins With the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, Hornet returned to Norfolk and in January had its anti-aircraft armament substantially upgraded. Remaining in the Atlantic, the carrier conducted tests on February 2 to determine if a B-25 Mitchell medium bomber could fly from the ship. Though the crew was perplexed, the tests proved successful. On March 4, Hornet departed Norfolk with orders to sail for San Francisco, CA. Transiting the Panama Canal, the carrier arrived at Naval Air Station, Alameda on March 20. While there, sixteen U.S. Army Air Forces B-25s were loaded onto Hornets flight deck. USS Hornet (CV-8) Nation: United StatesType: Aircraft CarrierShipyard: Newport News Shipbuilding Drydock CompanyLaid Down: September 25, 1939Launched: December 14, 1940Commissioned: October 20, 1941Fate: Sunk October 26, 1942SpecificationsDisplacement: 26,932 tonsLength: 827 ft., 5 in.Beam: 114 ft.Draft: 28 ft.Propulsion: 4 Ãâ" Parsons geared steam turbines, 9 Ãâ" Babcock Wilcox boilers, 4 Ãâ" shaftsSpeed: 32.5 knotsRange: 14,400 nautical miles at 15 knotsComplement: 2,919 menArmament8 Ãâ" 5 in. dual purpose guns, 20 Ãâ" 1.1 in., 32 Ãâ" 20 mm anti-aircraft cannonsAircraft90 aircraft Doolittle Raid Receiving sealed orders, Mitscher put to sea on April 2 before informing the crew that the bombers, led by Lieutenant Colonel Jimmie Doolittle, were intended for a strike on Japan. Steaming across the Pacific, Hornet united with Vice Admiral William Halseys Task Force 16 which was centered on the carrier USS Enterprise (CV-6). With Enterprises aircraft providing cover, the combined force approached Japan. On April 18, the American force was spotted by the Japanese vessel No. 23 Nitto Maru. Though the enemy vessel was quickly destroyed by the cruiser USS Nashville, Halsey and Doolittle were concerned that it had sent a warning to Japan. B-25 takes off from USS Hornet (CV-8). National Archives Records Administration Still 170 miles short of their intended launch point, Doolittle met with Mitscher, Hornets commander, to discuss the situation. Emerging from the meeting, the two men decided to launch the bombers early. Leading the raid, Doolittle took off first at 8:20 a.m. and was followed by the rest of his men. Reaching Japan, the raiders successfully struck their targets before flying on to China. Due to the early departure, none possessed the fuel to reach their intended landing strips and all were forced to bail out or ditch. Having launched Doolittles bombers, Hornet and TF 16 immediately turned and steamed for Pearl Harbor. Midway After a brief stop in Hawaii, the two carriers departed on April 30 and moved south to support USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Lexington (CV-2) during the Battle of the Coral Sea. Unable to reach the area in time, they diverted towards Nauru and Banaba before returning to Pearl Harbor on May 26. As before, the time in port was short as the Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Fleet, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz ordered both Hornet and Enterprise to block a Japanese advance against Midway. Under the guidance of Rear Admiral Raymond Spruance, the two carriers were later joined by Yorktown. With the beginning of the Battle of Midway on June 4, all three American carriers launched strikes against the four carriers of Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumos First Air Fleet. Locating the Japanese carriers, the American TBD Devastator torpedo bombers began attacking. Lacking escorts, they suffered heavily and Hornets VT-8 lost all fifteen of its aircraft. The sole survivor of the squadron was Ensign George Gay who was rescued after the battle. With the battle progressing, Hornets dive bombers failed to find the Japanese, though their compatriots from the other two carriers did with stunning results. In the course of the fighting, Yorktowns and Enterprises dive bombers succeeded in sinking all four Japanese carriers. That afternoon, Hornets aircraft attacked the supporting Japanese vessels but with little effect. Two days later, they aided in sinking the heavy cruiser Mikuma and badly damaging the heavy cruiser Mogami. Returning to port, Hornet spent much of the next two months being overhauled. This saw the carriers anti-aircraft defenses further augmented and the installation of a new radar set. Departing Pearl Harbor on August 17, Hornet sailed for the Solomon Islands to aid in the Battle of Guadalcanal. Battle of Santa Cruz Arriving in the area, Hornet supported Allied operations and in late September briefly was the only operational American carrier in the Pacific after the loss of USS Wasp (CV-7) and damage to USS Saratoga (CV-3) and Enterprise. Joined by a repaired Enterprise on October 24, Hornet moved to strike a Japanese force approaching Guadalcanal. Two days later saw the carrier engaged in the Battle of Santa Cruz. In the course of the action, Hornets aircraft inflicted severe damage on the carrier Shokaku and heavy cruiser Chikuma USS Hornet under attack during the Battle of Santa Cruz, 1942. US Naval History Heritage Command These successes were offset when Hornet was struck by three bombs and two torpedoes. On fire and dead in the water, Hornets crew began a massive damage control operation which saw the fires brought under control by 10:00 a.m. As Enterprise was also damaged, it began to withdraw from the area. In an effort to save Hornet, the carrier was taken under tow by the heavy cruiser USS Northampton. Only making five knots, the two ships came under attack from Japanese aircraft and Hornet was hit by another torpedo. Unable to save the carrier, Captain Charles P. Mason ordered abandon ship. After attempts to scuttle the burning ship failed, the destroyers USS Anderson and USS Mustin moved in and fired over 400 five-inch rounds and nine torpedoes into Hornet. Still refusing to sink, Hornet was finally finished off after midnight by four torpedoes from the Japanese destroyers Makigumo and Akigumo which had arrived in the area. The last U.S. fleet carrier lost to enemy action during the war, Hornet had only been commission one year and seven days.
Wednesday, 6 May 2020
DISSERTATION. Exploring ways of conceptualizing ASD in Africa. Questioning the cultural sensitivity of the DSM. Rodeen Beresford-Cole 27/05/14 Exploring research findings of ASD etiology and epidemiology in non-western cultures in developing countries. This will determine whether the DSM is culturally sensitive to other parts of the world. Does the DSM take into account different conceptual social constructs of mental health from diverse cultures? The manual mentions that professionals should take into account the patients social and cultural surroundings when making a diagnosis of a mental disorder, but really is that enough to become a revolutionary universal tool? Table of Contents Chapter 1: INTRODUTION 1 Background of the research 1 Aims and objectives of the research 4 Research Methodology 5 CHAPTER 2: 7 DIAGNOSTIC STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS 7 The History and revisions of the DSM 8 DSM-I (1952) 8 DSM-II (1968), (1974) 9 DSM-III (1980), DSM-III-R (1987) 9 DSM-IV (1994), DSM-IV-TR (2000), 10 DSM-5 (2013); Perspective of ASD Ã¢â¬ËNeuro-developmental DisordersÃ¢â¬â¢ and Criteria 12 International Classification of Diseases-10 and its difference with DSM 18 Western mainstream approach of Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) 20 The founding fathers of Autism 21 Challenges and Criticism of the DSM in the West 25 Misdiagnosing of Women; Wing and Gould (2011) Ã¢â¬Ëtriad of impairmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ DSM IV vs. DSM-V 25 International Classification of Diseases-10 26 Deconstructing the DSM
I waited weary in anticipation of what name would break out of the happy-go-lucky collegiate cheerleaderÃ¢â¬â¢s boisterous mouth as he was announcing the two lucky 2017 National Cheerleading Association All Americans out of all 4 Belton cheer squads. I replay this moment in my most vivid dreams, feeling the excitement of the halcyon moment grow greater and greater as the nerves and emotions grew stronger and stronger. A moment as imperative as this showed me in the most transparent way that hard, continuous work and growth pays off in many more ways than one. In that absolutely endearing, prideful moment, I took a chance to look back on my past years, devoted to such a tireless sport. I began the wide sport of cheerleading when I was a mereÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A similar foreshadowing towards my future came when I became the only Belton High School cheerleader on the Junior Universal Cheer Association All American team. I was a frog who had transformed into a princess grow ing wiser and stronger. This not only affirmed my dedication and devotion towards this new realm of cheerleading, but it added a new feeling of humbleness which soon became an essential trait towards developing into the exceptional athlete I had only dreamt of. Again, tryouts came for the next greuling school year. The only difference from last year, I was prepared. I knew the cheers, I knew the feeling of standing in front of crowd so ecstatic from a winning game and I knew the feeling of a crowd sitting at a loss for words in the face of defeat. I knew my goal and I was absolutely determined to reach it. I could only be described as a lioness on the prowl and the Varsity squad was my prey. Just as anxious as the year before, though this time with a hint of confidence, I made my tryout a culmination of completely everything I had learned from my wildly experienced past. That night, I reached my ultimate goal and earned the prized name of Varsity cheerleader. The next day I practica lly walked around with an enormous V on my forehead, honored by the position. With all this positivity, I knew there was something to come. That same summer, I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t received a lucky chance to become even a contender in theShow MoreRelatedPersonal Narrative : Cheerleading Scholarship1398 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLeague Baseball; Tampa Bay Devil Rays is my favorite team. I am a happy person most of the time. WhoÃ¢â¬â¢s dedicated to my cheerleading career; and I want to get a scholarship for Northwestern University. My life is all planned out, I know what I want and how to get there. I honestly think my boyfriend Tom was going to be my future husband. I believe I am going to get a cheerleading scholarship. It is a Friday night, and as the game finishes, with the score of twenty-seven to seven, which means I couldRead MoreEssay on Personal Narrative: Cheerleading Competition1164 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCheerleading - It Was Our Year! Running the same routine over and over since August 14, 2004 and it is now October 6th. Bodies are aching, feet are sore and we all feel as though we have been beaten by a 200 pound boulder. Cheerleading is our passion and we love to do it, but by mid September we were all ready to quit. Practice Monday threw Friday from three oÃ¢â¬â¢clock to seven, and then eleven until two on Saturdays! As the Lord did, we got to rest on Sundays. It was rough, sometimesRead MoreCheerleading As A Legitimate Sport2318 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesCheerleading as a Legitimate Sport Cheerleading has expanded into a fantastic show of athletics but people today still donÃ¢â¬â¢t view it as a legitimate sport. Ã¢â¬Å"Todays young cheerleaders are an entirely different breedÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Dazzle and DangerÃ¢â¬ ). When cheerleading was first introduced over 100 years ago, it was a combination of simple cheers that were shouted out by yell captains from the sidelines during college football games (Valliant 8). Yell captains are the girls in charge of yelling out and startingRead MoreSport and Football Essay1468 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfootball to how she grew ecstatic about its very nature. Both women have admiration for their respective sports and want to encourage others to share their love of sports through their use of ethos and pathos, with pathos being more effective. Cheerleading is a physical activity that I think most are aware of. Some qualify it as a sport which should receive the same notoriety as an even more familiar game such as basketball. Jennie Yabroff belongs to that community. There are also those who dismissRead MoreStranger with a Camera and The House I Live In 1432 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbut forge a connection to the subject matter through means of a lens. Jarecki takes an in-depth look at the War on Drugs and its human rights implications in his documentary The House I live In. Jarecki weaves his personal story through the duration of the documentary. His personal account is through the lens of the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s nanny, Jeter. As an otherwise outsiderÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, Jeter allowed Jarecki some insight into a world in which he is not a part of. Jarecki is a white Jewish male that grewRead MoreSarah Reynoldss Influence On Life1543 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesparents had a role for each child. When Sarah was younger she was bullied in school and never felt pretty enough, but once she got to high school she began to feel more comfortable in her own skin. She made a lot more friends and even joined the cheerleading squad. Sarah expressed that her parents (particularly her father) saw this change in SarahÃ¢â¬â¢s self-confidence and began calling her the Ã¢â¬Å"self-absorbed childÃ¢â¬ . Her parents and soon after, her siblings, would say that Sarah was too into herself,Read MoreGlee Essay9324 Words Ã |Ã 38 Pagesdraws me into a deeply emotional engagement with the characters and a desire to see them triumph. As others on this blog have mentioned, the stunt shows, focusing around a musical theme or dance conceit, are fun but can bring the show away from its narrative engagement and this mix of sincerity and cynicism that musical numbers have often been harnessed in service of. Ã¢â¬Å"Dream OnÃ¢â¬ brought back this dynamic and foregrounded it in contrast to some of the more music-themed recent episodes. Neil Patrick HarrisRead MoreAlex FergusonÃ¢â¬â¢s Leadership Style Case Study3258 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagescharismatic personality treats. Charismatic leadership is defined as a Ã¢â¬Å"social influence process that involves the formulation and articulation of an evocative vision, provides inspiration to motivate collective action ...and displays unconventional and personal risk-taking behaviorÃ¢â¬ (Sosik, Dinger, 2007). As far as the personality treats as concerned, charismatic leaders are most of the time Ã¢â¬Å"being dominant, having a strong desire to influence others, being self-confident, and having a strong sense of oneÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreMy Sisters Keeper5805 Words Ã |Ã 24 Pagesthan search for any real emotional truths or demand dynamic performances from its talented cast, the movie just hijacks your tear ducts from the word go. Odds are youll cry during this movie, but you might be too confused by the time-jumping narrative, too busy wondering how many pop song montages they can cram into the running time, and too ashamed of your giggles when the melancholy tips the scales toward schmaltz. Director Nick Cassavetes, who helped audiences guiltily swoon over TheRead MoreAn Evaluation of an on-Farm Food Safety Program for Ontario Greenhouse Vegetable Producers; a Global Blueprint for Fruit and Vegetable Producers51659 Words Ã |Ã 207 Pagesjudgments, not just of the physical characteristics and consequences of an activity but also social factors such as credibility and trustworthiness of risk management and regulatory institutions, and this should be included in risk assessment decisions. Personal biases or value judgments are present even in risk assessments. Lathrop and Linnerooth (1982), describe a situation where three separate risk assessments produced using the same data differed widely in assumptions, presentation and implied conclusions
Question: Discuss about the International Human Resource Management for Theory and Practice. Answer: The essay consists of a solution of a case study related to Flextronics company. The company is an electronics company based on Singapore. The country has its operations across many countries of the world. International human resource management is defined as the process of allocation, procurement and utilisation of the human resource in a company. The HR manager of multinational corporations integrates their policies in the subsidiaries of the company. It is done in order to accomplish the organisational goals that are set for the parent company. The policies are to be implemented by keeping in mind about the benefit of the employees. The flexibility of the international regulations is to be maintained as per the laws of the country. For expanding a business in a particular country, it is mandatory to abide by the rules of the country. Specifically, international human resource management deals with these issues of a multinational company. The essay describes the issues faced by Fle xtronics in its international business operations. The case study describes the operating procedure of the company along with its cultural and employee related issues. Solutions are also provided related to the problems mentioned in the case study. The European operation of Flextronics is known as Central and Eastern European branch. The headquarters of the strategic business unit are located in the countries of Austria and Vienna. However, the problems had arisen in the branch of Hungary. The new plants of the country are characterised by normal set up problems. The startup problems are known as inexperienced personnel, high volatility in the sales market, lack of adaptability and high fluctuation (Alfes et al. 2013). However, Flextronics is very keen in mitigating the identified issues in the Hungarian manufacturing plants. Whenever a company expands in the international market, apart from the external environment issues there are many internal environment issues. Internal environmental issues of a company include process, system, employees, and management (Armstrong and Taylor 2014). Flextronics in its Hungarian new manufacturing plants are facing issues in terms of employees, business processes and management. The problems are mentioned earlier that reflects the cultural problems and institutional forces that affect the profitability of the company as well as lower productivity in the new plants (Bratton and Gold 2012). The employees of Hungary are of different nature and mindset that are not identified by the human resource department of Flextronics. The HR director of the CEE is much focused on the issues faced by the workers of the Hungary manufacturing plants. It is the responsibility of the HR department of the company to manufacture policies abiding by the regulations of the country as well as the rules of the organisation. Employees are considered as the assets of a firm. Hence, the policies of a company are to be formulated for the benefit of the employees (Brewster et al. 2016). The employees of the Hungary division of Flextronics are not so much competent enough for increasing the productivity of the new plants in the country. However, the company has changed its HR policies to improve the condition of the people associated with the company. The issue of cross-cultural communication is prevalent in this situation. Cross-cultural problems are very common in organisations in different parts of the world (Buller and McEvoy 2012). Flextronics, on the other hand, is emphasising the cultural issues of it but the mitigation process is of no use. The HR Department of Flextronics develops a training module. The company has developed the module by taking help of an external consultancy. Apart from that, technical skills along with soft skills developmental program are formulated for the Hungarian employees. The approach of the HR department is not commenced in a right direction. The mindset of the people of Hungary is different from that of Austrian people (Jackson e t al. 2014). The case study mentioned differences between the approaches of Austrian employees and the Hungarian workers. The programs that are set for the overall development of the employees of Flextronics are not at all satisfactory in terms of improvement of the skills of the workers. However, it is seen that the employees of Hungary are not responding to the training module developed by the company. The participants of the country are showing very low responses towards the programs. They are not interested in completing the full session of the course of the grooming and training of Flextronics. There is an implicit assumption between the two concepts of best practice and best fit. The two concepts are interrelated with each other but are different in the field of implementation. The first term is related to theoretical frameworks while the second one is related to the implementation in real life. Both the terms are related to strategic human resource management. The approach of best fit in strategic HRM identifies the close knit relationship between HRM and strategic management. It considers the nature and influence of vertical integration (Keho and Wright 2013). In the case of vertical integration, a gain of advantage is done by maintaining a close relationship between the policies of HR and goals and objectives of the business. Many types of research about improved and effective HR practices suggested that models of the best fit should be flexible enough to implement the benefits of the employees of a certain organisation. The best-fit theory illustrates that HR policies of a firm become effective only when it is integrated with the external environment of the business. The best-fit approach emphasises on the fact of alignment between the systems of business with the organisational strategy. Companies must start its business by formulating an organizational strategy at first (Kramar 2014). The strategy of the organization includes performance levels, strategic management goals, etc. On the other hand, the approach of best practice illustrates the influence of business strategy in the performance of the company. High commitment management is the concept that is positively related to the theory of best practice in human resources. The theory of best practice forecasts the relation between the organisational performance and good practices of human resources in an organization (Marler 2012). In the case study, the difference between the concepts of best fit and best practice are clearly mentioned. Flextronics wants to implement many theoretical models in its organisational level for solving the problems. However, Flextronics have found that the effectiveness of the theoretical models is very different in real life implementation. Organisations must modify the theories according to the requirements and nature of the problem faced by it. For instance, Flextronics have started the approach of "One Flextronics" in order to solve the customer complaints regarding their p roducts and distribution of the products (Marler and Fisher 2013). The aim of the approach is to standardise the level of production at a global scale. To implement this practice in the company, Flextronics have gained an idea about different theories that will help in mitigating the production problems. Theories that are selected by the HR department and operation department of the company for mitigating the issues are program management, six sigma, material and quality management, finances, training and engineering. However, many other issues of production and supply chain are prevalent in the company except the cultural issues. Initially, the company is unable to figure out the best practice theories that will serve the purpose of problem-solving in the company. In the later part, it is noticed that by conducting extensive research Flextronics have successfully chosen best-fit theories in its production problem. Failure in choosing best-fit models in the cultural issues results in a lack of productivity of the employees at the organisational level. If a company implements same policies in two different countries then the expected result would not be same. The institutional and cultural specifics of a country are different from another country. In the case study, Flextronics had applied same training and developmental program for the two countries. However, it does not portray fruitful results in Hungary. The difference in national culture is well explained by Hofstede in his theory of cross-cultural communications. The theory of Hofstede describes the cultural differences in a detailed manner. The companies should always keep it in mind that one solution should not serve the purpose of the problems of all countries (Martin et al. 2016). There are many differences in cultural, political, social, legal and many other differences. Firms must keep in mind about the factors mentioned above. Firms should gain a deeper understanding of the factors affecting the productivity in different scenarios. The main motive of a company is to ea rn a substantial amount of profit from the market. Apart from that, they are committed to providing quality services and products to the customers in order to gain trust and reputation from it. It is also a part of the branding of the company. Delivering quality product to the customers will lead to earning a substantial profit for a company in the near future. Globalisation is the process that is adopted by many domestic companies to expand its business operations in many target markets. Most of the firms are facing issues in the cultural fields (Mitchell et al. 2013). The strategic management department of the parent companies must focus on the external issues of a country. However, internal issues are equally important like that of the external factors. Researchers had shown that most of the firms that have adopted internalisation are facing issues in cultural aspects. A firm can face many problems in its business operation in a particular target market. Apart from the cultural aspects, other challenging factors are disruptive technological change, geopolitical instability, business risk management, people management, innovation, environmental issues, etc. There are many gaps in skills in the global market such as disconnection of skills between the needs of the organisation as the educational system (Mondy and Martocchio 2016). Talent identification, international ethics, deployment, innovation and knowledge dissemination, language, internal ethics are the cultural issues that are faced by companies in its international locations. In the case study, it is mentioned that Flextronics is suffering from decreased productivity due to diminished employee re lations as well as talent gaps. It is already discussed that the qualifications of the employees of new plants of Hungary are very low (Morgeson et al. 2013). They are not able to perform well in the Hungary location. However, the mitigation programs formulated for improving the performance of Hungary branch is not giving expected results. The HR department lacks in maintaining a communication between the employees of the branch. For formulating any policies, it is necessary for the personnel of the HR to consult the employees. This is important because the developmental programs are formulated only for the benefit of the workers. It will help in forecasting effective progress of the employees in the company (Paill et al. 2014). The company is a technology based company and is suffering from many challenges in its different international locations. Countries of Europe faced most of the challenging issues regarding cultural aspects and other production processes. It is mentioned in the case study that the company is not only facing issues in terms of employee relations but also in the facility sites of the new plants in Hungary. However, due to lack of effective HR practices, Flextronics have recruited people that are not competent enough from the people of other countries (Purce 2014). A comparison with Austria is illustrated in the case study that points out the issues and problems of Flextronics in a detailed manner. Apart from that, it is also found in the case study that the HRM practices that are formulated for solving the employee related skill gaps are universal in nature (Storey 2014). The modules and developmental programs are not modified as per the deficit of the employees in their skills. The ele ctronics company mainly runs on the dearth of technology. Countries that have more feasibility in the usage pattern of latest technologies tend to develop more than that of countries with the low feasibility of the technology. European countries are very developed. Hence technological aspect is very developed. The company on its usage of more powerful information and technologies in its project can develop the prospects in a particular country. Technology has always positive and negative impacts on every aspect. Technology no doubt helps organisations to grow faster in many perspectives such as production, innovation, etc. Innovation and development are the key area of differentiation followed by most renowned companies across the globe. However, Flextronics is also trying to follow the path (Swart and Kinnie 2015). The company is trying to adopt much innovative and updated training module for development of skills for it employees. Training modules are formulated using ideas from different theoretical frameworks as well as from other organisations. Many organisations of United States are following various developed and modern training and developmental modules and programs for the enhancement of skills of their employees. Investment in the training department will not only develop the car eer of the employees but also the productivity of the manufacturing sites of Flextronics in Hungary (Truss et al. 2012). Implementation of technology in terms of increasing the production of the manufacturing facility of Hungary will give positive results in the company. But if the people are not so much efficient enough in handling the modern technologies using in the manufacturing sites of Flextronics in Hungary location, then the reaction will be opposite. The dearth of skills in the employees of Flextronics is a disadvantage of the companies. In this scenario, there will be a divergence of the situation. The reason for the divergence is the unskilled employees in Hungary (Ulrich 2013). Despite training modules, the employees are not interested in completing the whole session of the grooming classes and training session of the company. It is the reason of divergence in the field of implementation of technology in the company as well as in the new manufacturing plants. The company has worldwide operations in many countries of Europe, Asia and North America. The company is facing many cultural and institutional problems in its business operations. Flextronics is an electronic company that is not able to manage its all business operations smoothly in all countries. The company in the operations of Hungarian branch faces many problems specifically in the international human resource management aspects. Performances of the employees are not up to the mark in the branch compared to the performance of the other countries of Europe. However, the firm is focused in pointing the errors that are prevalent at the organisational level of the Hungarian branch. After pointing the errors, many training modules are also proposed by Flextronics by the implementation of the theoretical models regarding the problem. Research has also done regarding the feasibility of the theoretical frameworks used by the company in the real life world. The case study has pointed var ious issues in the Hungarian branch. The essay describes many concepts of strategic human resource management that help companies in increasing the effectiveness of the production of the company as well as their employees. The concepts of best fit and best practice are explained in a detailed manner in terms of the case study analysis. References Alfes, K., Shantz, A.D., Truss, C. and Soane, E.C., 2013. The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behaviour: a moderated mediation model.The international journal of human resource management,24(2), pp.330-351. Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S., 2014.Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers. Bratton, J. and Gold, J., 2012.Human resource management: theory and practice. Palgrave Macmillan. Brewster, C., Mayrhofer, W. and Morley, M. eds., 2016.New Challenges for European Resource Management. Springer. Buller, P.F. and McEvoy, G.M., 2012. Strategy, human resource management and performance: Sharpening line of sight.Human resource management review,22(1), pp.43-56. Jackson, S.E., Schuler, R.S. and Jiang, K., 2014. An aspirational framework for strategic human resource management.The Academy of Management Annals,8(1), pp.1-56. Kehoe, R.R. and Wright, P.M., 2013. The impact of high-performance human resource practices on employees attitudes and behaviors.Journal of management,39(2), pp.366-391. Kramar, R., 2014. Beyond strategic human resource management: is sustainable human resource management the next approach?.The International Journal of Human Resource Management,25(8), pp.1069-1089. Marler, J.H. and Fisher, S.L., 2013. An evidence-based review of e-HRM and strategic human resource management.Human Resource Management Review,23(1), pp.18-36. Marler, J.H., 2012. Strategic human resource management in context: a historical and global perspective.The Academy of Management Perspectives,26(2), pp.6-11. Martin, G., Farndale, E., Paauwe, J. and Stiles, P.G., 2016. Corporate governance and strategic human resource management: Four archetypes and proposals for a new approach to corporate sustainability.European Management Journal,34(1), pp.22-35. Mitchell, R., Obeidat, S. and Bray, M., 2013. The Effect of Strategic Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance: The Mediating Role of HighÃ Performance Human Resource Practices.Human Resource Management,52(6), pp.899-921. Mondy, R. and Martocchio, J.J., 2016.Human resource management. Pearson. Morgeson, F.P., Aguinis, H., Waldman, D.A. and Siegel, D.S., 2013. Extending corporate social responsibility research to the human resource management and organizational behavior domains: A look to the future.Personnel Psychology,66(4), pp.805-824. Paill, P., Chen, Y., Boiral, O. and Jin, J., 2014. The impact of human resource management on environmental performance: An employee-level study. Journal of Business Ethics, 121(3), pp.451-466. Purce, J., 2014. The impact of corporate strategy on human resource management.New Perspectives on Human Resource Management (Routledge Revivals),67. Storey, J., 2014.New Perspectives on Human Resource Management (Routledge Revivals). Routledge. Swart, J. and Kinnie, N., 2015. Strategic Human Resource Management and performance management in professional service firms. InThe Oxford Handbook of Professional Service Firms. Truss, C., Mankin, D. and Kelliher, C., 2012.Strategic human resource management. Oxford University Press. Ulrich, D., 2013.Human resource champions: The next agenda for adding value and delivering results. Harvard Business Press.
Tuesday, 5 May 2020
In her essay Ã¢â¬Å"Just off Main Street,Ã¢â¬ published by the United States Department of State, Elmaz Abinader stresses the importance of embracing cultural differences. Abinader precisely describes her struggles as an Arab-American attempting to stay true to her two worlds: the American society and her Lebanese culture. As an Armenian I can directly relate to almost every instance Abinader depicts throughout her essay. AbinaderÃ¢â¬â¢s words and descriptions clearly outline the context of her two worlds. For example, a key symbol Abinader consistently mentions is the Ã¢â¬Å"magic doorÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"portalÃ¢â¬ that separates the outside and inside world (par 1). Through her descriptions, comparisons, and cultural concepts, Adinader creates worlds of meaning between her former Ã¢â¬Å"portalÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"outside worldÃ¢â¬ by eliminating the ignorance and sparking a domino effect of acceptance to all Middle Eastern cultures. In her first paragraph, Abinader sets up the norms in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. She uses the word Ã¢â¬Å"standardÃ¢â¬ which immediately causes the reader to picture the typical American community. The first paragraph signaled for a comparison between AbinaderÃ¢â¬â¢s community and her home life. When she states, Ã¢â¬Å"From the face of it, our businesses looked like any others,Ã¢â¬ I understand that her family is attempting to put up a front in order to blend in (par 2). When Abinader states, Ã¢â¬Å"my father and my uncle stood in the doorways of their establishments,Ã¢â¬ her use of the word Ã¢â¬Å"establishmentsÃ¢â¬ has meaning to me. Most individuals of Middle Eastern, European decent are very hardworking and take their possessions and accomplishments seriously. These cultures have an ideology encompassing strong pride, because in historical situations they have been criticized and undermined. On April 24, 1915 the Ottoman Turks killed over 1. 5 million Armenians. This tragedy is referred to as the Armenian genocide. However, till this day the Turks and several uninformed individuals deny that it occurred. This denial serves as a perfect example as to why Middle Eastern, Europeans stay close to their culture and have pride. They yearn for a sense of belonging (par 12). Abinader speaks of the belonging and joy her family scenes brought her, yet she could not share this joy with those on the other side of the door because of their lack of acceptance (par 12). The description of AbinaderÃ¢â¬â¢s peers, Jeannie and Renee, precisely contrast the two lives on either side of the Ã¢â¬Å"magic doorÃ¢â¬ . Abinader describes her fascination of Ã¢â¬Å"the shiny bikes with streamersÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the collection of Barbie doll paraphernalia. Ã¢â¬ Her fascination and her description of the Ã¢â¬Å"after-school dutiesÃ¢â¬ she would partake in created a stark contrast between her and her classmates. Why is Ã¢â¬Å"differentÃ¢â¬ looked upon negatively? The reason Abinader was ridiculed on the playground was not specifically because of her dark hair or her Ã¢â¬Å"apeÃ¢â¬ like arms (par 4). The ridicule occurred due to her differences; she was exotic. Ã¢â¬Å"Just off Main Street,Ã¢â¬ incorporated an abundance of cultural elements. AbinaderÃ¢â¬â¢s parents may seem strict to the average American due to their Ã¢â¬Å"after-school dutiesÃ¢â¬ or the fact that AbinaderÃ¢â¬â¢s mother said, Ã¢â¬Å"You can have one,Ã¢â¬ when referring to the Ã¢â¬Å"round puffy disksÃ¢â¬ she had just baked (par 6). However, if one understands the Middle Eastern, European culture, they would know that AbinaderÃ¢â¬â¢s parents are structured and focused people. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t give their children responsibilities at an early age to punish them; instead, they do this to introduce the cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s morals and values. Other cultural aspects included in AbinaderÃ¢â¬â¢s essay were her descriptions of the Arabic dishes, the music and dancing in circles, and the stories told from the old days (par 10). All of these elements play a part in creating that Ã¢â¬Å"homeÃ¢â¬ or feeling of Ã¢â¬Å"belongingÃ¢â¬ which I sense during my own family gatherings (par 21). Yet, Abinader could not mesh her two worlds due to the ridicule she already went through before cracking open her magical door. Similar to Abinader, I found it extremely difficult going through elementary and middle school known as that Ã¢â¬Å"foreignÃ¢â¬ girl with a big nose and parents with strong accents. My Ã¢â¬Å"magic doorÃ¢â¬ was always shut until the last couple years of high school. In high school and college, we try to find ourselves, or something that we can distinguish ourselves with. During these years, both, Abinader and I realized that being Middle Eastern is something to embrace and to share with others. It was not until Abinader studied at the University of Pittsburgh that she could finally open the threshold between her two worlds (par 13). The Syria-Lebanese room housed in the English Department revealed all of the beautiful things about AbinaderÃ¢â¬â¢s culture such as the Ã¢â¬Å"Persian rug designsÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"glass multi-colored lightsÃ¢â¬ (par 14). As soon as she recognized the appreciation and fascination her peers had of this room that she was associated with, Abinader felt a sense of pride, which inspired her to embrace her culture through literature (par 14). Adinader not only inspires young Arabic writers, but she also inspires young writers of any Middle Eastern, European decent to continue spreading the knowledge to those who are unfamiliar with the Middle Eastern culture. It is through the acceptance from others that we will truly be able to express ourselves and let down our guards. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to imagine any Middle Eastern individual to not want to inform the public of their cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s rich history. It saddens me that at times these individuals are forced to put up that Ã¢â¬Å"magic doorÃ¢â¬ due to negative thoughts of these cultures or political controversies. However, through more education, we will finally be able to understand and accept one another opening all barriers that prevent worlds of meaning.