Monday, 1 April 2019
Culture in North East India
Culture in northwestward East IndiaHistorians carry that the boundaries of ancient India roughly coincide with those of the give up day South Asiatic Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). There argon few who believe that object for the period under the British rule, India has never been a nation state. some otherwise historians disagree and principal(prenominal)tain that India has always been a heathen and stinting entity and the brotherhood East has always been an integral part of India. There is also a school of thought which maintains that the state of North east India has greater parity with the good deal of South East Asia than with those from the put plenty of India. The political and cultural closing off of the S tied(p) Sisters has spawned these observations. Perhaps, it is because of such(prenominal) divergent views and the prevailing emplacement that it is non really uncommon to hear the Indian leaders emphasising the importance of early integr ating of the tribe of the North East into the national mainstream.The North East is a magnificent tragic tapestry of hoi polloi, events nature. You can be touched by its rivers, rain mist, overwhelmed by the seeming gentleness of its people stirred by its powerful evocative history. There argon not less than 220 heathenish tribes in the eight states comprising the region with a population of about cardinal million people. There atomic number 18 communities with kin in the neighbouring countries.There ar sensitive and complex problems that hand over defied solution for as long as independent India has existed. The population is about tether percent of the national figure. Its people be an anthropologists delight an administrators nightmargon. A settlement in a soil that satisfies one group will alienate a handful of communities in another part of the same district, not to speak of the state. There are special laws, constitutional provisions such as the Sixth docket Article 371A which seek to protect the traditions, land rights of unhomogeneous hill communities.North Eastern India has been facing increasing challenges as it copes with pressures emanating from its ethnic diversity. The rising challenges of ethno-nationalism and corroding of the state authority pose an increasing threat to the national security. The present socio political scene in the North East olibanum underlines worrying trends. According to an estimate, thither are more than 40 insurgent groups in operation(p) in the region. Absence of credible conflict management mechanisms is evident from the situation which is deteriorating by the day. Widespread poverty and unemployment, increasing economic disparities as compared with the rest of the country and those within the region and growing corruption in normal life are march on adding fuel to the fire. Increasing mobilisation for economic and political space by more and more socio-economic groups is causing excitement in an environment of limited resources and constrained capabilities of redistri plainlyion of wealth. Thus, the fear of identity is further compounded by a fond security circumstanceor, which essentially boils d give to protecting the land from outsiders and in some cases within the region from other ethnic groups.Social, Cultural Educational Background Of People Of The North Eastern StatesAssamThe people of Assam inhabit a multi-ethnic, multi-linguistic and multi-religious society. They speak languages that belong to three main language groups Indo-Aryan, Austro-Asiatic, and Tibeto-Burman. The large number of ethnic and linguistic groups, the population makeup and the peopling exploit in the state has led to it macrocosm called an India in miniature. heathenish Groups. Tai-Ahoms were historically the dominant allele group of Assam and were the ethnic group associated with the term Assamese. more deep, the Assamese language speaking ethnic group has been associated with the term Assamese. Bengalis are another major(ip) group of Assam and are a majority in the Barak Valley. Bengalis are often stereotyped by many ethnic Assamese as Bangladeshi illegal immigrants, especially if they are Muslim. Bodos are the dominant group in Bodoland. They mostly speak the Tibeto-Burman Bodo language and live in Bodoland.Culture Of Assam. The refining of Assam is traditionally a hybrid one, developed due to cultural assimilation of unalike ethno-cultural groups under various politico-economic systems in distinct periods of pre-history and history. With a fuddled base of tradition and history, the modern Assamese gardening is greatly influenced by various events those took place in the British Assam and in the Post-British Era. The language was standardised by the American Missionaries with the form forthcoming in the Sibsagar District (the nerve centre of the Ahom politico-economic system). A renewed Sanskritisation was increasingly adopt for developing Assamese language and grammar. A new wave of westerly and northern Indian influence was apparent in the performing humanities and literature. Assamese culture in its true finger today is a cultural system composed of different sub-systems. It is more interesting to step that even many of the source-cultures of Assamese culture are s bank last either as sub-systems or as sister entities. In broader sense, at that placefore, the Assamese cultural system incorpo swans its source-cultures such as Bodo (Boro) or Khasi or Mishing (Micing) yet individual development of these sub-systems are today becoming substantial. However, it is also important to keep the broader system closer to its roots. Some of the common cultural traits available across these systems are-(a) abide by towards areca-nut and betel leaves.(b) Respect towards particular emblematical cloth types such as Gamosa, Arnai.(c) Respect towards traditional silk and cotton garments.(d) Respect towards forefathers and elderly.(e ) Great hospitality.(f) Bamboo culture.Status of Women in Assam.(a) In Assam, the status of women is noble in comparison to the women of some other States of India.(b) There is greater gender equality in Assam. The society doesnt suffer from practices like dowry, child- wedding party and bride-burning. This could be due to the fact that the Assamese society evolved partially from a tribal background and has thus retained some of the original value system of equity.(c) In the field of operations of education, women in Assam are in a better position than the all-India average. As per 2001 numerate the literacy rate for Assam is 64.28 per cent as against 65.38 per cent for India. While mannish literacy is 71.93 per cent (India-75.85 per cent), fe male literacy stands at 56.03 per cent (India-54.60 per cent).(d) Female work partnership is another indicator of womens status in the society. Assam has a largely uncouth agrarian economy, which is characterized by high rate of work pa rticipation of women. though Female Work Participation Rates (FWPR) are high, as it is subsistence farming, women do not benefit economically, though they allot a disproportionate allot of the work burden.NagalandNagaland is almost entirely inhabited by the Naga tribes except some Kukis, Kacharis, Garos, Mikris, Benglas, and Assamese etc. in the plains sector. Originally, the Nagas were not know by the name of the tribes as they are kn cause now, but by the name of a group of villages. Gradually they have settled down to the tribe name as are found now, but still then the process of amalgamation or separation is still going on. According to the census report, there are 16 Naga tribes and four non-Naga tribes inhabiting Nagaland.Society. The people are simple, straight-forward, hard-working and open people with a high standard of integrity. They possess a satisfying sense of self respect and rarely submitted to anyone who roughshod over them. A hallmark of their character was t heir hospitality and cheerfulness. The Naga tribals have an egalitarian society, and the village is a closely knit unit consisting of domiciles of different clans.The Village. They traditionally live in villages. The village is a well-defined entity with distinct land demarcation from close villages. Each has a dialect of its own and as such there is a tender sense of affectionate solidarity within it. The people in it are held together by accessible, economic, political and ritual ties. The villages have their own identity but not in isolation as there are interdependent relationships with neighboring villages. The impact of modernization is slowly but steadily eroding the centrality of villages as a mixer unit as large commercial towns are rapidly coming up in every region of the Naga hills. This is bringing about drastic changes in the values, lifestyles and social setup of the people.The Family. The family was the sanctioned unit of the Naga society. Marriages were usual ly monogamous and fidelity to the fellow was considered a high virtue. Marriage within the same clan is not permitted and it amounts to incest. Incestuous couples used to be ostracized from the villages. The family was the most important institution of social education and social go over. There used to be a late respect for parents and elders. Material inheritance, such as land and cattle, is passed on to the male offspring with the eldest son receiving the largest share.Status Of Women. In the classless, class-less Naga society, women have traditionally enjoyed a high social position, with a pivotal reference in both family and residential area affairs. However, being a patriarchal society with sanitary warrior tradition, it is considered an honor to be born as a man. The traditional culture and customs expect a Naga woman to be obedient and modest also expect her to perform the roles of wife, mother, child bearer, sustenance producer and household manager. She also suppleme nts the household income by distort colorful shawls, an activity which is do exclusively by women. Women are highly respected and given a great deal of freedom, however, they are traditionally not let ind in the decision-making process of the clan or the village.Social and Cultural Heritage. The cultural traditions of the Nagas include features which are common to all the tribes like head hunting, common quiescence house for unmarried men which are taboo to women, a carve up of trial marriage, or great freedom of intercourse between the sexes forwards marriage, disposal of dead on raised platforms, the simple loom for weaving cloth etc. Life in Nagaland is replete with festivals throughout the grade as all the tribes have their own festivals, which they greatly cherish. They regard their festivals sacred and participation in them is compulsory. Most of these festivals revolve round agriculture, which is still the spinal column of the Naga society. Over 85% population of Naga land is directly dependent on agriculture. displacement And Challenges.The Naga society is undergoing tremendous transformation. The spread of Christianity, the growth of education and developmental programs undertaken by the government have all unleashed forces which are churning up the tribal society and rapidly changing its complexion and character. The modern set up of detached nuclear families is fast catching up with the people as they have greater intercourse with the modern world. This is leading to the erosion of the role of the clan and the village as agents of social control.ManipurManipur is a place where different waves of races and culture met through the ages, which ultimately mingled together. The main population of the people is of Manipuries known as Meities. The Meitei speak Manipuri language, which is in Kuki chin group. They are change integrity into seven endogamous groups locally known as Salai. The general characteristics of the Meiteis are of mongoloid type small eyes, fair complexion, rudimentary beards etc. slackly they are thin built with well-developed limbs. The men among them do not get over 57 in height and women on an average about 4 shorter than their counterparts.Society. The society is patrilineal though the women bear the major yoke of labour. Women share the responsibilities of earning and are not confined only to household duties. The household is a true social unit ant the head of the family has to perform authoritative religious duties. Their families consist of man, his wife and unmarried children. They practice both types of marriage by engagement and elopement. Though monogamy is the usual rule, there being more women than men, the practice of polygamy is also not uncommon. Meitei women have always enjoyed high economic and social status in Manipur, and today they work in nearly every social and economic sphere of society. In particular, they control traditional retail, including the Meitei markets and the trade in vegetables and traditional clothing. The Meitei people are well-known for their sporting prowess, hockey and polo are traditional and the Meitei form of martial art, thang ta, has recently been recognised as one of the official forms of international martial arts.Culture. kitchen-gardening is the main stay of the people. About 88% of the total working population in the hills and about 60% of the working population in the vale depend entirely on the agriculture and allied pursuits like physical husbandry, fisheries and forestry. The people of Manipur have inherent love of performing art with musical beauty and rhythm. Their rich culture and tradition are also reflected in their handloom, tasteful clothes and in finer workmanship of handicrafts. Weaving among them is a traditional art of women and finds an easy market. They are deeply sensitive and their grotesque public figure of life with inherent love of arts is reflected in their trip the light fantastic toe and music. T heir dances, whether folk or classical or modern, are devotional in nature.TripuraThe Tripuri people are the original inhabitants of the Kingdom of Tripura in North-East India and Bangladesh. The Tripuri people through the Royal family of the Debbarmas ruled the Kingdom of Tripura for more than 2000 years till the kingdom joined the Indian Union in 1949. The Tripuris live on the slopes of hills in a group of five to fifty families.Society Culture. The indigenous Tripuri people comprise various hill tribal communities who migrated to this land in successive waves in the ancient past. Each community had its own childlike social and administrative organization starting from the village level and up to the chieftainship of the whole tribe. The tribes enjoy their traditional freedom based on the concept of self-determination. The Tripuri people have a rich historical, social and cultural heritage which is totally distinct from that of the mainland Indians, their distinctive culture as reflected in their dance, music, festivals, management of community affairs, fig up and food habit has a strong base.MizoramHistorians believe that the Mizos are a part of the great wave of the Mongolian race spilling over the eastern and southern India centuries ago. Mizo comprises of 5 major tribes and 11 minor tribes known under the common name Awzia. Mizos are of Mongoloid origin, speaking a dialect of Tibeto- Burman origin. The Mizos came under the influence of the British missionaries in the 19th century and today the majority of the Mizos are Christians by faith. The literacy rate is the second highest in the country. The people are mostly non- vegetarian and their staple food is rice. The Mizos are a close- knit society with no class government note and discrimination on grounds of sex, status or religion. They are hospitable, forthcoming and love music, singing and dancing. Mizos are agriculturists all their activities revolve around this finish and their festivals ar e connected with such agricultural operations.Society And Cultural. A social and close- knit society, they evolved some principles of self-help and co- operation to meet social obligations and responsibilities. Constructive social works were executed through voluntary community works. Every family was evaluate to contribute labour for the welfare of the community. The Mizos are a distinct community and the social unit was the village. Around it revolved the life of the Mizo. The Mizos have been enthral to their new- found faith of Christianity with so much dedication and submission that their social life and thought- process have been altogether transformed and guided by the Christian church organisations directly or in directly and their sense of values has also undergone drastic change. No class distinction and no discrimination on grounds of sex are not seen in Mizo society. 90% of them are cultivators and the village exists like a big family. stemma of a child, marriage in t he village and death of a somebody in the village or a community feast arrange by a member of the village are important occasion in which the whole village is involved.Arunachal PradeshThere are 26 major tribes and a number of sub tribes living in the state. Most of these communities are ethically similar having derived from an original common stock but their geographical isolation from each other has brought amongst them certain distinctive characteristics in language, dress and customs.Society and Culture. The whole population of Arunachal can be divided into three cultural groups on the basis of their socio- politico religious affinities.For about 35% of the population of Arunachal Pradesh, agriculture is the main occupation. Festivals are an essential part of the socio- cultural life of the people. The festivals are usually connected with agriculture and are associated with ritualistic gaiety either to thank God or to pray for bumper harvest. unofficial Of Characteristics Of P eople Of The NE StatesHaving seen the characteristics of the social, cultural other factors pertaining to the people of insurgency naturalized North Eastern states, it is imperative that the peculiarities be summarized. It is difficult to profile such a vast diverse anthropology, however for the ease of the study, certain basic similarities could be clubbed together a basic framework of behavioural attitudinal pattern could be listed as under -(a) People have a strong affinity to their race, ethnicity have strong inclination for preservation of the same.(b) In the country-style areas, where people reside in their particular ethnic group, there are stringent rules, customs traditions to be followed flouting them is taken very seriously.(c) As the people belong to the lesser developed part of the country, their basic culture beliefs are intact there is less proliferation of modernity in their values.(d) They have strong values regarding respect to the elders, women and could go to great extent to preserve their honour.(e) They are basically agrarian community, hardworking, innocent socially active within their own community.(f) They have rich cultural heritage bonds which gives them a sense of exclusivity belongingness.(g) The various societies are religious and secular.(h) The division of societies is not based on caste system. It is based on ethnicity, in a particular tribe, everybody is treated as equal.(j) Women have a pivotal important role to play in their communities. Few of the societies are male dominated but most of them have equal status for women in the respective society.(k) Education awareness is on an increase over a period of times have reached even the remote areas.(l) The languages / dialects spoken are specific to a tribe it does not have any semblance with most of the languages of rest of the country.