Tuesday, 16 April 2019

Influence of Nature and Nurture Developmental Research Essay Example for Free

check of constitution and Nurture Develop custodytal Research EssayHow many bald, six-foot-six, 250-pound volunteer chivyfighters in New island of Jersey wear droopy mustaches, aviator-style eyeglasses, and a the mold of nature versus key ring on the right slope of the belt? nurture. The answer is two Gerald Levey and Mark Newman. They are counterparts who were separated at birth. Each twin did not even know 25. 2 Describe developmental the some other existed until they were reunitedin a fire stationby a research techniques. fellow firefighter. . . The lives of the twins, although separate, took remarkably corresponding 25. Discuss prenatal paths. Levey went to college, examine forestry Newman planned to development. study forestry in college but instead took a job trimming trees. . . . Both men are unmarried and find the same kind of woman attractive tall, slender, long hair. They share similar hobbies, enjoying hunting, fishing, going to the beach, and watching old John Wayne movies and professional wrestling. Both like Chinese food and alcoholism the same brand of beer. learning outcomes 25. 1 Compare and contrastThe remarkable range of similarities we see in many pairs of identical twins raises one of the fundamental questions posed by developmental psychology, the study of the patterns of outgrowth and change that occur throughout life. The question is this How can we distinguish between the purlieual causes of behavior (the influence of parents, siblings, family, friends, schooling, nutrition, and all the other experiences to which a child is exposed) and contractable causes (those based on the genetic makeup of an item-by-item that influence growth and development throughout life)?This question embodies the naturenurture issue. In this context, nature refers to hereditary factors, and nurture to environsal influences. Although the question was first posed as a nature-versus-nurture issue, developmental psychologists today declare t hat both nature Gerald Levey and Mark Newman 282 Chapter 8 development and nurture interact to germinate peculiar(prenominal) developmental patterns and outDevelopmental psychology The comes. Consequently, the question has evolved into How and to what degree branch of psychology that studies the do environment and heredity both produce their effects?No one grows up patterns of growth and change that free of environmental influences, nor does anyone develop without be occur throughout life. affected by his or her inherited genetic makeup. However, the debate over Naturenurture issue The issue of the comparative influence of the two factors remains active, with different the degree to which environment and approaches and different theories of development emphasizing the environ- heredity influence behavior. ment or heredity to a greater or lesser degree (Pinker, 2002 Gottesman Hanson, 2005 Rutter, 2006).For example, some developmental theories rely on basic psychological principl es of learning and breed the role learning dictations in producing changes in The naturenurture issue behavior in a developing child. Such theories emphasize the role of the enviis a key question that is ronment in development. In contrast, other developmental theories emphasize pervasive throughout the the influence of ones physiological makeup and cognitive process on development. field of psychology, asking Such theories stress the role of heredity and aturationthe unfolding of biohow and to what degree logically predetermined patterns of behaviorin producing developmental environment and heredity change. Maturation can be seen, for instance, in the development of sex characproduce their joint effects. teristics (such as breasts and body hair) that occurs at the start of adolescence. Despite their differences over theory, developmental psychologists concur on some points. They agree that genetic factors not only provide the potential for specific behaviors or traits to emerge, but also place limitations on the emergence of such behavior or traits.For instance, heredity defines peoples general level of intelligence, setting an upper limit thatregardless of the quality of the environmentpeople cannot exceed. Heredity also places limits on physical abilities humans simply cannot run at a speed of 60 miles an hour, nor will they grow as tall as 10 feet, no issuing what the quality of their environment (Dodge, 2004 Pinker, 2004). Figure 1 lists some of the characteristics most affected by heredity. As you allot these items, it is important to keep in mind that these characteristics are not entirely determined by heredity, for environmental factors also play a role.Developmental psychologists also agree that in most instances environmental factors play a critical role in enabling people to reach the potential capabilities that their genetic cathode-ray oscilloscope makes possible. If Albert Einstein had received no intellectual stimulation as a child and ha d not been send to s tudy aler t Height Weight Obesity Tone of voice Physical Characteristics Blood air pressure Tooth decay Athletic ability Firmness of handshake Age of death Activity level smart Characteristics

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