Thursday, 3 September 2020
NFLPA Player Safety The National Football League has become the most energizing and exciting games association to watch over the most recent couple of decades. Most as of late players have gotten a lot quicker and greater than previously and the wellbeing of their lives have become a hazard. As of late the NFL has been exposed to a lot of contention and analysis managing how they have taken care of player security. This issue has gone to the cutting edge since blackouts have become a week by week occurrence.In the most recent couple of years it has been concentrated at that point demonstrated by specialists that previous players have experienced horrible cerebrum wounds hits to the head during their NFL vocations. As an aficionado of the NFL, I accept itÃ¢â¬â¢s best for the game that the NFL rolls out some improvement so players are secured for their wellbeing however on the other hand you canÃ¢â¬â¢t remove what the idea of this game is which is a hard hitting risky game. The NFL who is driven by alliance magistrate Roger Goodell needs to figure out how to make the game more secure by protecting the players, fans engaged, and group ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s content.As perhaps the greatest issue in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s NFL, I chose to seek after the inquiry, are significant changes should have been taken towards player wellbeing for the prosperity of the NFL and the players? There is a high likelihood that a shared understanding will never occur between the two however that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t imply that new standards and arrangements wonÃ¢â¬â¢t keep on being actualized for testing. The NFL has as of late attempted to execute new principles and approaches to defer and forestall the profoundly rising blackout rate.They have changed to shorter opening shots to lessen high effect hits and have additionally presented stricter rules for player direct on the field which incorporates fines for illicit head protector to-cap hits considered wrong by the NFL. Are these progressions the a ppropriate response however? There is progressively should have been done then simply changing a couple of decides that will at last smallly affect this enormous scope issue. Numerous other solid alternatives for change incorporate hardware enhancements, blackout research, and upholding punishments to illicit hits. Roger Goodell said since forever, football has advanced and get more secure and better, and the fate of the game depends on the capacity to keep on doing as such. With regards to the need of the group, Goodell made it understood security comes firstÃ¢â¬ (SBNation). Anyway the NFLPA doesn't accept the NFL is doing what's needed to ensure its individuals. NFLPA Executive Director DeMaurice Smith has been requesting the situation of specialists on each sideline during games to help analyze and treat concussions.This issue must be paid attention to in light of the fact that inside the previous year about one hundred previous players have recorded supplications against the NFL and need them considered liable for the players experiencing horrible head wounds. Blackouts are not kidding and they happen week after week in the NFL to players of all situations because of the gigantic power these players are hit with. The short and long haul impacts of blackouts can be decimating to the human brain. Not exclusively does the mind endure long haul physical harm yet numerous players frequently experience the ill effects of long haul mental problems.A prime case of somebody who had been influenced by head injury was previous linebacker Junior Seau. As of late Ã¢â¬Å"a group of researchers who broke down the cerebrum tissue of eminent NFL linebacker Junior Seau after his self destruction a year ago have finished up the football player endured a weakening mind malady brought about by two decades worth of hits to the headÃ¢â¬ (ABCNews). Junior Seau who had a multi year NFL vocation was determined to have ceaseless awful encephalopathy (CTE) after his passing. Th e genuine inquiry is the thing that couldÃ¢â¬â¢ve the NFL done to forestall such an awful disaster or did they not have the ability to control what happened to him?The NFL has said ordinarily that it didn't purposefully conceal the perils of blackouts from players and is doing all that it can to secure them. With the emphasis on head wounds in football being gotten under a magnifying instrument the previous scarcely any seasons, the NFL is taking radical estimates attempting to discover arrangements that will help later on. New protective cap plans are a required headway to help make a more secure NFL. With enhancements to protective caps that will help decrease head wounds step by step yet it is as yet not the solitary arrangement if players keep on handling inappropriately and go for head shots.During 2012 there was a gauge of almost 160 NFL players who endured blackouts during this season. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s a gigantic issue since late investigations interface blackouts to causing m ental issues and has likewise been appeared to prompt AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s sickness. In response to this issue the NFL has gotten worried about head wounds and has instructed the trial of 11 new cap plans from five makers in the last couple years. Then again, there is a conviction that head protectors can indeed do a limited amount of much as oncussions are for the most part caused in view of the fighter attitude that the players play with in light of the fact that they need to make an EPSN top play. Ã¢â¬Å"While head protectors are being planned bigger and progressively defensive, blackouts despite everything happen routinely. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s improbable that they will ever be disposed of totally. In fact, cap innovation has made considerable progress since the cowhide tops worn by bygone era footballers, yet head protector creators accept their items can unfortunately do a limited amount of a lot to guard players in a culture that celebrates the huge hitÃ¢â¬ (SmartPlanet).New innovati on in caps and gear is truly necessary for the insurance of the players and should keep on being a structure obstruct for player wellbeing. Rule changing has become a yearly convention for the NFL as they attempt to make better approaches to make the game more secure regardless of whether the players and NFLPA donÃ¢â¬â¢t concur upon it. Most as of late, Roger Goodell actualized shorter opening shots which moved the opening shot spot up five yards from the 30 to the 35 yard line to diminish wounds, however would now generally build the quantity of touchbacks.This rule change could have a negative impact by dispensing with the activity possibilities of exceptional teamÃ¢â¬â¢s players. Ã¢â¬Å"Cleveland Browns kick returner Josh Cribbs, the class' vocation head with eight opening shot returns for touchdowns, has been incensed since proprietors, refering to the need to shield players from brutal crashes, reported the change during the lockout in March. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I don't see (inj ury) details behind it, and that is the thing that the issue was,Ã¢â¬ Cribbs said a week ago. Ã¢â¬Å"There's no details to back it up. Their expectations are acceptable, yet the details aren't there to back up the reasoningÃ¢â¬ (ESPN).During the most recent month a standard change that the NFL has actualized was met with high resistance as previous and current players can't help contradicting the aim of changing the game. The new principle expresses that ball bearers would be punished on the off chance that they bring down their head to convey a blow. Ã¢â¬Å"The proposed rule change for running backs may be the most ludicrous recommendation of a standard change I've at any point known about. So as to bring down ur shoulder u clearly need to bring down ur head. It's a method of shielding ur self from a tackler and an approach to break tacklesÃ¢â¬ (Matt Forte twitter).The genuine inquiry is has the NFL gotten excessively overprotective? Truly conveying a blow with the crown o f your cap can be the beginning stage of a blackout however is it worth removing significant pieces of the game. The NFL is the best games class in North America, yet there are significant choices to be made in the following decade that could choose the eventual fate of the NFL. Eventually, how reasonable is the NFL? With the hits turning out to be increasingly vicious and with players getting greater, quicker and more grounded each year, by what means can the NFL endure long haul with such violence?It may take something terribly grievous before the NFL will follow up on the condition of the game and roll out certified improvements to help player security. In any case, on the other hand NFL players comprehend the dangers of the calling they picked, no one powers them to play football. Sooner or later, the NFL will need to constrain players to acknowledge the dangers related with playing football. Nothing can make football a totally protected game regardless of what rules or advancem ents are made. There will consistently be physical competitors compelling rough collisions.The NFL canÃ¢â¬â¢t remove the substance of the game just to make it more secure. As I would like to think the NFL needs to grasp the genuineness of the game and accept the dangers that run alongside advancing a savage game yet they should even now keep investigating the reasons for blackouts for a future arrangement. The years ahead will appear if the NFLPA and NFL can ever meet a common consent to fulfill the necessities of their players and their wellbeing in the long and transient future.
Thursday, 27 August 2020
Contention Paper#2 - Essay Example GM food items ought to be named in light of the fact that it is the privilege of the residents to choose what they eat, on the grounds that this will empower educated dynamic and on the grounds that this will expand the productivity of the littler entrepreneurs. GM food ought to be marked as food prepared and created through the technique for hereditary change since this would give shoppers to choose what they need to eat and what they need to maintain a strategic distance from. In the event that GM nourishments are not marked, the buyers will feel that they are being compelled to buy merchandise and ventures that they would prefer not to expend. On the off chance that GM nourishments keep on being sold in the business sectors without being named then it would obviously give an impression to the shoppers that they are being constrained in to buying food things that they see to negatively affect their wellbeing. As indicated by Runyon, most of the residents are agreeable to marking GM nourishments as the creator refers to a board survey in which 11 votes were casted in the kindness of naming (Runyon, 2014). GM nourishments ought to be marked on the grounds that this would permit shoppers to settle on educated decisions. Buyers have gotten exceptionally worried about what they devour because of increment in attention to medical problems. Numerous buyers are of the observation that GM nourishments can influence their wellbeing and prosperity in a negative way. Indeed, even a few explores have demonstrated that GM nourishments can affect the soundness of people in an antagonistic way. As indicated by an examination refered to by Bronner in his article, herbicides that are exceptionally poisonous in nature are being splashed in the fields where GM food crops are being delivered and these harmful herbicides can majorly affect the soundness of buyers (Bronner, 2014). GM nourishments ought to be named on the grounds that naming will permit advancement of creation of food items in a more advantageous and natural way and will even expand the gainfulness of independent ventures. The individuals who contradict naming accept that the expense of naming would
Saturday, 22 August 2020
European Human Rights - Essay Example In this regard, this exposition will contend that beside the HRA's inability to appropriately join the Convention rights; an increasingly essential disappointment is the way that it leaves courts reluctant to apply the enactment because of the unclear rules given under segment 3 of the Act. As recently referenced, the HRA is intended to offer assurances to the rights and opportunities exemplified in the show. Among its belongings, the Act renders it unlawful for an open power to act in a manner which is contradictory with a Convention right.4 likewise, it additionally obliges courts to [s]o far as conceivable to do so5, guarantee that essential enactment and subordinate enactment must be perused and given impact in a manner which is perfect with Convention rights6 and in occurrences where it is absurd, to make an assertion of that incompatibility7. Since the Act became effective, be that as it may, the HRA's criticalness in effectively securing the rights and opportunities exemplified in the Convention has been restricted by the two previously mentioned arrangements. To start with, concerning the commitment presented on specialists under segment 6, case law has shown challenges in deciding if the individual being referred to of disregarding the Convention under the HRA is an 'open power', relevantly characterized or not. Under area 6, open specialists are characterized as a court or council or any individual sure of whose capacities are elements of an open sort. 8 In this regard, the meaning of open position is basic on the grounds that in situations where infringement of human rights happened, people must be granted harms against open specialists. As characterized by the demonstration, harms allude to harms for an unlawful demonstration of an open authority.9 The meaning of open authority is accordingly a vital part of implementing the law, and applying it in courts. Notwithstanding, trouble lies in deciding if an individual has capacities that are of open nature and whether open specialists are working under private exchanges. On account of Poplar Housing and Regeneration Community Association Ltd v Donoghue  QB 48, 67, a private body was esteemed to perform open capacities, and consequently at risk under area 6 of the Act.10 In this regard, the case was viewed as a milestone in the event that law with respect to the meaning of open position, since it required a liberal translation of who is an open authority.11 thus, the meaning of the term accomplished what Lord Irvine demonstrated as a requirement for an all-inclusive and wide-going meaning of open power, so as to expand the liabilities under the HRA to give however much assurance as could be expected for the privileges of the person against the abuse of intensity by the state saving parliamentary sovereignty.12 However, the changing idea of government capacities, just as the developing organization among open and private associations has rendered this effectively troublesome assignment progressively perplexing. In this regard, Lord Nicholls shows this in Aston Cantlow v Wallbank  1 AC 546, expressing that: there is no single trial of widespread application. There can't be, given the assorted idea of administrative capacities and the assortment of means by which these capacities are released today.
The South And Slavery Mr. Wills Matt Weiss U.S. History I April 3, 2000 The South and Slavery The Societies of the North and South were altogether different. They were two areas of the nation that depended vigorously on one another however yet appeared to be so far separated. Differing on pretty much every part of how to dwell and particularly on quite certain issues like subjection and liberation. The North was an innovative, moneymaking, area. They regarded blacks and gave them a larger number of rights than in the South where they had none. They despite everything were not given indistinguishable rights from whites. Theodore Weld a powerful abolitionist composed numerous flyers. In one he expressed. Peruser, what have you to state of such a treatment? Is it right, simply, big-hearted? Assume I ought to hold onto you, deny you of your freedom, drive you into the field, and make you function as long as you livewould that be equity and graciousness, or massive bad form and cruelty?(Weld 464, The Annals of America) We will demonstrate that the slaves in the United States are treated with primitive brutality; that they are exhausted, deprived, wretchedly clad and held up, and have lacking sleep(Weld 466, The Annals of America) The South brought in cash, yet the economy depended on agribusiness. They didn't have the production lines or the work power of the North. So they went to something significantly progressively prosperous, bondage. This impossible to miss organization is emphatically protected, in any event, utilizing the Bible. William Harper composed The Inequality of Man in 1837, which contended that all men are not made equivalent. At that point imbalance is additionally evolved, and gets boundless in each general public, and under whatever type of government. Riches and neediness, distinction or lack of definition, quality or shortcoming, information or obliviousness, straightforwardness or work, influence or coercion mark the unending decent variety in the state of men.(Harper 342, The Annals of America) The South utilized their own slave work power to assemble their Cotton Kingdom. The South had such a great amount of put resources into cultivating money crops and in horticulture thus little put resources into production lines and mass-delivering merchandise an extraordinary move, for example, freeing the entirety of the slaves would have been an over the top hazard. That was all individuals knew and the economy could fall. Individuals would lose their occupation. the Negro race, from their personality and limit, are curiously fit to the circumstance which they involve, and not less upbeat in it than any relating class to be found on the planet; demonstrate incontestably that no plan of liberation could be conveyed into impact without the most horrendous mischiefs and disasters to both ace and slave, or without likely tossing an enormous part of the earths surface out of the pale of civilization(Harper 341, The Annals of America) There were a couple of options, for example, employing laborers, however for most southerners this was impossible. On the off chance that the enormous estate proprietors had to pay laborers to accomplish crafted by a hundred or more slaves the benefit misfortune would be gigantic. The laborers would request preferred hours over the slaves got and could stop on the off chance that they didn't need the activity any longer. The little ranchers who possessed ten or less slaves would be compelled to accomplish all the work themselves since they couldn't manage the cost of paid work. Indeed, even the places of worship and ministers in the South upheld servitude. On May 16, 1861, the Presbyterian Assembly met in Philadelphia. Just a couple of southern presbyteries were in participation. At the point when a Northern minister required a vow of loyalty to the Federal Government, the Southern pastors abandoned. There were a couple of Northerners who concurred with the South these were the least fortunate whites and the settlers. They didn't need the slaves liberated on the grounds that they considered them to be rivalry for occupations. Numerous bonds were broken between the North and the South. The two of them had their own specific manners of living and own thoughts of what was good and bad. Neither would twist or yield and war was impending. Book index The South and Slavery Works Cited African American Odyssey. 13 March 2000 . The Annals of America. Vol. 6,7. Chicago: William Benton, 1968. Mill operator, Steven F. Sept. 1999. 13 March 2000 . History Essays
Friday, 21 August 2020
The universe is presently suffering from an exigency emergency of metropolitan strong waste ( MSW ) . The whole aggregate of planetary MSW is lifting forcefully, especially in some improvement states, for example, China. The one-year aggregate of MSW creation in China expanded from 0. We will compose a custom exposition test on Civil Solid Waste Management In China Environmental Sciences Essay or then again any comparable point just for you Request Now 0313 billion dozenss to 0.14 billion dozenss during a 18 mature ages period from 1980 to 1998 ( Suocheng, 2001, P7-11 ) . Also, the accumulated volume of MSW in China encountered a fast expansion during a 5 mature ages period from around 6 billion dozenss in 1998 to more than 6.5 billion dozenss in 2002 ( Zhiqiang, 2006, P1193-1197 ) . With the financial framework go oning to turn forcefully, plainly MSW course might be probably the heaviest burden for the China specialists. As an outcome, taking a fit strategy for MSW mediation in China is going considerably more essential and exigency. MSW bearing framework in China In the early People Republic of China, under the foundation of the arranged financial framework, MSW heading was characterized as an open assistance by the specialists ( Suocheng, 2001, P7-11 ) , which made MSW bearing disconnected from the market. As an outcome, utilized an unreasonable open financess for arranging MSW got one of the variables leaded to money related lack. By the terminal of 1970s, the Chinese specialists put frontward the change and opening-up approach. Benefit from this strategy, in spite of the fact that the market instruments were as yet uncomplete, it played a dynamically definitive capacity in MSW course in China. After around 50 mature ages of improvement, there were three boss techniques used to arrange the MSW: Incineration, Landfill and treated the soil. By the terminal of 2000, more than 70 % of MSW was overseen via landfill ( generally by basic landfill ) and around 20 % by treated the soil, just under 10 % was arranged by burning ( Zhiqiang, 2006, P1193-1197 ) . During the past decennary, the specialists started to pay substantially more going to in burning, which changed the per centum of the making out of MSW heading framework. Be that as it may, it did non mean that a most fit framework had just shaped, because of this ground, an investigation about arrange techniques should in any case be taken. Squander Landfill System Landfill designing is using a landfill site for MSW removal by pressure and internment. Through the deterioration of anaerobiotic bug, natural undertakings will be changed over into inorganic substances and will at long last be consumed by the earth. Landfill building has been the frequently utilized strategy in MSW heading, especially in China. Landfill is the least expensive MSW removal choice, the expenses of waste travel is being decreased as a result of the short good ways from urban nation to landfill site. It implies that, nearby squanders can be arranged in situ on the other hand of shipped to another nation. Another bit of leeway of landfill is the extensive capacity in MSW intercession. Contrast and other waste removal techniques, landfill building can arrange a wide range of sorts of squanders which have non been grouped. Moreover, tremendous of methane, which was released from the landfill site, can be gathered by a gas array framework and utilized as a cleaner-copying fu el. Notwithstanding, as have referenced above, the vast majority of the MSW in China was arranged by straightforward landfill, which have just caused numerous employments. One of the most widely recognized impacts is surface H2O contamination ; streams might be dirtied in light of poisons leak. For outline, the surrender of the Xiaping landfill in Shenzhen city, China, at last caused an awful contamination in Shenzhen River, which made 1/3 of the guzzling H2O supplies upset for over a hebdomad and it other than represented a genuine danger to the common habitat. Besides, in occasion of inappropriate activity, methane may spill from the gas collection framework, which may do air contamination, and without a doubt, will loan to planetary warming. In add-on, landfill may other than influent the nearby soil. Inferable from a moderate disintegration pace of the anaerobiotic bug, once a site has been filled, the high convergence of defilements in it will be in any event 200 mature ages. Thusly , a land which has ever been utilized as a landfill site can non be redeveloped in a brief period. Squander Incineration System Ã¢â¬Å" Incineration is a waste intercession method that includes the consuming of natural substances contained in squander stuffs ( The Wikipedia, 2010 ) Ã¢â¬ . Squander stuffs will be changed over into debris, accident gas, and warmth thought the waste burning framework. MSW burning designing was premier utilized at the terminal of 1980 Ã¢â¬Ës and encountered a sensational progression in 1990 Ã¢â¬Ës ( Xiaodong, 2002 ) . Contrast and landfill designing, squander cremation simply require a lower breaking point of land and the total of waste can be decreased to around 10 % of the underlying worth. Furthermore, remains from the incinerator can be utilized as building stuffs and these stuffs could be a lot less expensive than customary stuffs. Besides, the cutting edge burning framework could deliver power and gather heat vitality while MSW is terminating, which were considered as efficient power vitality. Despite the fact that cremation frameworks can do numerous advantages, without vulnerabilities, there still a lot of inconveniences of using incinerator for MSW arranging and it could even present a considerably more genuine threat to the earth. So as to thwart ecological occupations, especially air contamination, the activity of burning framework must set up on high engineerings ; it implies that, a significant expense ought to be wage for MSW mediation. Moreover, as the Torahs is refreshing, further developed types of gear potentially required in the great beyond and it might other than be huge of cash. Without a doubt, these costs will be moved on to customers. Moreover, despite the fact that all burning frameworks are using the most developed building, spoils may even now be released. These sorts of pollutes could be considerably more risky than that created during landfill technique, since some high cancer-causing nature undertakings like dioxin will be released to the air condi tion during consuming. As an outcome, an ever increasing number of individuals understand that burning framework is hurtful for health. For representation, in spite of the fact that the specialists guarantees that it would non be any hazardous, individuals in Guangzhou City, China are as yet fighting to stay away from a burning to be worked in their city. Squander Composting System Ã¢â¬Å" Compost is made out of natural stuffs got from works and licentious issue that has been disintegrated generally through aerophilic deterioration ( The Wikipedia, 2010 ) Ã¢â¬ . The improvement of MSW fertilizing the soil in China can be separated into three phases ( Yuan, 2000 ) : The essential stage was from 1950s-1960s. In this stage, individuals started to examine the activity instrument of fertilizing the soil. As a result, treating the soil turned into another designing for MSW heading. The improvement stage was from 1970s-1980s. Fertilizing the soil encountered an agreeable period in this stage, for representation, the China specialists picked 11 sorts of treating the soil engineerings as disseminating engineerings ( Nei, 1992 ) . The conveying application stage was from 1990s rock mud presents. The specialists found that fertilizing the soil was a most eco-accommodating strategy in MSW course, so huge entireties of cash were placed into the exposure of treating the soil. Treating the soil is an about innocuous MSW arranging designing. Contrast and landfill and cremation, fertilizing the soil could be completed in a straightforward way, it is appropriate for little metropoliss, especially some farming nations. Besides, squanders will go rural manure after a treating the soil strategy, which can sort out a decent material flow framework. Be that as it may, constrained by treating proficiency, fertilizing the soil site could just be worked in a littler graduated table. Moreover, only some basic issue, for example, decline or vitalize being and works remains can be arranged by fertilizing the soil. Because of this reality, an effective fertilizing the soil framework is base on a well waste classification framework. On the different manus, due to the distinction in microbic vegetations, each treating the soil framework has a specific working condition. Temperature, air circulation, making out of waste would all be able to go factors which may affect treating the soil. Picking a fit technique for MSW As the entirety of MSW in China is as yet lifting forcefully, the contemporary MSW heading framework will never again be utile to work out the activity solidly. For this ground, to set up another MSW arranging framework is vital. First of entirely, as results of numerous ecological employments were brought about via landfill, landfill framework ought to be stopped a tiny bit at a time. In spite of the fact that cremation framework may do some genuine natural employments, contrasted and landfill building, it can even now be a viable way in MSW arranging. On the different manus, treating the soil engineerings ought to be advanced keenly. In any case, the constitution of burning and treating the soil framework is under the states of good waste order. So as to achieve this end, on the one manus, the specialists should expanded advancement and guidance endeavors on squander order. On the different manus, open establishments, for example, classificatory refuse containers ought to be elevat ing fundamentally. Moreover, In request to set up a since quite a while ago run instrument, the reward punishment component and the market financial framework system ought to be brought into MSW bearing framework. By this way, MSW bearing framework will relate up with the market financial framework, which will do the MSW course framework substantially more thorough. Choice As a reality that the volume of city strong waste in China is expanding forcefully, the presents squander course framework may disregard to run into the handling requests. Landfill designing, which is busying a prevailing spot in MSW arrange, should n
Step by step instructions to Write a Business and Personal Letter in Spanish Regardless of whether youre composing a letter to a Spanish-talking companion or setting up a conventional business letter, the welcome and greetings in this exercise can help give your letters validity. Welcome to Use in Writing a Letter In English, it isn't unexpected to start both individual letters and business correspondence with Dear ___. In Spanish, be that as it may, there is more variety relying upon how formal you need to be. In close to home correspondence, the likeness dear is querido or querida (the past participle of querer), contingent upon the sex of the individual. Querido is utilized for a male beneficiary, querida for a female; plural structures queridos and queridas can likewise be utilized. In Spanish, it is the standard to follow the welcome with a colon as opposed to the comma utilized in English. Utilization of a comma is viewed as an Anglicism. Querido Roberto: (Dear Roberto,)Querida Ana: (Dear Ana,)Queridos Juan y Lisa: (Dear Juan and Lisa,) Note that in Spanish the manly structure, queridos, is utilized if the beneficiaries incorporate individuals of both genders. Be that as it may, querido is unreasonably easygoing for business correspondence, particularly when you arent a companion of the beneficiary. Use estimado or estimada. The word actually implies regarded, however it is comprehended a similar route as dear would be in English: Estimado Sr. RodrÃ£ guez: (Dear Mr. RodrÃ guez,)Estimada Sra. Cruz: (Dear Mrs./Ms. Cruz,)Estimada Srta. Gonzlez: (Dear Miss Gonzlez,) Spanish doesnt have a genuine likeness the English graciousness title Ms. (what's more, in Spanish, the qualification among seÃ£ ±ora and seÃ£ ±orita, customarily deciphered as Mrs. furthermore, Miss, separately, can be one old enough instead of conjugal status). It ordinarily is fine to utilize the politeness title of Sra. (the shortened form for seÃ£ ±ora) in the event that you dont know whether a female beneficiary of the letter is hitched. A word of wisdom is toÃ¢ use Sra. except if you realize the lady inclines toward Srta. In the event that you dont know the name of the individual youre writing to, you can utilize the accompanying configurations: Muy seÃ£ ±or mÃ£ o: (Dear sir,)Estimado seÃ£ ±or: (Dear sir,)Muy seÃ£ ±ora mÃ£ a: (Dear madam,)Estimada seÃ£ ±ora: (Dear madam,)Muy seÃ£ ±ores mÃ£ os: (Dear sirs, dear sirs/madams,)Estimados seÃ£ ±ores: (Dear sirs, dear sirs/madams,) What could be compared to the responsible party in question is a quien corresponda (actually, to the one liable). Closings to Use in Writing a Letter In English, it isn't unexpected to end a letter with Sincerely. Once more, Spanish offers a more noteworthy assortment. Despite the fact that the accompanying closings for individual letters may sound excessively friendly to English speakers, they are usually utilized: Un abrazo (truly, a hug)Un fuerte abrazo (truly, a solid hug)CariÃ ±osos saludos (generally, kind regards)Afectuosamente (lovingly) Coming up next are normal with dear companions or relatives, despite the fact that there are numerous others that can be utilized: Besos y abrazos (truly, kisses and hugs)Besos (truly, kisses)Con todo mi cariÃ£ ±o (with all my caring)Con todo mi afecto (with all my love) In business correspondence, the most widely recognized consummation, utilized similarly as genuinely in English, is atentamente. That can likewise be extended to le saluda atentamente or les saluda atentamente, contingent upon whether youre keeping in touch with at least one people, individually. A progressively easygoing consummation that can be utilized in business letters is Cordialmente. Longer welcome incorporate saludos cordiales and se despide cordialmente. In spite of the fact that this language may sound extravagant to English speakers, it isn't bizarre in Spanish. On the off chance that you are anticipating a reaction from a business journalist, you can close with esperando su respuesta. As is normal in English, the greeting is regularly trailed by a comma. In the event that youre including a postscript (posdata in Spanish), you can utilize P.D. as what could be compared to P.S. Test Personal Letter Querida Angelina:Ã ¡Mil gracias por el regalo! Es totalmente perfecto. Ã ¡Fue una gran sorpresa!Eres una buena amiga. Espero que nos veamos pronto.Muchos abrazos,Julia Interpretation: Dear Angelina,Thanks a great deal for the blessing! Its absolutely great. It was very much a surprise!Youre an incredible companion. I trust we see each other soon.Lots of hugs,Julia Test Business Letter Estimado Sr. Fernndez:Gracias por la propuesta que usted y sus colegas me presentaron. Creo que es posible que los productos de su compaÃ£ ±Ã£ a sean Ã ºtiles para minimizar nuestros costos de producciÃ£ ³n. Vamos an estudiar la propuesta meticulosamente.Espero poder darle una respuesta en un plazo de dos semanas.Atentamente,Catarina LÃ£ ³pez Interpretation Dear Mr. Fernndez,Thank you for the recommendation that you and your associates introduced to me. I trust it is conceivable that your companys items could be valuable for diminishing our creation costs. We are going to examine the proposition thoroughly.I trust I can give you a reaction inside two weeks.Sincerely,Catarina LÃ£ ³pez
Thursday, 11 June 2020
Strategic Financing IPO (Essay Sample) Content: Should AVG use a traditional IPO or an online auction?Student Name:Course Name and Code:University:Date of Submission:IntroductionAVG should utilize the traditional IPO allocation method as opposed to online auction because as initially intended, the auction process may not be as efficient in IPO pricing. Evidence from companies that have previously applied online auction including Google Inc. and Morningstar indicates that the strategy fell short of expectations in terms of earnings from the sale of shares as well as the receivership from investors. The fact that online auctions do not undergo thorough scrutiny by investment banks and this limits their credibility among investors who rely on investment banks for information on share prospects. While online auctioning is considered an effective strategy for IPO allocation, it is notable that a company must be willing to take the risk of the uncertainty of the process.DiscussionTraditional vs. Online auction IPO alloca tionThe traditional IPO allocation method differs from the auction IPO allocation in that while a leading underwriter determines a price range at which to offer the shares through a process of valuations and contacts with investors, an auction IPO allows potential investors to bid the number of shares desired and the price they are willing to pay before determining the lowest price at which the shares will be sold. The auction method is considered more democratic as it offers equal chances for investors to bid unlike the traditional method where prices are fixed by the underwriters. The method of allocation chosen greatly depends on company objectives and consideration of benefits against risks of each method.What type of IPO should AVG use?AVG is likely to attract both individual as well as institutional investors. Each group of customers is profiled differently but AVG must establish an IPO allocation method that will cater for both.In determining whether to use auction IPO alloca tion method, it is imperative to revisit experiences from companies that have used the method in the past; in this case Google Inc. and Morningstar.Investor confidence in the online auction IPOs may have been tainted and risk aversion for online auctions is significantly high. This is a factor that can be attributed to information and outcomes of previous IPOs in companies such as Google and Morningstar. Hensel (2005b) notes that investors may have developed a negative attitude towards online auctions because it is believed that companies that use this method have no clear sense of what to use with the funds being raised and often provide incomplete information to potential investors (Hensel, 2005a). This implies that risk aversion by investors is likely to be high and this would require the company to discount the initial offer price to adjust to low demand.Online auction IPOs are not subject to scrutiny by investment banks and therefore the information available to the investor i s limited. Furthermore, the online process does not obligate the company to disclose much information as in the case of traditional IPO process where sufficient information is required before the offer. Morningstar for example was being investigated by the SEC for inaccuracy of information and this may have created less confidence in auction IPOs. Google was also highly criticized for being Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"secretiveÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ on how funds from the IPO would be used. This may have contributed to the mispricing of shares to $85 as opposed to the projected $108Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬$135 range (Hensel, 2005a).The results of the Google IPO are an indication that the process may not be effective in pricing the IPO as initially thought. There was an enormous increase in post-auction price whereby instead of the $85 offered at its debut, the IPO opened at $100 and soared in the following months reaching a high of $201.06 (Hensel, 2005b). This was despite the fact that there were no news releases to wa rrant stock price increases. This means that while the online auction method was meant to handle the plummeting of prices that follows an IPO, this may not always occur and online auction is therefore not a solution to this problem.The online auction IPO allocation can be used to the advantage of the company to raise as much earnings as the market is willing to pay. It provides companies with an opportunity to create instant boon by taking advantage of market demand (Weinberg, 2004). Given the stock Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"popsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ where prices shoot up following IPOs, auctions allow companies to tap the gains instead of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"leaving money on the tableÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ as is often described, by setting a price that reflects investorsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ ability to pay.The online auction IPO allocation method can be risky for companies that are not well known to investors or whose image is not highly regarded. This means that if initial demand is not there, a company may find it difficult t o set an initial price due to low bid prices or lack of enough bids (Weinberg, 2004). Such companies would therefore miss on the support derived from the traditional IPO allocation.A company ideally focuses on obtaining shareholders who will retain share ownership and minimize on speculators as this assures commitment to the organization. In using online auctions, the risk is that there is little control on the investorÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s buying an... Strategic Financing IPO Essay - 825 Words Strategic Financing IPO (Essay Sample) Content: Should AVG use a traditional IPO or an online auction?Student Name:Course Name and Code:University:Date of Submission:IntroductionAVG should utilize the traditional IPO allocation method as opposed to online auction because as initially intended, the auction process may not be as efficient in IPO pricing. Evidence from companies that have previously applied online auction including Google Inc. and Morningstar indicates that the strategy fell short of expectations in terms of earnings from the sale of shares as well as the receivership from investors. The fact that online auctions do not undergo thorough scrutiny by investment banks and this limits their credibility among investors who rely on investment banks for information on share prospects. While online auctioning is considered an effective strategy for IPO allocation, it is notable that a company must be willing to take the risk of the uncertainty of the process.DiscussionTraditional vs. Online auction IPO alloca tionThe traditional IPO allocation method differs from the auction IPO allocation in that while a leading underwriter determines a price range at which to offer the shares through a process of valuations and contacts with investors, an auction IPO allows potential investors to bid the number of shares desired and the price they are willing to pay before determining the lowest price at which the shares will be sold. The auction method is considered more democratic as it offers equal chances for investors to bid unlike the traditional method where prices are fixed by the underwriters. The method of allocation chosen greatly depends on company objectives and consideration of benefits against risks of each method.What type of IPO should AVG use?AVG is likely to attract both individual as well as institutional investors. Each group of customers is profiled differently but AVG must establish an IPO allocation method that will cater for both.In determining whether to use auction IPO alloca tion method, it is imperative to revisit experiences from companies that have used the method in the past; in this case Google Inc. and Morningstar.Investor confidence in the online auction IPOs may have been tainted and risk aversion for online auctions is significantly high. This is a factor that can be attributed to information and outcomes of previous IPOs in companies such as Google and Morningstar. Hensel (2005b) notes that investors may have developed a negative attitude towards online auctions because it is believed that companies that use this method have no clear sense of what to use with the funds being raised and often provide incomplete information to potential investors (Hensel, 2005a). This implies that risk aversion by investors is likely to be high and this would require the company to discount the initial offer price to adjust to low demand.Online auction IPOs are not subject to scrutiny by investment banks and therefore the information available to the investor i s limited. Furthermore, the online process does not obligate the company to disclose much information as in the case of traditional IPO process where sufficient information is required before the offer. Morningstar for example was being investigated by the SEC for inaccuracy of information and this may have created less confidence in auction IPOs. Google was also highly criticized for being Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"secretiveÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ on how funds from the IPO would be used. This may have contributed to the mispricing of shares to $85 as opposed to the projected $108Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬$135 range (Hensel, 2005a).The results of the Google IPO are an indication that the process may not be effective in pricing the IPO as initially thought. There was an enormous increase in post-auction price whereby instead of the $85 offered at its debut, the IPO opened at $100 and soared in the following months reaching a high of $201.06 (Hensel, 2005b). This was despite the fact that there were no news releases to wa rrant stock price increases. This means that while the online auction method was meant to handle the plummeting of prices that follows an IPO, this may not always occur and online auction is therefore not a solution to this problem.The online auction IPO allocation can be used to the advantage of the company to raise as much earnings as the market is willing to pay. It provides companies with an opportunity to create instant boon by taking advantage of market demand (Weinberg, 2004). Given the stock Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"popsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ where prices shoot up following IPOs, auctions allow companies to tap the gains instead of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"leaving money on the tableÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ as is often described, by setting a price that reflects investorsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬ ability to pay.The online auction IPO allocation method can be risky for companies that are not well known to investors or whose image is not highly regarded. This means that if initial demand is not there, a company may find it difficult t o set an initial price due to low bid prices or lack of enough bids (Weinberg, 2004). Such companies would therefore miss on the support derived from the traditional IPO allocation.A company ideally focuses on obtaining shareholders who will retain share ownership and minimize on speculators as this assures commitment to the organization. In using online auctions, the risk is that there is little control on the investorÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s buying an...
Tuesday, 26 May 2020
Community based corrections is a program which supervises people who have been convicted or are facing conviction. It is a non-incarcerate system of correction. These offenders have been convicted or are facing conviction. Some offenders have entered these programs before being in jail and some serve a part of their sentence in jail before entering the program. The goals of the community based corrections would be one of providing guidance, program opportunities and support to the offenderÃ¢â¬â¢s who are returning to the communities. (Goals- Re-entry Initiative) They are to help prevent the offender from recidivism. These programs are designed to help with programs such as employment assistance, continued education, drug classes andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(Probation and Parole Programs) We have home detention programs which allow the offender to continue to stay at home and carry on with his daily activities, doctor appointments and court appointments. The first and sec ond level offenders have curfews and home incarceration. All offenders are under close supervision. Electronic Monitoring is the usage of passive or active supervision. These devices allow the officer to speak to the offender at any given time. The home monitoring system is also used in their home. This type of program sets limitations on their location and activities. DWI offenders have a community service program that is designed for offenders to work for the public or non-profit organizations with pay. These programs support offendersÃ¢â¬â¢ rehabilitation. The Safe Ride Home Initiative Program is a program to cut down on DWIÃ¢â¬â¢s by offering residents a ride to where they are going to drink and a ride home. (Interview with Officer Patrick Apodaca) There is a program for youth to protect the community from those youth placed in their custody. This program was created to provide and maintain alternatives to detention through community supervision programs that promo te education, healthy lifestyles and positives choices for youth and their families. (Youth Services Center) In a publication I found a research on Evidence- Bases Adult Corrections Program Ã¢â¬â What Works and What Does Not. In this report, the outcome is to determine theShow MoreRelatedInstitutional and Community Based Corrections798 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Institutional and Community Based Corrections Institutional Based Corrections Among the forces that have affected corrections in recent years, accreditation and privatization have been among the most influential. The future of corrections will be affected by everything from the national economy and current public opinion to drug-related crime and the aging of prison populations. The trends that will continue to impact corrections are intermediate sentencing alternatives, restorative justiceRead MoreCommunity-Based Corrections and Evidence-Based Practices1062 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCommunity based corrections and the evidence based practices The residential community corrections facilities (RCCF) are now a common idea in the USA that directed at helping curb the rise in crime but at the same time decongesting the prisons as well as rehabilitation the deviants within the society. The residents live within the facility and not in their homes, they must also be employed or at least on part time jobs, the residents can also leave the facility at any time to go to verified workRead MoreJails, Prisons and Community Based Corrections1210 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJails, Prisons and Community based Corrections Anthony Canez CJA/204 June 27, 2013 Robin Downey Jails, Prisons and Community based Corrections In this essay I will attempt to explain and discuss probation and how it compares to other forms of sentencing, the types of prison, the origins of rehabilitation in prisons, parole and how it differs from mandatory release and finally options of community corrections. Ending the essay will be a critique on the current rehabilitation options. The historyRead MoreThe Effectiveness of Community-Based Corrections Program2965 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesCHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND A REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Correction is believed by many experts to be the most challenging and frustrating component of criminal justice. There are the challenges of managing the inmates daily as well as the frustrations of inevitable mismanagement at attempting to accomplish multiple goals. New challenges present themselves every day. In a very real sense, employees in a correctional system are doing time the same as the inmates are doing time. Its easyRead More Community Based Corrections: Viable Alternative to Incarceration1679 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCommunity-based corrections alleviate overcrowded correctional facilities, reduce taxpayer burden, and rehabilitate offenders, while providing effective, efficient low cost methods of supporting public safety, community rehabilitation, behavior modification and personnel responsibility, because it uses multiple approaches and involves both legislative and judicial personnel in all steps of the process. Community-based corrections facilities are located in the community and support diverse rehabilitativeRead MoreCorrections Trends Evaluation Paper1552 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCorrections Trend Evaluation Carla Howard CJA 394 University of Phoenix Corrections have existed throughout society for many years and continued to change and evolve in the United States reflecting societyÃ¢â¬â¢s values and ideals throughout the centuries. In the criminal justice system, corrections exist in more than one form. Not only do corrections refer to jails and prison systems but they also pertain to community-based programs, such as probation, parole, halfway houses, and treatmentRead MoreCommunity Corrections1082 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCommunity corrections is a range of alternative punishments for nonviolent offenders. There are two basic community corrections models in the United States. In the first model, integrated community corrections programs combine sentencing guidelines and judicial discretion (front-end) with a variety of alternative sanctions and parole and probation options. In the second model, some states have instituted programs in which correctional officials may direct already sentenced offenders into alternativeRead Mo reThe Medical Model, Community Model And The Crime Control Model869 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCommunity corrections is continually changing and has been for the past one hundred years. From the early to mid-twentieth century onward it has used three major models, the medical model, community model, and the crime control model. The major turning point for the American community corrections system that led to corrections as we know it today was in 1974 when What Works? - Questions and Answers About Prison Reform by Martinson was published. The system changed practically overnight acrossRead MoreJails And Prisons1418 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCounty, Virginia and Federal Corrections Institution Petersburg Medium in Hopewell City, Virginia. The types of prisons will be identified. The major differences between the Rappahannock Regional Jail and FCI Petersburg Medium will be examined. Jail and prison culture and subculture as well as the violent behavior that can stem from it will be discu ssed. An explanation of why jails play an important role in the correctional system will be given. The role of community based programs associated withRead MoreCommunity Corrections Is Vital For The Safety Of The Community1733 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Community corrections are vital in ensuring and assuring the safety of the community by rehabilitating the low-risk offenders allowing cycle of re-offending to be broken and the rate of imprisonment to be lowered. Community corrections involve managing an offenderÃ¢â¬â¢s life in the community through constant supervision and reporting to their corrections officer and, also court ordered unpaid community service and rehabilitation programs to divert their attention to re-offend, rather than throwing
Sunday, 17 May 2020
Comparing The Iliad and The Bible Throughout recorded history, man has sought explanations for the various phenomena that occur in every facet of nature, and when no obvious answer is forthcoming, still a theory is often proposed. These explanatory theories, often taking the form of stories or chronicles, are usually linked to some sort of mysticism or divine intervention. By ascribing that which he does not understand to the godsÃ¢â¬â¢ will at work, man avoids facing up to his own lack of knowledge in a given area, and also draws comfort from assuming that the universe does indeed function under the guidance of divine beings. Thus the explanatory accounts that man crafts enhance his own security, quelling the fear of chaos thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In ancient Greek culture the gods were seen as taking a very active role in the development and course of human history. The entire Olympian pantheon, as well as many other less important divinities, meddles in human affairs to no end. The people of the ma ny city-states that composed Greece firmly believed that every aberration from normalcy was due to an act of the gods. Homer, the author of The Iliad, coined the prevalent religious beliefs of the time in his epic poems, showing the gods as temperamental and willful, meddlesome and dynamic. HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s entire poem is replete with instances of divine intervention in mortal lives, and no single major occurrence comes to pass unless it is the will of one of the many Olympian gods. Few major decisions are made without consulting the gods first, and the handful of instances in which one leader or another takes initiative almost always fails miserably. Life, according to the Greeks, is almost entirely rooted in their religion, as there is a god or goddess governing every aspect of the universe, and also because the gods so actively involve themselves in the everyday lives of mortals. A classic example of this divine involvement occurs within the first page of The Iliad. Achilles, the great hero of the Achaean armies, and Agamemnon the commander-in-chief of the Argives clash bitterly, and the entire epic centers on this conflict. Homer details the cause of thisShow MoreRelatedComparing The Iliad And The Bible, Jesus And Hector Die988 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThroughout the Iliad and in the bible, Jesus and Hector die for different reasons; while on dies for honor and glory, the other dies for the salvation of others. Honor is defined as a high respect given to an individual that brings credit. To receive honor is paralleled to being crowned with jewels and being regarded as a role model to all. The society that the Iliad portrays is Ã¢â¬Å"centered on the battlefield of achievement and its rewardsÃ¢â¬ (Homer, xxi). The figures in HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s epic poem, the Iliad, partakeRead MoreComparing The Epic The Iliad Against The Bible s First Book Genesis Essay1877 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesUpon initial consideration, comparing similarities in the Homeric epic The Iliad against the BibleÃ¢â¬â¢s first book Genesis would seem outlandish. The comparisons between the two tales may not be abundantly clear. The parables of the Bible serve as religious cornerstones for society, while Greek tragedies serve as the moral lessons on which our culture is predicated. Fate in both narratives is understood to be a governing body, with a prominence being placed on remaining on the course with that whichRead More A Co mparison of Homeric Formalism in The Iliad and The Odyssey1339 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHomeric Formalism in The Iliad and The Odyssey Much that is terrible takes place in the Homeric poems, but it seldom takes place wordlessly... no speech is so filled with anger or scorn that the particles which express logical and grammatical connections are lacking or out of place. (from Odysseus Scar by Erich Auerbach) Ã In his immaculately detailed study comparing the narrative styles of Homer to those of the Bible, Erich Auerbach hits upon one of the most notable intriguesRead MoreIntroduction. The Bible Is One Of The Bestselling Books1139 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesINTRODUCTION The Bible is one of the bestselling books in the world, for this reason it is incredibly important for Christians and non-Christians alike to examine the reliability of the text. Because the nature of this paper is rather short, the historical evidence outlined will be brief and not all-inclusive. This paper will examine the writings and thoughts of many great people including Joshua McDowell, J. Walter Wallace and William Craig. For the purpose of clarity when discussing the Bible or ScripturesRead MoreSimilarities Between Paradise Lost And Paradise Lost1239 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescontrast Paradise Lost with the three other epics of antiquity. The epics are Paradise Lost, Aeneid, The Epic Gilgamesh, and The Iliad. The most obvious difference is era. Paradise Lost is an epic poem from the 17th century and is written in blank verse which is the most modern phrasing method. According to an article on Enotes, out of the other three epics, the Iliad and Aeneid came from the same dactylli c family. (Ã¢â¬Å"Compare Miltons Paradise LostÃ¢â¬ ). Meanwhile The Epic Gilgamesh is more old-fashionedRead MoreGreek Mythology Vs Roman Mythology1256 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThis illustrates the point that the Romans werenÃ¢â¬â¢t too interested in you unless you were part god in some way. Granted, many of the Greek stories also featured these demigods, however, they also had many stories that featured normal people. When comparing these two religions, it is clear that the Greeks placed much more emphasis on the appearance of their deities. The faces of gods were shown to be beautiful and their bodies were even more perfect still. The Greeks treated the gods like fashion modelsRead MoreNietzsches critique of Plato and Christianity2437 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesand asks us not to feel negated when encountering suffering and enter the world of nihilistic pity. The denial of power and responsibility that Christianity imposed, according to Nietzsche, may be exemplified with MatthewÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËSermon on the MountÃ¢â¬â¢, (Bible, 5:3), Ã¢â¬Å"Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earthÃ¢â¬ ¦Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.Ã¢â¬ Nietzsche claims that wordsRead MoreThe Reading Of The Hebrew Bible1867 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIn the required reading of The Hebrew Bible, the character referred to as God is represented as a very mysterious character in several different instances. God appears to test the humans He creates periodically without cause. He punishes more than just the guilty offenders with His wrath and yet will reward the unfavorable actions of others. He appears to be a constant contradiction of His own ethical code leaving a sense of confusion towards any definition of morality. In the beginning of GenesisRead MoreExegesis on Exodus 202270 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesBible Exegesis: Exodus 20 Prior to beginning this assignment, I had already found a passionate interest in theology, primarily the logical historical analysis of the Old Testament. I had read several books on the topic, but still had a thirst for more knowledge. With that said, my preceding assumptions predominantly consisted of skepticism towards the religious interpretation of the Old Testament. I believed that Exodus 20 was a prime example of the religious establishment interpreting an ancientRead MoreSecret Intelligence Service and Espionage4647 Words Ã |Ã 19 Pagesare many examples that show it. The importance of espionage in military affairs has been recognized since the beginning of recorded history. The Egyptians had a well-developed secret service, and spying and subversion are mentioned in theÃ IliadÃ and in the Bible. The ancient Chinese treatise (c.500 B.C.) on the art of war devotes much attention to deception and intelligence gathering, arguing that all war is based on deception. In th e Middle Ages, political espionage became important.Ã Joan of ArcÃ was
Friday, 15 May 2020
USS Hornet (CV-8) was a Yorktown-class aircraft carrier that entered service with the U.S. Navy in 1941. The last ship of its class, Hornet earned famed in April 1942 when Lieutenant Colonel Jimmy Doolittle launched his famed raid on Japan from the carriers deck. Less than two months later, it took part in the stunning American victory at the Battle of Midway. Ordered south in the summer of 1942, Hornet commenced operations to aid Allied forces during the Battle of Guadalcanal. In September, the carrier was lost at the Battle of Santa Cruz after sustaining several bomb and torpedo hits. Its name was carried on by a new USS Hornet (CV-12) which joined the fleet in November 1943. Construction Commissioning The third and final Yorktown-class aircraft carrier, USS Hornet was ordered on March 30, 1939. Construction began at the Newport News Shipbuilding Company that September. As work progressed, World War II commenced in Europe though the United States elected to remain neutral. Launched on December 14, 1940, Hornet was sponsored by Annie Reid Knox, wife of Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox. Workers completed the ship later the following year and on October 20, 1941, Hornet was commissioned with Captain Marc A. Mitscher in command. Over the next five weeks, the carrier conducted training exercises off the Chesapeake Bay. USS Hornet (CV-8) underway in Hampton Roads, VA, October 1941. National Archives and Record AdministrationÃ World War II Begins With the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, Hornet returned to Norfolk and in January had its anti-aircraft armament substantially upgraded. Remaining in the Atlantic, the carrier conducted tests on February 2 to determine if a B-25 Mitchell medium bomber could fly from the ship. Though the crew was perplexed, the tests proved successful. On March 4, Hornet departed Norfolk with orders to sail for San Francisco, CA. Transiting the Panama Canal, the carrier arrived at Naval Air Station, Alameda on March 20. While there, sixteen U.S. Army Air Forces B-25s were loaded onto Hornets flight deck. USS Hornet (CV-8) Nation: United StatesType: Aircraft CarrierShipyard: Newport News Shipbuilding Drydock CompanyLaid Down: September 25, 1939Launched: December 14, 1940Commissioned: October 20, 1941Fate: Sunk October 26, 1942SpecificationsDisplacement: 26,932 tonsLength: 827 ft., 5 in.Beam: 114 ft.Draft: 28 ft.Propulsion: 4 Ãâ" Parsons geared steam turbines, 9 Ãâ" Babcock Wilcox boilers, 4 Ãâ" shaftsSpeed: 32.5 knotsRange: 14,400 nautical miles at 15 knotsComplement: 2,919 menArmament8 Ãâ" 5 in. dual purpose guns, 20 Ãâ" 1.1 in., 32 Ãâ" 20 mm anti-aircraft cannonsAircraft90 aircraft Doolittle Raid Receiving sealed orders, Mitscher put to sea on April 2 before informing the crew that the bombers, led by Lieutenant Colonel Jimmie Doolittle, were intended for a strike on Japan. Steaming across the Pacific, Hornet united with Vice Admiral William Halseys Task Force 16 which was centered on the carrier USS Enterprise (CV-6). With Enterprises aircraft providing cover, the combined force approached Japan. On April 18, the American force was spotted by the Japanese vessel No. 23 Nitto Maru. Though the enemy vessel was quickly destroyed by the cruiser USS Nashville, Halsey and Doolittle were concerned that it had sent a warning to Japan. B-25 takes off from USS Hornet (CV-8). National Archives Records Administration Still 170 miles short of their intended launch point, Doolittle met with Mitscher, Hornets commander, to discuss the situation. Emerging from the meeting, the two men decided to launch the bombers early. Leading the raid, Doolittle took off first at 8:20 a.m. and was followed by the rest of his men. Reaching Japan, the raiders successfully struck their targets before flying on to China. Due to the early departure, none possessed the fuel to reach their intended landing strips and all were forced to bail out or ditch. Having launched Doolittles bombers, Hornet and TF 16 immediately turned and steamed for Pearl Harbor. Midway After a brief stop in Hawaii, the two carriers departed on April 30 and moved south to support USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Lexington (CV-2) during the Battle of the Coral Sea. Unable to reach the area in time, they diverted towards Nauru and Banaba before returning to Pearl Harbor on May 26. As before, the time in port was short as the Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Fleet, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz ordered both Hornet and Enterprise to block a Japanese advance against Midway. Under the guidance of Rear Admiral Raymond Spruance, the two carriers were later joined by Yorktown. With the beginning of the Battle of Midway on June 4, all three American carriers launched strikes against the four carriers of Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumos First Air Fleet. Locating the Japanese carriers, the American TBD Devastator torpedo bombers began attacking. Lacking escorts, they suffered heavily and Hornets VT-8 lost all fifteen of its aircraft. The sole survivor of the squadron was Ensign George Gay who was rescued after the battle. With the battle progressing, Hornets dive bombers failed to find the Japanese, though their compatriots from the other two carriers did with stunning results. In the course of the fighting, Yorktowns and Enterprises dive bombers succeeded in sinking all four Japanese carriers. That afternoon, Hornets aircraft attacked the supporting Japanese vessels but with little effect. Two days later, they aided in sinking the heavy cruiser Mikuma and badly damaging the heavy cruiser Mogami. Returning to port, Hornet spent much of the next two months being overhauled. This saw the carriers anti-aircraft defenses further augmented and the installation of a new radar set. Departing Pearl Harbor on August 17, Hornet sailed for the Solomon Islands to aid in the Battle of Guadalcanal. Battle of Santa Cruz Arriving in the area, Hornet supported Allied operations and in late September briefly was the only operational American carrier in the Pacific after the loss of USS Wasp (CV-7) and damage to USS Saratoga (CV-3) and Enterprise. Joined by a repaired Enterprise on October 24, Hornet moved to strike a Japanese force approaching Guadalcanal. Two days later saw the carrier engaged in the Battle of Santa Cruz. In the course of the action, Hornets aircraft inflicted severe damage on the carrier Shokaku and heavy cruiser Chikuma USS Hornet under attack during the Battle of Santa Cruz, 1942. US Naval History Heritage Command These successes were offset when Hornet was struck by three bombs and two torpedoes. On fire and dead in the water, Hornets crew began a massive damage control operation which saw the fires brought under control by 10:00 a.m. As Enterprise was also damaged, it began to withdraw from the area. In an effort to save Hornet, the carrier was taken under tow by the heavy cruiser USS Northampton. Only making five knots, the two ships came under attack from Japanese aircraft and Hornet was hit by another torpedo. Unable to save the carrier, Captain Charles P. Mason ordered abandon ship. After attempts to scuttle the burning ship failed, the destroyers USS Anderson and USS Mustin moved in and fired over 400 five-inch rounds and nine torpedoes into Hornet. Still refusing to sink, Hornet was finally finished off after midnight by four torpedoes from the Japanese destroyers Makigumo and Akigumo which had arrived in the area. The last U.S. fleet carrier lost to enemy action during the war, Hornet had only been commission one year and seven days.
Wednesday, 6 May 2020
DISSERTATION. Exploring ways of conceptualizing ASD in Africa. Questioning the cultural sensitivity of the DSM. Rodeen Beresford-Cole 27/05/14 Exploring research findings of ASD etiology and epidemiology in non-western cultures in developing countries. This will determine whether the DSM is culturally sensitive to other parts of the world. Does the DSM take into account different conceptual social constructs of mental health from diverse cultures? The manual mentions that professionals should take into account the patients social and cultural surroundings when making a diagnosis of a mental disorder, but really is that enough to become a revolutionary universal tool? Table of Contents Chapter 1: INTRODUTION 1 Background of the research 1 Aims and objectives of the research 4 Research Methodology 5 CHAPTER 2: 7 DIAGNOSTIC STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS 7 The History and revisions of the DSM 8 DSM-I (1952) 8 DSM-II (1968), (1974) 9 DSM-III (1980), DSM-III-R (1987) 9 DSM-IV (1994), DSM-IV-TR (2000), 10 DSM-5 (2013); Perspective of ASD Ã¢â¬ËNeuro-developmental DisordersÃ¢â¬â¢ and Criteria 12 International Classification of Diseases-10 and its difference with DSM 18 Western mainstream approach of Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) 20 The founding fathers of Autism 21 Challenges and Criticism of the DSM in the West 25 Misdiagnosing of Women; Wing and Gould (2011) Ã¢â¬Ëtriad of impairmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ DSM IV vs. DSM-V 25 International Classification of Diseases-10 26 Deconstructing the DSM
I waited weary in anticipation of what name would break out of the happy-go-lucky collegiate cheerleaderÃ¢â¬â¢s boisterous mouth as he was announcing the two lucky 2017 National Cheerleading Association All Americans out of all 4 Belton cheer squads. I replay this moment in my most vivid dreams, feeling the excitement of the halcyon moment grow greater and greater as the nerves and emotions grew stronger and stronger. A moment as imperative as this showed me in the most transparent way that hard, continuous work and growth pays off in many more ways than one. In that absolutely endearing, prideful moment, I took a chance to look back on my past years, devoted to such a tireless sport. I began the wide sport of cheerleading when I was a mereÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A similar foreshadowing towards my future came when I became the only Belton High School cheerleader on the Junior Universal Cheer Association All American team. I was a frog who had transformed into a princess grow ing wiser and stronger. This not only affirmed my dedication and devotion towards this new realm of cheerleading, but it added a new feeling of humbleness which soon became an essential trait towards developing into the exceptional athlete I had only dreamt of. Again, tryouts came for the next greuling school year. The only difference from last year, I was prepared. I knew the cheers, I knew the feeling of standing in front of crowd so ecstatic from a winning game and I knew the feeling of a crowd sitting at a loss for words in the face of defeat. I knew my goal and I was absolutely determined to reach it. I could only be described as a lioness on the prowl and the Varsity squad was my prey. Just as anxious as the year before, though this time with a hint of confidence, I made my tryout a culmination of completely everything I had learned from my wildly experienced past. 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Question: Discuss about the International Human Resource Management for Theory and Practice. Answer: The essay consists of a solution of a case study related to Flextronics company. The company is an electronics company based on Singapore. The country has its operations across many countries of the world. International human resource management is defined as the process of allocation, procurement and utilisation of the human resource in a company. The HR manager of multinational corporations integrates their policies in the subsidiaries of the company. It is done in order to accomplish the organisational goals that are set for the parent company. The policies are to be implemented by keeping in mind about the benefit of the employees. The flexibility of the international regulations is to be maintained as per the laws of the country. For expanding a business in a particular country, it is mandatory to abide by the rules of the country. Specifically, international human resource management deals with these issues of a multinational company. The essay describes the issues faced by Fle xtronics in its international business operations. The case study describes the operating procedure of the company along with its cultural and employee related issues. Solutions are also provided related to the problems mentioned in the case study. The European operation of Flextronics is known as Central and Eastern European branch. The headquarters of the strategic business unit are located in the countries of Austria and Vienna. However, the problems had arisen in the branch of Hungary. The new plants of the country are characterised by normal set up problems. The startup problems are known as inexperienced personnel, high volatility in the sales market, lack of adaptability and high fluctuation (Alfes et al. 2013). However, Flextronics is very keen in mitigating the identified issues in the Hungarian manufacturing plants. Whenever a company expands in the international market, apart from the external environment issues there are many internal environment issues. Internal environmental issues of a company include process, system, employees, and management (Armstrong and Taylor 2014). Flextronics in its Hungarian new manufacturing plants are facing issues in terms of employees, business processes and management. The problems are mentioned earlier that reflects the cultural problems and institutional forces that affect the profitability of the company as well as lower productivity in the new plants (Bratton and Gold 2012). The employees of Hungary are of different nature and mindset that are not identified by the human resource department of Flextronics. The HR director of the CEE is much focused on the issues faced by the workers of the Hungary manufacturing plants. It is the responsibility of the HR department of the company to manufacture policies abiding by the regulations of the country as well as the rules of the organisation. Employees are considered as the assets of a firm. Hence, the policies of a company are to be formulated for the benefit of the employees (Brewster et al. 2016). The employees of the Hungary division of Flextronics are not so much competent enough for increasing the productivity of the new plants in the country. However, the company has changed its HR policies to improve the condition of the people associated with the company. The issue of cross-cultural communication is prevalent in this situation. Cross-cultural problems are very common in organisations in different parts of the world (Buller and McEvoy 2012). Flextronics, on the other hand, is emphasising the cultural issues of it but the mitigation process is of no use. The HR Department of Flextronics develops a training module. The company has developed the module by taking help of an external consultancy. Apart from that, technical skills along with soft skills developmental program are formulated for the Hungarian employees. The approach of the HR department is not commenced in a right direction. The mindset of the people of Hungary is different from that of Austrian people (Jackson e t al. 2014). The case study mentioned differences between the approaches of Austrian employees and the Hungarian workers. The programs that are set for the overall development of the employees of Flextronics are not at all satisfactory in terms of improvement of the skills of the workers. However, it is seen that the employees of Hungary are not responding to the training module developed by the company. The participants of the country are showing very low responses towards the programs. They are not interested in completing the full session of the course of the grooming and training of Flextronics. There is an implicit assumption between the two concepts of best practice and best fit. The two concepts are interrelated with each other but are different in the field of implementation. The first term is related to theoretical frameworks while the second one is related to the implementation in real life. Both the terms are related to strategic human resource management. The approach of best fit in strategic HRM identifies the close knit relationship between HRM and strategic management. It considers the nature and influence of vertical integration (Keho and Wright 2013). In the case of vertical integration, a gain of advantage is done by maintaining a close relationship between the policies of HR and goals and objectives of the business. Many types of research about improved and effective HR practices suggested that models of the best fit should be flexible enough to implement the benefits of the employees of a certain organisation. The best-fit theory illustrates that HR policies of a firm become effective only when it is integrated with the external environment of the business. The best-fit approach emphasises on the fact of alignment between the systems of business with the organisational strategy. Companies must start its business by formulating an organizational strategy at first (Kramar 2014). The strategy of the organization includes performance levels, strategic management goals, etc. On the other hand, the approach of best practice illustrates the influence of business strategy in the performance of the company. High commitment management is the concept that is positively related to the theory of best practice in human resources. The theory of best practice forecasts the relation between the organisational performance and good practices of human resources in an organization (Marler 2012). In the case study, the difference between the concepts of best fit and best practice are clearly mentioned. Flextronics wants to implement many theoretical models in its organisational level for solving the problems. However, Flextronics have found that the effectiveness of the theoretical models is very different in real life implementation. Organisations must modify the theories according to the requirements and nature of the problem faced by it. For instance, Flextronics have started the approach of "One Flextronics" in order to solve the customer complaints regarding their p roducts and distribution of the products (Marler and Fisher 2013). The aim of the approach is to standardise the level of production at a global scale. To implement this practice in the company, Flextronics have gained an idea about different theories that will help in mitigating the production problems. Theories that are selected by the HR department and operation department of the company for mitigating the issues are program management, six sigma, material and quality management, finances, training and engineering. However, many other issues of production and supply chain are prevalent in the company except the cultural issues. Initially, the company is unable to figure out the best practice theories that will serve the purpose of problem-solving in the company. In the later part, it is noticed that by conducting extensive research Flextronics have successfully chosen best-fit theories in its production problem. Failure in choosing best-fit models in the cultural issues results in a lack of productivity of the employees at the organisational level. If a company implements same policies in two different countries then the expected result would not be same. The institutional and cultural specifics of a country are different from another country. In the case study, Flextronics had applied same training and developmental program for the two countries. However, it does not portray fruitful results in Hungary. The difference in national culture is well explained by Hofstede in his theory of cross-cultural communications. The theory of Hofstede describes the cultural differences in a detailed manner. The companies should always keep it in mind that one solution should not serve the purpose of the problems of all countries (Martin et al. 2016). There are many differences in cultural, political, social, legal and many other differences. Firms must keep in mind about the factors mentioned above. Firms should gain a deeper understanding of the factors affecting the productivity in different scenarios. The main motive of a company is to ea rn a substantial amount of profit from the market. Apart from that, they are committed to providing quality services and products to the customers in order to gain trust and reputation from it. It is also a part of the branding of the company. Delivering quality product to the customers will lead to earning a substantial profit for a company in the near future. Globalisation is the process that is adopted by many domestic companies to expand its business operations in many target markets. Most of the firms are facing issues in the cultural fields (Mitchell et al. 2013). The strategic management department of the parent companies must focus on the external issues of a country. However, internal issues are equally important like that of the external factors. Researchers had shown that most of the firms that have adopted internalisation are facing issues in cultural aspects. A firm can face many problems in its business operation in a particular target market. Apart from the cultural aspects, other challenging factors are disruptive technological change, geopolitical instability, business risk management, people management, innovation, environmental issues, etc. There are many gaps in skills in the global market such as disconnection of skills between the needs of the organisation as the educational system (Mondy and Martocchio 2016). Talent identification, international ethics, deployment, innovation and knowledge dissemination, language, internal ethics are the cultural issues that are faced by companies in its international locations. In the case study, it is mentioned that Flextronics is suffering from decreased productivity due to diminished employee re lations as well as talent gaps. It is already discussed that the qualifications of the employees of new plants of Hungary are very low (Morgeson et al. 2013). They are not able to perform well in the Hungary location. However, the mitigation programs formulated for improving the performance of Hungary branch is not giving expected results. The HR department lacks in maintaining a communication between the employees of the branch. For formulating any policies, it is necessary for the personnel of the HR to consult the employees. This is important because the developmental programs are formulated only for the benefit of the workers. It will help in forecasting effective progress of the employees in the company (Paill et al. 2014). The company is a technology based company and is suffering from many challenges in its different international locations. Countries of Europe faced most of the challenging issues regarding cultural aspects and other production processes. It is mentioned in the case study that the company is not only facing issues in terms of employee relations but also in the facility sites of the new plants in Hungary. However, due to lack of effective HR practices, Flextronics have recruited people that are not competent enough from the people of other countries (Purce 2014). A comparison with Austria is illustrated in the case study that points out the issues and problems of Flextronics in a detailed manner. Apart from that, it is also found in the case study that the HRM practices that are formulated for solving the employee related skill gaps are universal in nature (Storey 2014). The modules and developmental programs are not modified as per the deficit of the employees in their skills. The ele ctronics company mainly runs on the dearth of technology. Countries that have more feasibility in the usage pattern of latest technologies tend to develop more than that of countries with the low feasibility of the technology. European countries are very developed. Hence technological aspect is very developed. The company on its usage of more powerful information and technologies in its project can develop the prospects in a particular country. Technology has always positive and negative impacts on every aspect. Technology no doubt helps organisations to grow faster in many perspectives such as production, innovation, etc. Innovation and development are the key area of differentiation followed by most renowned companies across the globe. However, Flextronics is also trying to follow the path (Swart and Kinnie 2015). The company is trying to adopt much innovative and updated training module for development of skills for it employees. Training modules are formulated using ideas from different theoretical frameworks as well as from other organisations. Many organisations of United States are following various developed and modern training and developmental modules and programs for the enhancement of skills of their employees. Investment in the training department will not only develop the car eer of the employees but also the productivity of the manufacturing sites of Flextronics in Hungary (Truss et al. 2012). Implementation of technology in terms of increasing the production of the manufacturing facility of Hungary will give positive results in the company. But if the people are not so much efficient enough in handling the modern technologies using in the manufacturing sites of Flextronics in Hungary location, then the reaction will be opposite. The dearth of skills in the employees of Flextronics is a disadvantage of the companies. In this scenario, there will be a divergence of the situation. The reason for the divergence is the unskilled employees in Hungary (Ulrich 2013). Despite training modules, the employees are not interested in completing the whole session of the grooming classes and training session of the company. It is the reason of divergence in the field of implementation of technology in the company as well as in the new manufacturing plants. The company has worldwide operations in many countries of Europe, Asia and North America. The company is facing many cultural and institutional problems in its business operations. Flextronics is an electronic company that is not able to manage its all business operations smoothly in all countries. The company in the operations of Hungarian branch faces many problems specifically in the international human resource management aspects. Performances of the employees are not up to the mark in the branch compared to the performance of the other countries of Europe. However, the firm is focused in pointing the errors that are prevalent at the organisational level of the Hungarian branch. After pointing the errors, many training modules are also proposed by Flextronics by the implementation of the theoretical models regarding the problem. Research has also done regarding the feasibility of the theoretical frameworks used by the company in the real life world. The case study has pointed var ious issues in the Hungarian branch. The essay describes many concepts of strategic human resource management that help companies in increasing the effectiveness of the production of the company as well as their employees. The concepts of best fit and best practice are explained in a detailed manner in terms of the case study analysis. References Alfes, K., Shantz, A.D., Truss, C. and Soane, E.C., 2013. The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behaviour: a moderated mediation model.The international journal of human resource management,24(2), pp.330-351. Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S., 2014.Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers. Bratton, J. and Gold, J., 2012.Human resource management: theory and practice. Palgrave Macmillan. 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