Juvenile Justice's segmentation on identification and prediction in juvenile justice
Whitehead, John T., and Lab, Steven P. Juvenile Justice: An Introduction. Cincinnati, Ohio: Anderson Publishing, 1990.
Paternoster and Brame cross off between " popular" and " bourgeonmental" theories of crime, with the former tending to grievance for all criminal behavior in terms of a specific set of variables and the latter tending to account for such behavior by relating specific population groups and subgroups to a unscathed range of specific kinds of crimes (violent/nonviolent, adolescent/adult, etc.) and to other group-specific influences on behavior (ethnic, cultural, etc.).
"The contemporary[theoretical] debate," they say, "pits those who argue for general guess against theorists who anticipate differences in the developmental pathways that lead to offending behavior" (50). Within both general and developmental theories there are theoretical subsets. However, general theory at its most basic involves the opportunity for crime plus an insufficiently socialized individual who exploits that opportunity. The lack of socialization whitethorn be physical, psychological, or cultural, but its roots lie in childhood and can be as fundamental in origin and effect as IQ. Paternoster and Brame cite work by James Q. Wilson, a neoconservative sociologist, and Richard Herrnstein (co-author of the controversial 1995 nonfiction gong Curve, which argued that racial and cultural differences account for different performances between whites and minorities on IQ tests). Thus it is possible to infer from general theory that criminals, like those with self-control, are born and not made, even though the making of criminals may be a feature of primordial upbringing in the context of socially deviant cultural norms.
Winters, Clyde A. "Learning Disabilities, Crime, Delinquency, and Special Education Placement." Adolescence 32 (Summer 1997): 451-462.
(summarized on scalawag 207) is really a focus on method, first, and secondly (and no less significantly) a focus on how hard it is to develop met
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